Advertisement

Protein-Mediated Epithelial Iron Transfer

  • H. Huebers
  • W. Rummel
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 70 / 1)

Abstract

Iron, the fourth most abundant element of the Earth’s crust, is unsurpassed in its versatility as a biologic catalyst (Aisen 1977). The adult human being contains 3–4 g total body iron of which the majority is present in circulating hemoglobin (Hughes 1980). The second largest fraction of iron within the body is storage iron in the form of ferritin and hemosiderin. Essential tissue iron is present in myoglobin and in the cell enzymes. Only 4 mg iron is bound to plasma transferrin whose important function is iron transport and exchange between body tissues.

Keywords

Iron Deficiency Iron Absorption Iron Binding Iron Binding Protein Intestinal Iron Absorption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aasa R, Malmström BG, Saltman P, Vänngard T (1963) The specific binding of iron (III) and copper (II) to transferrin and conalbumin. Acta Biochim Biophys 75:203–222Google Scholar
  2. Aisen P (1975) The transferrins. In: Eichhorn GL (ed) Inorganic biochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 280Google Scholar
  3. Aisen P (1977) Some physicochemical aspects of iron metabolism. In: Porter R, Fitzsimons DW (eds) Iron metabolism. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–17Google Scholar
  4. Aisen P, Brown EB (1977) The iron-binding function of transferrin in iron metabolism. SeminHemat 14:31–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Banis RJ, Pond WG, Walker EF Jr, O’Connor JR (1969) Dietary cadmium, iron and zinc interactions in the growing rat. (33659) Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 130:802–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bannerman RM, O’Brien JRP, Witts LJ (1962) Studies in iron metabolism. IV. Iron absorption in experimental iron-deficiency. Blood 20:532–546Google Scholar
  7. Barton JC, Conrad ME, Nuby S, Harrison L (1978) Effects of iron on the absorption and retention of lead. J Lab Clin Med 92:536–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barton JC, Conrad ME, Holland R (1981) Iron, lead, and cobalt absorption: similarities and dissimilarities. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 166:64–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Batey RG, Gallagher ND (1977) Study of the subcellular localization of 59Fe and iron-binding proteins in the duodenal mucosa of pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Gastroenterology 73:267–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Becker G, Hübers H, Rummel W (1979 a) Intestinal absorption of cobalt and iron: mode of interaction and subcellular distribution. Blut 38:397–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker G, Korpilla-Schäfer S, Osterloh K, Forth W (1979 b) Capacity of the mucosal transfer system and absorption of iron after administration in rats. Blut 38:127–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bédard YC, Pinkerton PH, Simon GT (1971) Radioautographic observations on iron absorption by the normal mouse duodenum. Blood 38:232–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bédard YC, Pinkerton PH, Simon GT (1973) Radioautographic observations on iron absorption by the duodenum of mice with iron overload, iron deficiency, and x-linked anemia. Blood 42:131–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bennett C (1970) Migration of glycoprotein from Golgi apparatus to cell coat in the columnar cells of the duodenal epithelium. J Cell Biol 45:668–673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bennett G, Leblond CP (1970) Formation of cell coat material for the whole surface of columnar cells in the rat small intestine as visualized by radio-autography with L-fucose-3H. J Cell Biol 46:409–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Berlin M, Friberg L (1960) Bone-marrow activity and erythrocyte destruction in chronic cadmium poisoning. Arch Environ Health 1:478Google Scholar
  17. Bothwell TH, Finch CA (1957) The intestine in iron metabolism. Its role in normal and abnormal states. Am J Dig Dis NS 2:145Google Scholar
  18. Bothwell TH, Finch CA (1962) Iron absorption. In: Bothwell TH, Finch CA (eds) Iron metabolism. Little Brown, Boston, pp 92–120Google Scholar
  19. Bothwell TH, Charlton RW, Cook JD, Finch CA (1979) Iron metabolism in man. Black-well Scientific, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  20. Brittin GM, Raval D (1970) Duodenal ferritin synthesis during iron absorption in the iron-deficient rat. J Lab Clin Med 75:811–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown EB (1963) The absorption of iron. Am J Clin Nutr 12:205–213Google Scholar
  22. Brown EB; Justus BW (1958) In vitro absorption of radioiron by everted pouches of rat intestine. Am J Physiol 194:319–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bunch RJ, Speer VC, Hays VW, Hawbaker JH, Catron DV (1961) Effects of copper sulfate, copper oxide and Chlortetracycline on baby pig performance. J Anim Sci 20:723–726Google Scholar
  24. Bunch RJ, Speer VC, Hays VW, McCall JT (1963) Effects of high levels of copper and Chlortetracycline on performance of pigs. J Anim Sci 22:56–60Google Scholar
  25. Bunn CR, Matrone G (1966) In vivo interactions of cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron in the mouse and rat. J Nutr 90:395–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Callender ST (1974) Iron absorption. In: Smyth DH (ed) Biomembranes, vol 4B, Intestinal absorption. Plenum, New York, pp 761–791Google Scholar
  27. Callender ST, Mallet BJ, Smith MD (1957) Absorption of haemoglobin iron. Br J Haematol 3:186–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cassidy J, Eva JK (1958) Relationship between the copper and iron concentrations in pigs’ livers. Proc Nutr Soc 17: Abstract XXXIGoogle Scholar
  29. Cerklewski FL (1980) Reduction in neonatal lead exposure by supplemental dietary iron during gestation and lactation in the rat. J Nutr 110:1398–1408Google Scholar
  30. Charlton RW, Jacobs P, Torrance JD, Bothwell TH (1965) The role of the intestinal mucosa in iron absorption. J Clin Invest 44:543–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chirasiri L, Izak G (1966) The effect of acute haemorrhage and acute haemolysis on intestinal iron absorption in the rat. Br J Haematol 12:611–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Conrad ME, Barton JC (1978) Factors affecting the absorption and excretion of lead in the rat. Gastroenterology 74:731–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Conrad ME, Crosby WH (1963) Intestinal mucosal mechanisms controlling from absorption. Blood 22:406–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Conrad ME, Schade SG (1968) Ascorbic and chelate in iron absorption: A role for hydrochloric acid and bile. Gastroenterology 55:35–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Conrad ME, Weintraub LR, Crosby WH (1964) The role of the intestine in iron kinetics. J Clin Invest 43:963–974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Conrad ME, Weintraub LR; Sears DA, Crosby WH (1966) Absorption of hemoglobin iron. Am J Physiol 211:1123–1130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cook JD, Hershko C., Finch CA (1973) Storage iron kinetics. V.Iron exchange in the rat. Br J Haematol 25:695–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cox TM, O’Donnell WW (1980) Iron uptake by purified intestinal microvillus membranes. Gut 21:A908, T54Google Scholar
  39. Cox TM, O’Donnell MW (1981) Studies on the binding of iron by rabbit intestinal microvillus membranes. Biochem J 194:753–759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cox TM, Peters TM (1978) Uptake of iron by duodenal biopsy specimens from patients with iron-deficiency anaemia and primary hemachromatosis. Lancet 1:123–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cox TM, Peters TJ (1980) Cellular mechanisms in the regulation of iron absorption by the human intestine: studies in patients with iron deficiency before and after treatment. Br J Haematol 44:75–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cox TM, Mazurier J, Spike G, Montreuil J, Peters TJ (1979) Iron binding proteins and influx of iron across the duodenal brush border, evidence for specific lacto-transferrin receptors in the human intestine. Biochem Biophys Acta 588:120–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Crosby WH (1963) The control of iron balance by the intestinal mucosa. Blood 22:441–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. De Laey P, Masson PL, Heremans JF (1968) The role of lactoferrin in iron absorption. Pro-tides Biol Fluids Proc Colloq 16:627–632Google Scholar
  45. De Vet BHC (1971) Iron metabolism and iron-binding proteins in human bile. Folia Med Neerl 14:123Google Scholar
  46. De Vet BHCM, Van Gool J (1974) Lactoferrin and iron absorption in the small intestine. Acta Med Scand 196:393–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dowdle EB, Schachter D, Schenker H (1960) Active transport of 59Fe by everted segments of rat duodenum. Am J Physiol 198:609–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Edwards JA, Hoke JE (1978) Mucosal iron binding proteins in sex-linked anemia and microcytic anemia of the mouse. J Med 9:353–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Edwards JA, Hoke JE, Mattiolo M, Reichlin M (1977) Ferritin distribution and synthesis in sex-linked anemia. J Lab Clin Med 90:68–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. El-Shobaki FA, Rummel W (1977) Mucosal transferrin and ferritin factors in the regulation of iron absorption. Res Exp Med 171:243–253Google Scholar
  51. El-Shobaki FA, Rummel W (1978) The role of mucosal iron binding proteins in adaptation of iron absorption during protein deficiency and rehabilitation. Res Exp Med 173:119–129Google Scholar
  52. El-Shobaki FA, Rummel W (1979) Binding of copper to mucosal transferrin and inhibition of intestinal iron absorption in rats. Res Exp Med 174:187–195Google Scholar
  53. Faulk WP, Galbraith GMP (1979) Transferrin and transferrin-receptors of human trophoblst. In: Hemmings WA (ed) Protein transmission through living membranes. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 55–61Google Scholar
  54. Finch CA, Loden B (1959) Body iron exchange in man. J Clin Invest 38:392–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Flanagan PR, McLellan JS, Haist J, Cherian MG, Chamberlain MJ, Valberg LS (1978) Increased dietary cadmium absorption in mice and human subjects with iron deficiency. Gastroenterology 74:841–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Flanagan PR, Hamilton DL, Haist J, Valberg LS (1979) Interrelationships between iron and lead absorption in iron-deficient mice. Gastroenterology 77:1074–1081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Flanagan PR, Haist J, Valberg LS (1980) Comparative effects of iron deficiency induced by bleeding and a low-iron diet on the intestinal absorptive interactions of iron, cobalt, manganese, zinc, lead, and cadmium. J Nutr 110:1754–1763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Forth W (1967) Eisen- und Kobalt-Resorption am perfundierten Dünndarmsegment. 3. Konferenz der Gesellschaft für Biologische Chemie, 27–29 April 1967; Oestrich/Rheingau. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. Forth W (1970) Absorption of iron and chemically related metals in vitro and in vivo; the specificity of an iron binding system in the intestinal mucosa of the rat. In: Mills CF (ed) Trace element metabolism in animals. Livingstone, London, p 298Google Scholar
  60. Forth W, Rummel W (1965) Eisen-Resorption an isolierten Dünndarmpräparaten von normalen und anämischen Ratten. Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 252:205–223Google Scholar
  61. Forth W, Rummel W (1966) Beziehungen zwischen Eisen-Konzentration und-Resorption am isolierten Dünndarm normaler und anämischer Ratten. Med Pharmacol Exp 14:289–296Google Scholar
  62. Forth W, Rummel W (1968) Zur Frage der Regulation der Eisenresorption durch Gastroferrin, ein eisenbindendes Protein des Magensaftes. Klin Wochenschr 46:1003–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Forth W, Rummel W (1971) Absorption of iron and chemically related metals in vitro and in vivo: specificity of the iron binding system in the mucosa of the jejunum. In: Skoryna SC, Waldron-Edward D (eds) Intestinal absorption of metal ions, trace elements and radionuclides. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 173–191Google Scholar
  64. Forth W, Rummel W (1973) Iron absorption. Physiol Rev 53:724–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Forth W, Rummel W (1975) Gastrointestinal absorption of heavy metals. In: Peters G (executive ed), Forth W, Rummel W (section eds) IEPT — Pharmacology of intestinal absorption: gastrointestinal absorption of drugs, sect 39B, vol II. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 599–746Google Scholar
  66. Forth W, Pfleger K, Rummel W, Seifen E, Richmond SJ (1965) Der Einfluß verschiedener Liganden auf Resorption, Verteilung und Ausscheidung von Eisen nach oraler Verabfolgung. Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 252:242–257Google Scholar
  67. Forth W, Rummel W, Becker PJ (1966) Die vergleichende Prüfung von Bindung und Durchtritt von Eisen Kobalt und Kupfer durch isolierte Jejunum-Segmente normaler und anämischer Ratten. Med Pharmacol Exp 15:179–186Google Scholar
  68. Forth W, Leopold G, Rummel W (1968 a) Eisendurchtritt von der Mucosa- zur Serosaseite und umgekehrt an isolierten eisenarmen und normalen Segmenten von Jejunum und Ileum. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 261:434–440Google Scholar
  69. Forth W, Rummel W, Crüsemann D, Simon J (1968 b) Die Bindung von Eisen und verwandten Schwermetallen in der Membran und ihre Aufnahme in Reticulozyten. In: Deutsch E, Gerlach E, Moser K (eds) Stoffwechsel und Membranpermeabilität von Erythrocyten und Thrombocyten. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 444–446Google Scholar
  70. Fox MRS, Fry BE Jr (1970) Cadmium toxicity decreased by dietary ascorbic acid. Science 169:989–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Fox MRS, Fry BE Jr, Harland BF, Schertel ME, Weeks CE (1971) Effect of ascorbic acid on cadmium toxicity in the young coturnix. J Nutr 101:1295–1306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Fraenkel-Conrat H, Feeney RE (1950) The metal-binding activity of conalbumin. Arch Biochem 29:101–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Freeland JH, Cousins RJ (1973) Effect of dietary cadmium on anemia, iron absorption, and cadmium binding protein in the chick. Nutr Rep Int 8:337–347Google Scholar
  74. Friberg L (1950) Health hazards in the manufacture of alkaline accumulators with special reference to chronic cadmium poisoning. Acad Med Scand 138 (Suppl):240Google Scholar
  75. Furugouri K (1977) Iron binding substances in the intestinal mucosa of neonatal piglets. J Nutr 107:487–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Furugouri K, Kawabata A (1976) Iron absorption by neonatal pig intestine in vivo. J Anim Sci 42:1460–1464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Gitlin D, Cruchaud A (1962) On the kinetics of iron absorption in mice. J Clin Invest 41:344–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Greenberger NJ, Ruppert RD (1966 a) Inhibition of protein synthesis: a mechanism for the production of impaired iron absorption. Clin Res 14:298Google Scholar
  79. Greenberger NJ, Ruppert RD (1966 b) Tetracycline induced inhibition of iron absorption. Clin Res 14:432Google Scholar
  80. Greenberger NJ, Ruppert RD, Cuppage FE (1967) Inhibition of intestinal iron transport induced by tetracycline. Gastroenterology 53:590–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Greenberger NJ, Balcerzak SP, Ackerman GA (1969) Iron uptake by isolated intestinal brush borders: changes induced by alterations in iron stores. J Lab Clin Med 73:711–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hahn PF, Carothers EL, Darby WJ, Martin M, Sheppard CW, Cannon RO, Beam AS, Deusen PM, Petterson JS, McClellan CS (1951) Iron metabolism in human pregnancy as studied with the radioactive isotope Fe. Am J Obstet Gynecol 61:477–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hallberg L, Björn-Rasmussen E (1972) Determination of iron absorption from whole diet. A new two-pool model using two radioiron isotopes given as haem and non-haem iron. Scand J Haematol 9:193–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hallberg L, Sölvell L (1960) Absorption of a single dose of iron in man. Acta Med Scand 358 (Suppl): 19–42Google Scholar
  85. Halliday JW, Powell LW, Mack U (1975) Intestinal iron-binding-complex in iron absorption. In: Crichton RR (ed) Proteins of iron storage and transport in biochemistry and medicine. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 405–410Google Scholar
  86. Halliday JW, Powell LW, Mack U (1976) Iron absorption in the rat: The search for possible intestinal mucosal carriers. Br J Haematol 34:237–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hamilton DL (1978) Lead retention in iron deficient mice. Proc Can Fed Biol Soc 21:88Google Scholar
  88. Hamilton DL, Valberg LS (1974) Relationship between cadmium and iron absorption. Am J Physiol 227:1033–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hedges JD, Kornegay ET (1973) Interrelationship of dietary copper and iron as measured by blood parameters, tissue stores and feedlot performance of swine. J Animal Sci 37:1147–1154Google Scholar
  90. Heinrich HC (1970) Intestinal iron absorption in man — methods of measurements, dose relationship, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In: Hallberg L, Harwerth HG, Vannotti A (eds) Iron deficiency. Academic, London, pp 213–294Google Scholar
  91. Helbock HI, Saltman P (1967) The transport of iron by rat intestine. Biochim Biophys Acta 135:979–990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hill CH, Matrone G, Payne WL, Barber CW (1963) In vivo interactions of cadmium with copper, zinc, and iron. J Nutr 80:227–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Huebers H (1972) Eine Methode zur Herstellung stabiler Dichtegradienten und ihre Anwendung beim Studium der Eisenresorption. In: Dissertation; Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät der Universität des SaarlandesGoogle Scholar
  94. Huebers H (1975) Identification of iron binding intermediates in intestinal mucosa tissue of rats during absorption. In: Crichton RR (ed) Proteins of iron storage and transport. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 281–288Google Scholar
  95. Huebers H (1979) Die enterale Resorption von Transferrin-Eisen: Bedeutung für die Eisenresorption. Dissertation; Medizinische Fakultät der Universität des SaarlandesGoogle Scholar
  96. Huebers H, Huebers E, Forth W, Leopold G, Rummel W (1971 a) Binding of iron and other metals in brush borders of jejunum and ileum of the rat in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 29 (Suppl 4):22Google Scholar
  97. Huebers H, Huebers E, Forth W, Rummel W (1971 b) Binding of iron to a non-ferritin protein in the mucosal cells of normal and iron-deficient rats during absorption. Life Sci 10:1141–1148Google Scholar
  98. Huebers H, Huebers E, Simon J, Forth W (1971 a) A method for preparing stable density gradients and their application for fractionation of intestinal mucosal cells. Life Sci 10:377–384Google Scholar
  99. Huebers H, Huebers E, Forth W, Rummel W (1973) Iron absorption and iron-binding proteins in intestinal mucosa of mice with sex linked anaemia. Hoppe Seyler’s Z Physiol Chem 354:1156–1158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Huebers H, Huebers E, Rummel W (1974) Dependence of increased iron absorption by iron-deficient rats on an elutable component of jejunal mucosa. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem 355:1159–1161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Huebers H, Huebers E, Rummel W (1975) Mechanisms of iron absorption: iron-binding proteins and dependence of iron absorption on an elutable factor. In: Kief H (ed) Iron metabolism and its disorders. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 13–21Google Scholar
  102. Huebers H, Huebers E, Rummel W, Crichton RR (1976) Isolation and characterization of iron-binding proteins from rat intestinal mucosa. Eur J Biochem 66:447–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Huebers H, Huebers E, Csiba E, Rummel W, Finch CA (1979 a) The intestinal absorption of transferrin bound iron. Blood 54 (Suppl 53):40aGoogle Scholar
  104. Huebers H, Huebers E, Rummel W (1979 b) Iron absorption as influenced by cadmium: studies on a molecular level. Blood 54 (Suppl 54)Google Scholar
  105. Huebers H, Csiba E, Josephson B, Huebers E, Finch CA (1981) Interaction of human diferric transferrin with reticulocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86(1):621–625Google Scholar
  106. Huebers H, Rummel W (1977) Iron binding proteins: mediators in iron absorption. In: Kramer M, Lauterbach F (eds) Intestinal permeation. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 377–380Google Scholar
  107. Huebers H, Huebers E, Csiba E, Rummel W, Finch CA (1983) The significance of transferrin for intestinal iron absorption. Blood 61:283–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hughes ER (1980) Human iron metabolism, chap 9. In: Siegel H (ed) Metal ions in biological systems, vol 7. Iron in model and natural compounds. Dekker, New York, pp 351–376Google Scholar
  109. Humphrys J, Walpole B, Worwood M (1977) Intracellular iron transport in rat intestinal epithelium: Biochemical and ultrastructural observations. Br J Haematol 36:209–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Isobe K, Isobe Y (1983) Localization of transferrin in rat duodenal mucosa by immunoperoxidase technique. Acta Haematol. Jap 46: 9–19Google Scholar
  111. Isobe K, Sakurami T, Isobe Y (1978) Studies on iron transport in human intestine by immunoperoxidase technique. I. The localization of ferritin, lactoferrin, and transferrin in human duodenal mucosa. Acta Haematol Jap 41:294–299Google Scholar
  112. Ito S (1969) Structure and function of the glycocalyx. Fed Proc 28:12–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Ito S, Revel JP (1964) Incorporation of radioactive sulfate and glocuse on the surface coat of enteric microvilli. J Cell Biol 23:44AGoogle Scholar
  114. Jacobi H, Pfleger K, Rummel W (1956) Komplexbildner und aktiver Eisentransport durch die Darmwand. Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 229:198–206Google Scholar
  115. Jacobs A, Miles PM (1968) The iron-binding properties of gastric juice. Clin Chim Acta 24:87–92Google Scholar
  116. Jacobs A, Miles PM (1970) The formation of iron complexes with bile and bile constituents. Gut 11:732–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Jacobs P, Bothwell TH, Charlton RW (1966) Intestinal iron transport: studies using a loop of gut with an artificial circulation. Am J Physiol 210:694–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Jacobs P, Charlton RW, Bothwell TH (1968) The influence of gastric factors on the absorption of iron salts. S Afr J Med Sci 33:53–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Kaufman N, Newkirk M, Wyllie JC (1976) Effect of iron absorption on plasma membrane proteins of small intestinal mucosal cells from iron-deficient rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 73:1036–1041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Kaufman N, Wyllie JC, Newkirk M (1977) Two microsomal-associated iron-binding proteins observed in rat small intestinal cells during iron absorption. Biochim Biophys Acta 497:719–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Kimber CL, Mukherjee T, Deller DJ (1973) In vitro iron attachment to the intestinal brush border; effect of iron stores and other environmental factors. Dig Dis Sci 18:781–791Google Scholar
  122. Lane RS (1967) Localization of transferrin in human and rat liver by fluorescent antibody technique. Nature 215:161–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Lane RS (1968) Transferrin synthesis in the rat: A study using the fluorescent antibody technique. Br J Haematol 15:355–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Larkin EC, Weintraub LR, Crosby WH (1970) Iron transport across rabbit allantoic placenta. Am J Physiol 218:7–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Levine PH, Levine AJ, Weintraub LR (1972) The role of transferrin in the control of iron absorption: studies on a cellular level. J Lab Clin Med 80:333–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Linder MC, Munro HN (1975) Ferritin and free iron in iron absorption. In: Crichton RR (ed) Proteins of iron storage and transport in biochemistry and medicine. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 395–400Google Scholar
  127. Linder MC, Dunn V, Isaacs E, Jones D, Lim S, Van Volkom M, Munro HN (1975) Ferritin and intestinal iron absorption: Pancreatic enzymes and free iron. Am J Physiol 228:196–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Maji T, Yoshida A (1974) Therapeutic effect of dietary iron and ascorbic acid on cadmium toxicity of rats. Nutr Rep Int 10:139–149Google Scholar
  129. Manis JG (1970) Active transport iron by intestine: selective genetic defection mouse. Nature 227:385–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Manis JG (1971) Intestinal iron-transport defect in the mouse with sex-linked anemia. Am J Physiol 220:135–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Manis J, Kim G (1979) Stimulation of iron absorption by polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Am J Physiol 236:e763–e768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Manis JG, Schachter D (1962 a) Active transport of iron by intestine: features of the two-step mechanism. Am J Physiol 203:73–80Google Scholar
  133. Manis JG, Schachter D (1962 b) Active transport of iron by intestine: effects of oral iron and pregnancy. Am J Physiol 203:81–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Marx JJM (1979) Iron absorption and its regulation. A review. Haematologica 64:479–493Google Scholar
  135. Mason DY, Taylor CR (1978) Distribution of transferrin, ferritin, and lactoferrin in human tissues. J Clin Pathol 31:316–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. McCance RA, Widdowson EM (1937) Absorption and excretion of iron. Lancet 1:680–684Google Scholar
  137. McMillan JA, Oski FA, Lourie G, Tomarelli RM, Landaw SA (1977) Iron absorption from human milk, simulated human milk, and proprietary formulas. Pediatrics 60:896–900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Mignon M, Semb LS, Finch CA, Nyhus LM (1965) Effect of gastric juice on the absorption of iron. Surg Forum 16:319–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Moore CA, Dubach R, Minnich V, Roberts HK (1944) Absorption of ferrous and ferric radioactive iron by human subjects and by dogs. J Clin Invest 23:755–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Morgan EH (1980) The role of plasma transferrin in iron absorption in the rat. Q J Exp Physiol 65:239–252Google Scholar
  141. Morgan EH (1981) Transferrin, biochemistry, physiology, and clinical significance. Mol Aspects Med 4:1–123Google Scholar
  142. Morton AG, Tavill AS (1977) The role of iron in the regulation of hepatic transferrin synthesis. Br J Haematol 36:383–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Mukherjee T (1972) Factors affecting iron attachment to microvilli. Med J Aust 2:378–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. O’Donnell MW, Cox TM (1981) Iron-binding glycoconjugates from intestinal microvilli. FEBS Meeting Edinburgh. Biochem Soc Trans 9:Tue-S10–13Google Scholar
  145. Osterloh KS (1979) Die Bestimmung von mucosalem Transferrin im Mucosahomogenat von Duodenum, Jejunum und Ileum normaler und eisenarmer Ratten. Phd Dissertation, Ruhr-Universität BochumGoogle Scholar
  146. Parmley RT, Barton JC, Conrad ME, Austin RL (1978) Ultrastructural cytochemistry of iron absorption. Am J Pathol 93:707–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Pearson WN, Reich M (1965) In vitro studies of Fe59-absorption by everted intestinal sacs of rat. J Nutr 87:117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Pearson WN, Reich M, Frank H, Salamat L (1967) Effects of dietary iron level on gut iron levels and iron absorption in the rat. J Nutr 92:53–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Permezel NC, Webling DDA (1971) The length and mucosal surface area of the small and large gut in young rats. J Anat 108:295–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Pindborg EV, Pindborg JJ, Plum CM (1946) The relation beetween cadmium poisoning and iron metabolism. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 2:302–306Google Scholar
  151. Pinkerton PH (1968) Histological evidence of disordered iron transport in the x-linked hypochromic anemia of mice. J Pathol Bacteriol 95:155–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Pinkerton PH, Bannerman RM (1967) Hereditary defect in iron absorption in mice. Nature 216:482–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Pinkerton PH, Bannerman RM, Doeblin TD, Benisch BM, Edwards JA (1970) Iron metabolism and absorption studies in x-linked anemia of mice. Br J Haematol 18:211–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Pollack S, Lasky FD (1975) A new iron binding protein in intestinal mucosa. In: Crichton RR (ed) Proteins of iron storage and transport in biochemistry and medicine. North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 389–393Google Scholar
  155. Pollack S, Balcerzak SP, Crosby WH (1963) Transferrin and the absorption of iron. Blood 21:33–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Pollack S, George JN, Reba RC, Kaufman R, Crosby WH (1965) The absorption of non-ferrous metals in iron deficiency. J Clin Invest 44:1470–1473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Pollack S, Campana T, Arcario A (1972) A search for a mucosal iron carrier. Identification of mucosal fractions with rapid turnover of Fe59. J Lab Clin Med 80:322–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Pond WG, Walker EF Jr (1972) Cadmium-induced anemia in growing rats: Prevention by oral or parenteral iron. Nutr Rep Int 5:365–370Google Scholar
  159. Powell LW, Wilson E (1970) In vivo intestinal mucosal uptake of iron, body iron absorption and gastric juice iron-binding in idopathic haemochromatosis. Aust Ann Med 19:226–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Radi SA, Pond WC (1979) Effect of dietary cadmium on fate of parenterally administered 59Fe in the weanling pig. Nutr Rep Int 19:695–701Google Scholar
  161. Raffin SB, Woo CH, Roost KT, Price DC, Schmid R (1974) Intestinal absorption of hemoglobin iron-heme cleavage by mucosal heme oxygenase. J Clin Invest 54:1344–1352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Ragan HA (1977) Effects of iron deficiency on the absorption and distribution of lead and cadmium in rats. J Lab Clin Med 90:700–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Ritchie HD, Luecke RW, Baltzer BV, Miller ER, Ullrey DE, Hoefer JA (1963) Copper and zinc interrelationships in the pig. J Nutr 79:117–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Ruliffson WS, Hopping JM (1963) Maturation, iron deficiency and ligands in enteric radioiron transport in vitro. Am J Physiol 204:171–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Rummel W, Forth W (1968) Zur Frage der metabolischen Abhängigkeit von Eisenbildung und-durchtritt durch den isolierten Dünndarm. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 260:50–57Google Scholar
  166. Rummel W, El-Shobaki FA, Wollenberg P (1984) Mucosal iron binding proteins and inhibition of iron absorption by endotoxin. In: Urushizaki I (ed) Proteins of iron storage and transport. Elsevier North-Holland, Amsterdam (in press)Google Scholar
  167. Savin MA, Cook JD (1977) Interrelationship between mucosal cell transferrin and iron absorption. Clin Res 25:573AGoogle Scholar
  168. Savin MA, Cook JD (1978) Iron transport by isolated rat intestinal mucosal cells. Gastroenterology 75:688–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Savin MA, Cook JD (1980) Mucosal iron transport by rat intestine. Blood 56:1029–1035PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Schade AL, Caroline L (1946) An iron-binding component in human blood plasma. Science 104:340–341Google Scholar
  171. Schade AL, Reinhart RW (1966) Carbon dioxide in the iron and copper siderophilin complexes (sect A, metal-binding proteins). In: Peeters H (ed) Protides of the biological fluids, vol 14. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 75–81Google Scholar
  172. Schade AL, Reinhart RW, Levy H (1949) Carbon dioxide and oxygen in complex formation with iron and siderophilin, the iron binding component of human plasma. Arch Biochem 20:170–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Schade SG, Bernier GM, Conrad ME (1969) Normal iron absorption in hypertransferrinanemic rats. Br J Haematol 17:187–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Schade SG, Felsher BF, Glader BE, Conrad ME (1970) Effect of cobalt upon iron absorption. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 134:741–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Setsuda T, Yamamoto Y, Shimoura Y (1980) Absorption, distribution and metabolism of iron in rats with nutritional anemia, particularly viewed from the ferritin levels of the organs. Acta Haematol (Jpn) 43:115–123Google Scholar
  176. Sheehan RG, Frenkel EP (1977) The control of iron absorption by the gastrointestinal mucosa cell. J Clin Invest 51:224–231Google Scholar
  177. Six KM, Goyer RA (1972) The influence of iron deficiency on tissue content and toxicity of ingested lead in the rat. J Lab Clin Med 79:128–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Smith MD, Pannacciulli IM (1958) Absorption of inorganic iron from graded doses. Its significance in relation to iron absorption tests and the mucosal block theory. Br J Haematol 4:428–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Smith PM, Studley F, Williams R (1969) Postulated gastric factor enhancing iron absorption in haemochromatosis. Br J Haematol 16:443–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Sullivan AL, Weintraub LR (1979) In vivo studies on transferrin binding by rat intestinal epithelial cells. Blood 54 (5): Abstr no 70Google Scholar
  181. Suttle NF, Mills CF (1966 a) Studies of the toxicity of copper to pigs. 1. Effects of oral supplements of zinc and iron salts on the development of copper toxicosis. Br J Nutr 20:135–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Suttle NF, Mills CF (1966 b) Studies of the toxicity of copper to pigs. 2. Effect of protein source and other dietary components on the response to high and moderate intakes of copper. Br J Nutr 20:149–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Suzuki T, Yoshida A (1977) Effect of dietary iron and ascorbic acid on the recovery from cadmium toxicity in rats. Nutr Rep Int 16:769–778Google Scholar
  184. Suzuki T, Yoshida A (1978) Long-term effectiveness of dietary iron and ascorbic acid in the prevention and cure of cadmium toxicity in rats. Am J Clin Nutr 31:1491–1498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Tan AT, Woodworth RC (1976) Ultraviolet difference spectral studies of conalbumin complexes with transitional metal ions. Biochemistry 8:3711–3716Google Scholar
  186. Taylor AN (1981) Immunocytochemical localization of the vitamin D-induced calcium-binding protein: relocation of antigen during frozen section processing. J Histochem Cytochem29(l):65–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Topham RW (1978) Isolation of an intestinal promotor of Fe3B-transferrin formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 85:1339–1345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Topham RW, Woodruff JH, Walker MC (1981) Purification and characterization of the intestinal promoter of iron(3 +)-transferrin formation. Biochemistry 20:319–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Turnbull A (1974) Iron absorption. In: Jacobs A, Worwood M (eds) Iron in biochemistry and medicine. Academic, London, pp 369–403Google Scholar
  190. Turnbull A, Cleton F, Finch CA (1962) Iron absorption. IV. The absorption of hemoglobin iron. J Clin Invest 41:1897–1907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Valberg LS, Sorbie J, Hamilton DL (1976) Gastrointestinal metabolism of cadmium in experimental iron deficiency. Am J Physiol 231:462–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Wack JP, Wyatt JP (1959) Studies on ferrodynamics. I. Gastrointestinal absorption of 59-Fe in the rat under differing dietary states. Pathology 67:237–247Google Scholar
  193. Wallace HD, McCall JT, Bass B, Combs GE (1960) High level copper for growing-finishing swine. J Anim Sci 19:1153–1163Google Scholar
  194. Warner RC, Weber I (1953) The metal combining properties of conalbumin. J Am Chem Soc 75:5094–5101Google Scholar
  195. Watson RJ, Decker E, Lichtman HC (1958) Hematologic studies of children with lead poisoning. Pediatrics 21:40–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Wheby MS, Crosby WH (1963) The gastrointestinal tract and iron absorption. Blood 22:410–428Google Scholar
  197. Wheby MS, Jones LG (1963) Role of transferrin in iron absorption. J Clin Invest 42:1007–1016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Wheby MS, Conrad ME, Hedberg SE, Crosby WH (1962) The role of bile in the control of iron absorption. Gastroenterology 42:319–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Wheby MS, Jones LG, Crosby WH (1964) Studies on iron absorption. Intestinal regulatory mechanism. J Clin Invest 43:1433–1442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Wollenberg P, Huebers H, Rummel W (1982) Intestinal absorption and binding of chromium and iron. In: Saltman P, Hegenauer J (eds) The biochemistry and physiology of iron. Elsevier North-Holland, New York, pp 287–289Google Scholar
  201. Woodworth RC (1966) The mechanism of metal binding to conalbumin and siderophilin (sect A, metal-binding proteins). In: Peeters H (ed) Protides of the biological fluids, vol 14. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 37–44Google Scholar
  202. Worwood M, Jacobs A (1971) Absorption of 59Fe in the rat: Iron binding substances in the soluble fraction of intestinal mucosa. Life Sci 10:1363–1373Google Scholar
  203. Yeh SD, Shils ME (1966) Effect of tetracycline on intestinal absorption of various nutrients by the rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 123:367–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Yoshino Y, Manis J (1973) Iron-binding substance isolated from particulate fraction of rat intestine. Am J Physiol 225:1276–1281PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Huebers
  • W. Rummel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations