Studies on the Development of Tolerance Following Spinal Analgetics
Many biologic responses secondary to opiate receptor interactions, both in vitro and in vivo, are subject to the development of tolerance. Thus, it would not be surprising to observe a decrease in the antinociceptive response to intrathecal or epidural opiates after prolonged use. Indeed, this phenomenon has been observed both clinically and in experimental animals.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Tung AS, Wang JY, Yaksh TL (to be published) Tolerance to intrathecal opiates in the ratGoogle Scholar
- 2.Yaksh TL, Reddy SVR (to be published) Studies on the analgetic effects of intrathecal opiates, α-adrenergic agonists and baclofen: their pharmacology in the primate. AnesthesiologyGoogle Scholar
- 3.Tung AS, Yaksh TL (to be published) Evaluation of epidural opiates in the cat. 8th International congress of pharmacology, TokyoGoogle Scholar
- 7.Ventafridda V, Figliuzzi M, Tamburini M, Gori E, Parolaro D, Sala M (1979) Clinical observation on analgesia elicited by intrathecal morphine in cancer patients. In: Bonica JJ et al (eds) Adv in pain research and therapy, vol 3. Raven, New York, pp 559–565Google Scholar
- 9.Onofrio B, Yaksh TL, Arnold PG (to be published) Continous low-dose intrathecal morphine administration in the treatment of chronic pain of malignant origin. Mayo Clin ProcGoogle Scholar
- 10.Müller H, Stoyanov M, Dorner U, Hempelmann G (to be published) opiates for relief of cancer pain. In: Yaksh TL, Müller H, Engquist A (eds) Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 11.Tung AS, Tenicela R, Barr G (to be published) Caudal opiates for pelvic cancer painGoogle Scholar
- 12.Zenz M, Piepenbrock S, Hilfrich J, Husch M (to be published) Pain therapy with epidural morphine in patients with terminal cancer. In: Yaksh TL, Müller H, Engquist A (eds) Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 16.Tung AS, Yaksh TL (to be published) Involvement of multiple opiate receptors in spinally mediated analgesia. PainGoogle Scholar
- 20.Wang J-Y, Yasuoka S, Yaksh TL (to be published) Studies on the analgetic effect of intrathecal ST-91 (2-[2,6-diethylphenylamino]-2-imidazoline): antagonism, tolerance and interaction with morphine. PharmacologistGoogle Scholar