Taste Electrophysiology, Sensory Coding and Behavior

  • Carl Pfaffmann

Abstract

As in the case of many other scientists, I can trace the beginnings of my interest and actual laboratory work largely to one individual, the late Leonard Carmichael, who was Professor and Director of the Laboratory of Psychology and Sensory Physiology at Brown University from 1927 to 1936. As an undergraduate at Brown University, the first of my family of any generation to attend a university, I found the academic environment a new and exciting experience. My father, the son of German immigrants, had little formal education, but was moderately successful in business. The prospects of following in his footsteps did not attract me, but he never discouraged me or tried to influence my decision as I became more and more inclined toward an academic career. Midway through my undergraduate period, I decided finally to become a professor and considered majoring in mathematics or possibly American history, the latter largely because of a very stimulating young professor. Then I took Leonard Carmichael’s introductory psychology course, and found the subject that really aroused my interest. Psychology at Brown University was treated as a life science in a department with a strong biological approach. The undergraduate courses did include a broad range of psychological topics (mental testing, personality, and abnormal psychology, etc.), but the research emphasis was biological (e.g., sensory processes and psychophysics, the mechanisms of learning and conditioning, brain and behavior interrelations). My undergraduate academic record was quite good, and after I had earned nearly all A’s in most introductory and intermediate psychology courses, Carmichael invited me to enroll in the Honors program.

Keywords

Sugar Steam Sodium Chloride Cocaine Neurol 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Names containing von are alphabetized in this list under v

  1. Adrian ED (1926) The impulses produced by sensory nerve endings, part I. J Physiol (Lond) 61:49Google Scholar
  2. Adrian ED (1927) The impulses produced by sensory nerve endings, part IV. J Physiol (Lond) 62:33–51Google Scholar
  3. Adrian ED (1928) The basis of sensation. Christophers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Adrian ED (1953) Sensory messages and sensation. The response of the olfactory organ to different smells. Acta Physiol Scand 29:5–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adrian ED (1963) The opening address. In: Zotterman Y (ed) Olfaction and taste I, Proceedings of the first international symposium on taste and olfaction, Stockholm, 1962. Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 1–5Google Scholar
  6. Adrian ED, Bronk DW (1928) The discharge of impulses in motor nerves, part I. J Physiol (Lond) 66:81Google Scholar
  7. Adrian ED, Bronk DW (1929) The discharge of impulses in motor nerves, part IV. J Physiol (Lond) 67:119Google Scholar
  8. Adrian ED, Zotterman Y (1926a) The impulses produced by sensory nerve endings, part II. J Physiol (Lond) 61:151–171Google Scholar
  9. Adrian ED, Zotterman Y (1926b) The impulses produced by sensory nerve endings, part III. J Physiol (Lond) 61:465–483Google Scholar
  10. Adrian ED, Cattell McK, Hoagland H (1931) Sensory discharges in single cutaneous nerve fibers. J Physiol (Lond) 72:377–391Google Scholar
  11. Aird RB, Pfaffmann C (1947) Pressure stimulation of peripheral nerves. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 66:130–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Barron DH (1936) A note on the course of the proprioceptive fibers from the tongue. Anat Rec 66:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bartoshuk L, McBurney D, Pfaffmann C (1964) Taste of sodium chloride solutions after adaptation to sodium chloride: implications for the “water taste.” Science 133:967–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beebe-Center JG, Waddell D (1948) A general psychological scale of taste. J Psychol 26:517–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beidler LM (1953) Properties of chemoreceptors of tongue of rat. J Neurophysiol 16:595–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Beidler LM (1954) A theory of taste stimulation. J Gen Physiol 38:133–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beidler LM (1961) Mechanisms of gustatory and olfactory receptor stimulation. In: Rosenblith WA (ed) Sensory communication. Wiley, New York, pp 143–157Google Scholar
  18. Benjamin RM, Pfaffmann C (1955) Cortical localization of taste in albino rat. J Neurophysiol 18:56–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boring EG (1942) Sensation and perception in the history of experimental psychology. Appleton-Century, New York, pp 437–462Google Scholar
  20. Bujas Z (1971) Electrical taste. In: Beidler LM (ed) The chemical senses 2, taste. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 180–199 (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 4)Google Scholar
  21. Bujas Z, Chweitzer A (1934) Contribution à l’étude du goût dit électrique. Annee Psychol 35:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burton H, Benjamin RM (1971) Central projections of the gustatory system. In: Beidler LM (ed) The chemical senses 2, taste. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 148–164 (Handbook of sensory physiology, vol 4)Google Scholar
  23. Cabanac M (1971) Physiological role of pleasure. Science 173:1103–1107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carpenter JA (1956) Species differences in taste preferences. J Comp Physiol Psychol 49:139–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Contreras RJ (1977) Changes in gustatory nerve discharges with sodium deficiency: a single unit analysis. Brain Res 121:373–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Contreras RJ, Frank M (1979) Sodium deprivation alters neural responses to gustatory stimuli. J Gen Physiol 73:569–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cranefield PF (ed) The way in and the way out. Futura, Mt Kisco, NY, pp 9–10Google Scholar
  28. Crick FHC (1979) Thinking about the brain. Sci Am 241:219–232Google Scholar
  29. Crozier WJ (1934) Chemoreception. In: Murchison C (ed) A handbook of general experimental psychology. Clark University Press, Worcester, pp 1005–1036Google Scholar
  30. Davis JD (1973) The effectiveness of some sugars in stimulating licking behavior in the rat. Physiol Behav 11:39–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Diamant H, Zotterman Y (1959) Has water a specific taste? Nature 183:191–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Erlanger J, Gasser HS (1937) Electrical signs of nervous activity. University of Pennsylvania Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Falconer (1847) Über eine merkwürdige Eigenschaft einer indischen Pflanze (Gymnema sylvestre). Pharm J Trans 7:551–552Google Scholar
  34. Frank M (1975) Response patterns of rat glossopharyngeal taste neurons. In: Denton D, Coghlan JP (eds) Olfaction and taste V. Academic, New York, pp 59–64Google Scholar
  35. Frank M, Smith DV, Pfaffmann C (1972) Cross-adaptation between salts in the rat’s chorda tympani response. In: Zotterman Y (ed) Oral physiology. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 227–237Google Scholar
  36. Galambos R, Davis H (1943) The response of single auditory-nerve fibers to acoustic stimulation. J Neurophysiol 6:39–57Google Scholar
  37. Hahn H (1934) Die Adaptation des Geschmackssinnes. Z Sinnesphysiol 65:105–145Google Scholar
  38. Hahn H (1943) Geschmackssinnes- und Permeabilitätsforschung I und II. Klin Wochenschr 22:245–249, 269–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hahn H (1949) Beiträge zur Reizphysiologie. Scherer, Heidelberg, S. 125–229Google Scholar
  40. Hänig DP (1901) Zur Psychophysik des Geschmackssinnes. Philos Studien 17:576–623Google Scholar
  41. Henning H (1916) Die Qualitätsreihe des Geschmacks. Z Psychol 74:203–219Google Scholar
  42. Herrick CJ (1903) The organ and sense oftaste in fishes. Bull US Fish Com 22:237–272Google Scholar
  43. Herrick CJ (1905) The central gustatory paths in the brains of bony fishes. J Comp Neurol Psychol 15:375–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoagland H (1933) Specific nerve impulses from gustatory and tactile receptors in catfish. J Gen Physiol 16:685–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hooper D (1887) An examination of the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre. Nature 35:565–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jasper HH, Carmichael L (1935) Electrical potentials from the intact human brain. Science 81:51–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kiesow F (1894) Beiträge zur physiologischen Psychologie des Geschmackssinnes. Philos Studien 10:329–368, 523–561Google Scholar
  48. Kiesow F (1896) Beiträge zur physiologischen Psychologie des Geschmackssinnes. Philos Studien 12:255–278, 464–473Google Scholar
  49. Lovén C (1868) Bidrog tili kännedomen am tungans smakpapiller. Contribution to the structure of taste buds on the tongue. Medicinskt Archiv 3:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Luciani L (1917) Human physiology, vol 4. The sense organs. Macmillan, London, pp 126–159Google Scholar
  51. Makous W, Nord S, Oakley B, PfafTmann C (1963) The gustatory relay in the medulla. In: Zotterman Y (ed) Olfaction and taste I. Proceedings of the first international symposium on taste and olfaction, Stockholm, 1962. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 381–393Google Scholar
  52. Matthews BHC (1933) Nerve endings in mammalian muscle. J Physiol 78:1–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. McBurney DH, Lucas JA (1966) Gustatory cross-adaptation between salts. Psychon Sci 4:301–302Google Scholar
  54. Müller J (1830) Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen für Vorlesungen, vol I und II. Holscher, CoblenzGoogle Scholar
  55. Nafe JP (1934) The pressure, pain, and temperature senses. In: Murchison C (ed) Handbook of general experimental psychology. Clark University Press, Worcester, pp 1037–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Norgren R, Leonard CM (1973) Ascending central gustatory pathways. J Comp Neurol 150:217–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Norgren R, Pfaffmann C (1975) The pontine taste area in the rat. Brain Res 91:99–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Oakes WJ (ed) (1940) The stoic and epicurean philosophers: the complete exrant writings of Epicurus, Epictetus, Lucretius, and Marcus Aurelius. Random House, New York, pp 69–219Google Scholar
  59. Oehrwall H (1891) Untersuchungen über den Geschmackssinn. Scand Arch Physiol 2:1–69Google Scholar
  60. Oehrwall H (1901) Die Modalitäts- und Qualitätsbegriffe in der Sinnesphysiologie und deren Bedeutung. Scand Arch Physiol 11:245–277Google Scholar
  61. Oettingen AJ (ed) (1900) Ostwalds Klassiker der exakten Wissenschaften. Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  62. Parker GH (1912) The relation of smell, taste, and the common chemical sense in vertebrates. J Natl Acad Sci 15:221–234Google Scholar
  63. Parker GH (1922) Smell, taste, and allied senses in the vertebrates. Lippincott, PhiladelphiaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pfaffmann C (1935) An experimental comparison of the method of single stimuli and the method of constant stimuli in gustation. Am J Psychol 48:470–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pfaffmann C (1936) Differential responses of the newborn cat to gustatory stimuli. J Genet Psychol 49:61–67Google Scholar
  66. Pfaffmann C (1939a) Afferent impulses from the teeth. J Physiol 95:1–2Google Scholar
  67. Pfaffmann C (1939b) Specific gustatory impulses. J Physiol 96:41–42Google Scholar
  68. Pfaffmann C (1940) Potentials in the isolated medullated axon. J Cell Comp Physiol 16:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pfaffmann C (1941) Gustatory afferent impulses. J Cell Comp Physiol 17:243–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pfaffmann C (1948) Aircraft landing without binocular cues: a study based upon observations made in flight. Am J Psychol 61:323–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pfaffmann C (1953) Species differences in taste sensitivity. Science 117:470Google Scholar
  72. Pfaffmann C (1955) Gustatory nerve impulses in rat, cat, and rabbit. J Neurophysiol 18:429–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Pfaffmann C (1960) The pleasures of sensation. Psychol Rev 67:253–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pfaffmann C (1963) Taste stimulation and preference behavior. In: Zotterman Y (ed) Olfaction and taste I. Proceedings of the first international symposium on taste and olfaction, Stockholm, 1962. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 257–273Google Scholar
  75. Pfaffmann C (1969) Taste preference and reinforcement. In: Tapp J (ed) Reinforcement and behavior. Academic, New York, pp 215–441Google Scholar
  76. Pfaffmann C, Bare JK (1950) Gustatory nerve discharges in normal and adrenalectomized rats. J Comp Physiol Psychol 43:320–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pfaffmann C, Schlosberg H (1936) The conditioned knee jerk in psychotic and normal individuals. J Psychol 1:201–206Google Scholar
  78. Pfaffmann C, Erickson R, Frommer G, Halpern B (1961) Gustatory discharges in the rat medulla and thalamus. In: Rosenblith WA (ed) Sensory communication. Wiley, New York, pp 455–473Google Scholar
  79. Pierrel R (1955) Taste effects resulting from intermittent electrical stimulation of the tongue. J Exp Psychol 49:374–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pumphrey RJ (1935) Nerve impulses from receptors in the mouth of the frog. J Cell Comp Physiol 6:457–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Richter CP (1939) Salt taste thresholds of normal and adrenalectomized rats. Endocrinology 24:367–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Richter CP (1942) Total self-regulatory functions in animals and human beings. Harvey Lect 38:63–103Google Scholar
  83. Richter CP, Campbell KH (1940) Taste thresholds and taste preferences of rats for five common sugars. J Nutr 20:31–16Google Scholar
  84. Ross GRT (ed) (1906) Aristotle: De sensu and de memoria. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 41–99Google Scholar
  85. Rutherford W (1886) The sense of hearing. J Anat Physiol 21:166–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Sato M, Ogawa H, Yamashita S (1975) Response properties of macaque monkey chorda tympani fibers. J Gen Physiol 66:781–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schiff M (1867) Du sens du goût. Leçons sur la physiologie de la digestion, I. Loescher, Florence, pp 78–124Google Scholar
  88. Schiffman SS, Erickson RP (1971) A psychophysical model for gustatory quality. Physiol Behav 7:617–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Schwalbe G (1867) Das Epithel der Papillae vallata. Arch Mikrosk Anat 3:504–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shore LE (1892) A contribution to our knowledge oftaste sensations. J Physiol 13:191–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Smith DV, McBurney DH (1969) Gustatory cross-adaptation: does a single mechanism code the salty taste? J Exp Psychol 80:101–105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Steiner JE (1973) The gusto-facial response: observation on normal and anencephalic newborn infants. In: Bosmas JF (ed) Fourth symposium on oral sensation and perception. Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 1973, Washington DC, pp 254–278Google Scholar
  93. Stevens SS (1969) Sensory scales of taste intensity. Percept Psychophys 6:302–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. von Békésy G (1928) Zur Theorie des Hörens: Die Schwingungsform der Basilarmembran. PhysZ 29:793–810Google Scholar
  95. von Skramlik E (1926) Handbuch der Physiologie der niederen Sinne, I. Die Physiologie des Geschmackssinnes. Thieme, Leipzig, S. 346–520Google Scholar
  96. Wever EG, Bray CW (1930) Action currents in the auditory nerve in response to acoustical stimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 16:344–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wilkins L, Richter CP (1940) A great craving for salt by a child with corticoadrenal insufficiency. JAMA 114:866–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wundt W (1893) Grundzüge der physiologischen Psychologie, 4th edn. Engelmann, Leiz- pig, S. 438–441Google Scholar
  99. Zotterman Y (1935) Action potentials in the glossopharyngeal nerve and in the chorda tympani. Scand Arch Physiol 72:73–77Google Scholar
  100. Zotterman Y (1949) The response of the frog’s taste fibers to the application of pure water. Acta Physiol Scand 18:181–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zotterman Y (ed) (1963) Olfaction and taste I. Proceedings of the first international symposium on taste and olfaction, Stockholm, 1962. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl Pfaffmann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations