Gametophytic Apomixis



“Apomixis” in angiosperms means asexual (agamic) reproduction by seeds, i.e, “agamospermy” (“seed apomixis”). The normal counterpart of this widespread anomaly of reproduction is “amphimixis”, i.e., sexual reproduction. Orginally, Winkler (1908) defined apomixis in a wider sense, including vivipary, pseudovivipary, and other forms of vegetative propagation such as bulbils, runners, rhizomes, etc. This broader definition is now rather rarely used.


Megaspore Mother Cell Sexual Plant Female Meiosis Apomictic Species Restitution Nucleus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Åkerberg E, Bingefors S (1953) Progeny studies in the hybrid Poa pratensis x Poa alpina. Hereditas 39:125–136Google Scholar
  2. Almgård G (1966) Experiments withPoa III. Ann Agric Coll Sweden 32:3–64Google Scholar
  3. Asker S (1966) Effects of mutagen treatment on some apomictic Potentilla species. Hereditas 55:249–265Google Scholar
  4. Asker S (1967) Induced sexuality after chromosome doubling in an apomictic Potentilla argentea-biotype. Hereditas 57:339–342Google Scholar
  5. Asker S (1970) Apomixis and sexuality in the Potentilla argentea complex II. Crosses within the species. Hereditas 66:189–204Google Scholar
  6. Asker S (1971) Apomixis and sexuality in the Potentilla argentea complex III. Eutriploid and aneuploid derivatives (including trisomies) of some apomictic biotypes. Hereditas 67:111–142Google Scholar
  7. Asker S (1977) Pseudogamy, hybridization, and evolution in Potentilla. Hereditas 87:179–184Google Scholar
  8. Asker S (1980) Gametophytic apomixis: Elements and genetic regulation. Hereditas 93:277–293Google Scholar
  9. Asker S, Hagberg A, Hagberg G (1983) Apomixis in barley? Sver Utsädesfören Tidskr 93:75–76Google Scholar
  10. Babcock EB, Stebbins GL (1938) The American species of Crepis: Their relationships and distribution as affected by polyploidy and apomixis. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 504:1–200Google Scholar
  11. Băra II, Ghiorghită Gl (1980) Din enigmele evolutiei. Apomixia şi rolul ei in evolutie. Editura ştiienţifică şi enciclopedică. Bucureşti, pp 73–149Google Scholar
  12. Bary A de (1878) Über apogame Farne und die Erscheinung der Apogamie im Allgemeinen. Bot Z 36:449–487Google Scholar
  13. Bashaw EC (1980) Apomixis and its application in crop improvement. In: Fehr WR, Hadley HH (eds) Hybridization of crop plants. Am Soc Agron Press, Madison, Wis, pp 45–63Google Scholar
  14. Bashaw EC, Hoff BJ (1962) Effects of irradiation on apomictic common dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum). Crop Sci 2:501–504Google Scholar
  15. Battaglia E (1946a) Ricerche cariologiche ed embriologiche sul genere Rudbeckia (Asteraceae). VI. Apomissia in Rudbeckia speciosa. Nuovo G Bot Ital (NS) 53:27–69Google Scholar
  16. Battaglia E (1946b) Ricerche cariologiche ed embriologiche sul genere Rudbeckia. VIII. Semigamia in Rudbeckia laciniata. Nuovo G Bot Ital (NS) 53:483–511Google Scholar
  17. Battaglia E (1948) Ricerche sulla parameiosi restitutionale nel genere Taraxacum. Caryologia 1:1–47Google Scholar
  18. Battaglia E (1950) L’alterazione della meiosi nella reproduzione apomittica di Erigeron karwinskianus DC. var. mucronatus DC. Caryologia 2:165–204Google Scholar
  19. Berger X (1953) Untersuchungen über die Embryologie partiell apomiktischerRubus bastarde. Ber Schweiz Bot Ges 63:224–265Google Scholar
  20. Bergman B (1935) Zytologische Studien über die Fortpflanzung bei den Gattungen Leontodon undPicris. Svensk Bot Tidskr 29:155–301Google Scholar
  21. Bergman B (1941) Studies on the embryo sac mother cell and its development in Hieracium, subg. Archieracium. Svensk Bot Tidskr 35:1–42Google Scholar
  22. Bergman B (1950) Meiosis in two different clones of the apomictic Chondrilla juncea. Hereditas 36:297–320Google Scholar
  23. Bergman B (1951) On the formation of reduced and unreduced gametophytes in the females of Antennaria carpatica. Hereditas 37:501–518Google Scholar
  24. Böcher TW (1951) Cytological and embryological studies in the amphiapomictic Arabis Holboellii complex. K Dan Vidensk Selsk Biol Skr VI 7:1–59Google Scholar
  25. Bremer G (1963) Problems in breeding and cytology of sugar cane. VI. Additional contemplations on fertilization and parthenogenesis in Saccharum. Euphytica 12:178–188Google Scholar
  26. Brix K (1974) Sexual reproduction in Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees. Z Pflanzenzücht 71:25–32Google Scholar
  27. Brown WV (1951) Apomixis inZephyranthes texana Herb. Am J Bot 38:697–701Google Scholar
  28. Brown WV, Emery WHP (1957) Apomixis in the Gramineae, tribe Andropogoneae: Themeda triandra and Bothriochloa ischaemum. Bot Gaz 118:246–253Google Scholar
  29. Brown WV, Emery WHP (1958) Apomixis in the Gramineae: Panicoideae. Am J Bot 45:253–263Google Scholar
  30. Burson BL (1975) Cytology of some apomictic Paspalum species. Crop Sci 15:229–232Google Scholar
  31. Burton GW (1982) Effect of environment on apomixis in bahiagrass. Crop Sci 22:109–111Google Scholar
  32. Burton GW, Forbes I (1960) The genetics and manipulation of obligate apomixis in common Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum Flügge). Proc VIII Intl Grassland Congr Reading (England) 1960:66–71Google Scholar
  33. Burton GW, Jackson JE (1962) Radiation breeding of apomictic prostrate dallisgrass, Paspalum dilatatum var. pauciciliatum. Crop Sci 2:495–491Google Scholar
  34. Chao C-Y (1974) Megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis in Paspalum commersonii and P. longifolium at two polyploid levels. Bot Not 127:267–275Google Scholar
  35. Chao C-Y (1980) Autonomous development of embryo in Paspalum conjugatum Berg. Bot Not 133:215–222Google Scholar
  36. Christen HR (1950) Untersuchungen über die Embryologie pseudogamer und sexueller Rubusaxien. Ber Schweiz Bot Ges 60:153–198Google Scholar
  37. Christen HR (1952) Die Embryologie von Rubus idaeus und von Bastarden zwischen Rubus caesius und Rubus idaeus. Z Indukt Abstamm Vererbungslehre 84:454–461Google Scholar
  38. Christoff M (1942) Die genetische Grundlage der apomiktischen Fortpflanzung bei Hieracium aurantiacum L. Z Indukt Abstamm Vererbungslehre 80:103–125Google Scholar
  39. Christoff M, Christoff MA (1948) Meiosis in the somatic tissue responsible for the reduction of chromosome number in the progeny of Hieracium hoppeanum Schult. Genetics 33:36–42Google Scholar
  40. Christoff M, Papasova G (1943) Die genetischen Grundlagen der apomiktischen Fortpflanzung in der GattungPotentilla. Z Indukt Abstamm Vererbungslehre 81:1–27Google Scholar
  41. Cleij G, Bock TSM de, Lekkerkerker B (1976) Crosses betweenBeta vulgaris L. and Beta lomatogona F. et M. Euphytica 25:539–547Google Scholar
  42. Coe GE (1953) Cytology of reproduction inCooperiapedunculata. Am J Bot 40:335–343Google Scholar
  43. Combes D (1975) Polymorphisme et modes de reproduction dans la section des Maximae du genre Panicum (Gramineae) en Afrique. Mém ORSTOM 77:1–99Google Scholar
  44. Connor HE (1979) Breeding systems in grasses: A survey. N Z J Bot 17:547–574Google Scholar
  45. Correns C (1905) Gregor Mendels Briefe an Carl Nägeli 1866–1873. Abh Math-Phys Kl Kgl Sächs Ges Wiss 29:189–265Google Scholar
  46. Costas-Lippmann M (1979) Embryogeny of Cortaderia selloana and C. jubata (Gramineae). Bot Gaz 140:393–397Google Scholar
  47. Czapik R (1975) Apomixis in a sterile hybrid species of Potentilla. In: Walters SM (ed) European floristic and taxonomic studies. Classey, Cambridge, pp 38–47Google Scholar
  48. Czapik R (1981) Embryology of Rubus saxatilis L. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 23:7–13Google Scholar
  49. D’Amato F (1949) Triploidia e apomissia in Statice oleaefolia Scop. var. confusa Goodr. Caryologia 2:71–84Google Scholar
  50. Darlington CD (1937) Recent advances in cytology. Churchill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. Davis GL (1967) Apomixis in the Compositae. Phytomorphology 17:270–277Google Scholar
  52. d’Cruz R, Reddy PS (1971) Inheritance of apomixis in Dichanthium. Indian J Genet Plant Breed 31:451–460Google Scholar
  53. DeWet JMJ (1965) Diploid races of tetraploidDichanthium species. Am Nat 99:167–171Google Scholar
  54. DeWet JMJ (1968) Diploid-tetraploid-haploid cycles and the origin of variability in Dichanthium agamospecies. Evolution 22:394–397Google Scholar
  55. DeWet JMJ (1971) Reversible tetraploidy as an evolutionary mechanism. Evolution 25:545–548Google Scholar
  56. DeWet JMJ, Harlan JR (1970) Apomixis, polyploidy, and speciation inDichanthium. Evolution 24:270–277Google Scholar
  57. DeWet JMJ, Stalker HT (1974) Gametophytic apomixis and evolution in plants. Taxon 23:689–697Google Scholar
  58. Dijk GE van, Winkelhorst GD (1982) Interspecific crosses as a tool in breeding Poa pratensis L. 1. Poa longifolia Trin. x P. pratensis L. Euphytica 31:215–223Google Scholar
  59. Doll R (1971) Probleme der Apomixis bei höheren Pflanzen. Biol Rundsch 9:215–239Google Scholar
  60. Doll R (1976) Apomixis und Speziation in den Gattungen Taraxacum and Chondrilla. Feddes Repert 87:483–492Google Scholar
  61. Döpp W (1967) Apomixis bei Archegoniaten. In: Ruhland W (ed) Handbuch der Pflanzenphysiologie Bd. XVIII. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp. 531–550Google Scholar
  62. Dowrick GJ (1961) Biology of reproduction in Rubus. Nature 191:680–682Google Scholar
  63. Dujardin M, Hanna WW (1983a) Meiotic and reproductive behavior of facultative apomictic BC1 offspring derived from Pennisetum americanum-P. Orientale interspecific hybrids. Crop Sci 23:156–160Google Scholar
  64. Dujardin M, Hanna WW (1983b) Apomictic and sexual pearl millet xPennisetum squamulatum hybrids. J Hered 74:277–279Google Scholar
  65. Ellerström S, Zagorcheva L (1977) Sterility and apomictic embryo-sac formation in Raphanobrassica. Hereditas 87:107–120Google Scholar
  66. Emery WHP (1957) A study of reproduction in Setaria macrostachya and its relatives in the south-western United States and northern Mexico. Bull Torrey Bot Club 84:106–121Google Scholar
  67. Ernst A (1918) Bastardierung als Ursache der Apogamie im Pflanzenreich. Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  68. Ernst A, Bernard Ch (1912) Entwicklungsgeschichte des embryosackes, des Embryos und des Endosperms von Burmannia coelestis Don. Ann Jard Bot Buitenzorg II, 11:234–257Google Scholar
  69. Esau K (1946) Morphology of reproduction in guayule and certain other species of Parthenium. Hilgardia 17:61–101Google Scholar
  70. Evans LT, Knox RB (1969) Environmental control of reproduction in Themeda australis. Austral J Bot 17:375–389Google Scholar
  71. Fagerlind F (1944) Die Samenbildung und die Zytologie bei agamospermischen und sexuellen Arten von Elatostema und einigen nahestehenden Gattungen nebst Beleuchtung einiger damit zusammenhängender Probleme. K Sven Vetenskapsakad Handl 21(4): 1–130Google Scholar
  72. Fagerlind F (1946) Sporogenesis, Embryosackentwicklung und pseudogame Samenbildung bei Rudbeckia laciniata L. Acta Hoti Bergiani 14:39–90Google Scholar
  73. Fagerlind F (1947a) Makrosporogenese und Embryosackbildung bei agamospermischen Taraxacum-Biotypen. Svensk Bot Tidskr 41:365–390Google Scholar
  74. Fagerlind F (1947b) Macrogametophyte formation in two agamospermousErigeron species. Acta Horti Bergiani 14:221–247Google Scholar
  75. Farquharson LI (1955) Apomixis and polyembryony in Tripsacum dactyloides. Am J Bot 42:737–743Google Scholar
  76. Franke R (1975) Über das Auftreten von unreduzierten Gameten bei Angiospermen. Arch Züchtungsforsch Berlin 5:201–208Google Scholar
  77. Fürnkranz D (1961) Cytogenetische Untersuchungen an Taraxacum im Räume von Wien II. Hybriden zwischenT. officinale und T. palustre. Österr Bot Z 108:408–415Google Scholar
  78. Gerlach D (1965) Befruchtung und Autogamie bei Rubus caesius. Biol Zentralbl 84:611–633Google Scholar
  79. Gerstel DU, Mishanec WM (1950) On the inheritance of apomixis in Parthenium argentatum. Bot Gaz 112:96–106Google Scholar
  80. Gerstel DU, Hammond BL, Kidd C (1953) An additional note on the inheritance of apomixis in guayule. Bot Gaz 115:89–93Google Scholar
  81. Gildenhuys PJ, Brix K (1959) Apomixis in Pennisetum dubium. S Afr J Agric Sci 2:231–245Google Scholar
  82. Grant V (1981) Plant speciation. Columbia Univ Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  83. Gröber K, Matzk F, Zacharias M (1974, 1976, 1978) Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung der apomiktischen Fortpflanzung bei Futtergräsern I—III. Kulturpflanze 22:159–180, 24:349–364, 26:303–327Google Scholar
  84. Grun P (1955) Cytogenetic studies in Poa III. Variation within Poa nervosa, an obligate apomict. Am J Bot 42:778–784Google Scholar
  85. Gupta PK, Roy RP, Singh AP (1969) Aposporous apomicts: Seasonal variation in tetraploid Dichanthium annulatum. Port Acta Biol Ser A 11:253–260Google Scholar
  86. Gustafsson Å (1943) The genesis of the European blackberry flora. Lunds Univ Årsskr N F II 39(6): 1–200Google Scholar
  87. Gustafsson Å (1946) Apomixis in angiosperms. I. Lunds Univ Årsskr N F II 42(3): 1–67Google Scholar
  88. Gustafsson Å (1947a) Apomixis in angiosperms. II. Lunds Univ Årsskr N FII 43(2):71–179Google Scholar
  89. Gustafsson Å (1947b) Apomixis in angiosperms. III. Lunds Univ Årsskr N FII 43(12): 183–370Google Scholar
  90. Hagberg G, Hagberg A (1981) Haploidy initiator gene in barley. Proc X Intl Barley Gen Sympos Edinburgh 1981:686–689Google Scholar
  91. Hair JB (1956) Subsexual reproduction inAgropyron. Heredity 10:129–160Google Scholar
  92. Håkansson A (1943) Die Entwicklung des Embryosacks und die Befruchtung bei Poa alpina. Hereditas 29:25–61Google Scholar
  93. Håkansson A (1951) Parthenogenesisin Allium. Bot Not 1951:143–179Google Scholar
  94. Håkansson A, Levan A (1957) Endo-duplicational meiosis in Allium odorum. Hereditas 43:179–200Google Scholar
  95. Hanna WW, Powell JB (1973) Stubby head, an induced facultative apomict in pearl millet. Crop Sci 13:726–728Google Scholar
  96. Hanna WW, Schertz KF, Bashaw EC (1970) Apospory in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Science 170:338–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Hanson AA, Juska FV (1962) Induced mutations in Kentucky bluegrass. Crop Sci 2:369–371Google Scholar
  98. Harlan JR, de Wet JMJ (1975) On Ö. Winge and a prayer: The origins of polyploidy. Bot Rev 41:361–390Google Scholar
  99. Harlan JR, Brooks MH, Borgaonkar DS, de Wet JMJ (1964) Nature and inheritance of apomixis in Bothriochloa and Dichanthium. Bot Gaz 125:41–46Google Scholar
  100. Harlan JR, de Wet JMJ, Newell CA (1978) Apomixis and pseudo-apomixis in Tripsacum. Abstr Proc XIV Intl Congr Genet, Moscow, vol II, p 166Google Scholar
  101. Haskell G (1953) Quantitative variation in subsexual Rubus. Heredity 7:409–418Google Scholar
  102. Haskell G (1960) Role of the male parent in apomictic Rubus species. Heredity 14:101–113Google Scholar
  103. Haskell G (1966) The history, taxonomy and breeding system of apomictic British Rubi. In: Hawkes JG (ed) Reproductive biology and taxonomy of vascular plants. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 141–151Google Scholar
  104. Hermsen JGTh (1980) Breeding for apomixis in potato: Pursuing a Utopian scheme? Euphytica 29:595–607Google Scholar
  105. Hjelmqvist H (1957) The apomictic development in Malus Sieboldii. Bot Not 110:455–467Google Scholar
  106. Hjelmqvist H (1959) Studien über Embryologie und Variabilität bei einigen Aphanes-Arten. Bot Not 112:17–64Google Scholar
  107. Hjelmqvist H, Grazi F (1964) Studies on variation in embryo sac development. Bot Not 117:141–166Google Scholar
  108. Holmgren I (1919) Zytologische Studien über die Fortpflanzung bei den Gattungen Erigeron undEupatorium. K Sven Vetenskapsakad Handl 59(7): 1–118Google Scholar
  109. Hunziker HR (1954) Beitrag zur Aposporie und ihrer Genetik bei Potentilla. Arch Julius Klaus-Stift Vererbungsforsch 29:135–222Google Scholar
  110. Iwanaga M, Peloquin SJ (1979) Synaptic mutant affecting only megasporogenesis in potatoes. J Hered 70:385–389Google Scholar
  111. Izmailow R (1965) Megasporogenesis in the apomictic speciesRanunculus cassubicus. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 8:183–195Google Scholar
  112. Izmailow R (1967) Observations in embryo and endosperm development in various chromosomic types of the apomictic speciesRanunculus cassubicus L. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 10:99–111Google Scholar
  113. Izmailow R (1970) Cytogenetic studies in the apomictic species Ranunculus cassubicus L. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 13:37–50Google Scholar
  114. Izmailow R (1973) Cyto-embryological studies in experimental hybrids of the apomictic species Ranunculus cassubicus L. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 16:99–120Google Scholar
  115. Izmailow R (1976) Problem of apomixis in the Ranunculus auricomus group. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 19:15–28Google Scholar
  116. Jassem B (1976) Embryology and genetics of apomixis in the section Corollinae of the genus Beta. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 19:149–172Google Scholar
  117. Jassem B (1980) Origin and reproduction of higher polyploids within the Corollinae section of the genus Beta. Genet Pol 21:17–27Google Scholar
  118. Juel O (1900) Vergleichende Untersuchungen über typische und parthenogenetische Fortpflanzung bei der Gattung Antennaria. K Sven Vetenskapsakad Handl 33(5): 1–59Google Scholar
  119. Juel O (1906) Die Tetradenteilung bei Taraxacum und anderen Cichorieen. K Sven Vetenskapsakad Handl 39(4): 1–21Google Scholar
  120. Julén G (1961) The effects of X-rays on the apomixis in Poa pratensis. IAEA, Vienna 1961:527–532Google Scholar
  121. Kandelaki GV (1976) Remote hybridization and the phenomenon of pseudogamy. In: Khokhlov SS (ed) Apomixis and breeding. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 179–189Google Scholar
  122. Khokhlov SS (1976) Apomixis and breeding. Amerind, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  123. Kimber G, Riley R (1963) Haploid angiosperms. Bot Rev 29:480–531Google Scholar
  124. Knox RB, Heslop-Harrison J (1963) Experimental control of aposporous apomixis in a grass of the Andropogoneae. Bot Not 116:127–141Google Scholar
  125. Kościńska M (1980) Embryo and endosperm in Rudbeckia bicolor. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 22:71–79Google Scholar
  126. Kruse A (1969) Intergeneric hybrids between Triticum aestivum L. (v. Koga II, 2n = 42) andAvena sativa L. (v. Stal, 2n = 42) with pseudogamous seed formation. Royal Vet Agric Univ Yearbook, Copenhagen, pp 188–200Google Scholar
  127. Krylova VV (1976) Apospory and polyembryony in apple. In: Khokhlov SS (ed) Apomixis and breeding. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 124–129Google Scholar
  128. Liljefors Á (1953) Studies on propagation, embryology, and pollination in Sorbus. Acta Horti Bergiani 16:277–329Google Scholar
  129. Löve A (1960) Biosystematics and classification of apomicts. Feddes Repert 63:136–149Google Scholar
  130. Malecka J (1971) Cyto-taxonomical and embryological investigations on a natural hybrid between Taraxacum kok-saghyz Rodin and T. officinale Web. and their putative parent species. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 14:179–197Google Scholar
  131. Malecka J (1973) Problems of the mode of reproduction in microspecies of Taraxacum section Palustria Dahlstedt. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 16:37–84Google Scholar
  132. Marklund G, Rousi A (1961) Outlines of evolution in the pseudogamousRanunculus auricomus group in Finland. Evolution 15:510–522Google Scholar
  133. Marshall DR, Brown AHD (1974) Estimation of the level of apomixis in plant populations. Heredity 32:321–333Google Scholar
  134. Marshall DR, Brown AHD (1981) The evolution of apomixis. Heredity 47:1–15Google Scholar
  135. Marshall DR, Weir BS (1979) Maintenance of genetic variation in apomictic plant populations. Heredity 42:159–172Google Scholar
  136. Matzel J (1982) Untersuchungen zur Enwicklung der apomiktischen Fortpflanzungsweise bei Futtergräsern. IV. Versuche zur modifikativen Beeinflussung der Apomixis. Kulturpflanze 30:167–180Google Scholar
  137. Matzk F (1982) Vorstellungen über potentielle Wege zur Apomixis bei Getreide. Arch Züchtungsforsch 12:183–195Google Scholar
  138. McWilliam JR, Shanker K, Knox RB (1970) Effects of temperature and photoperiod on growth and reproductive development in Hyparrhenia hirta. Austral J Agric Res 21:557–569Google Scholar
  139. Moskova RD, Yakovlev MS (1974) Apomixis ofBothriochloa ischaemum L. Flowering, pollination, fertilization. In: Linskens HF (ed) Fertilization in higher plants. North-Holland Publ, Amsterdam, pp 341–349Google Scholar
  140. Mujeeb-Kazi A (1981) Apomictic progeny derived from intergeneric Hordeum-Triticum hybrids. J Hered 72:284–285Google Scholar
  141. Müller U (1972) Zytologisch-embryologische Beobachtungen an Taraxacum-Arten aus der Sektion Vulgaria Dahlst. in der Schweiz. Ber Geobot Inst Eidg Tech Hochsch Stift Rübel Zürich 41:48–55Google Scholar
  142. Müntzing A (1940) Further studies on apomixis and sexuality in Poa. Heredi tas 26:115–190Google Scholar
  143. Müntzing A (1958a) The balance between sexual and apomictic reproduction in some hybrids of Potentilla. Hereditas 44:145–160Google Scholar
  144. Müntzing A (1958b) Heteroploidy and polymorphism in some apomictic species of Potentilla. Hereditas 44:280–329Google Scholar
  145. Müntzing A (1966) Apomixis and sexuality in new material ofPoa alpina from middle Sweden. Hereditas 54:314–337Google Scholar
  146. Müntzing A, Müntzing G (1945) The mode of reproduction of hybrids betwen sexual and apomictic Potentilla argentea. Bot Not 1945:237–278Google Scholar
  147. Murbeck SV (1902) Über Anomalien im Baue des Nucellus und des Embryosackes bei parthenogenetischen Arten der Gattung Alchemilla. Lunds Univ Årsskr 38(2): 1–11Google Scholar
  148. Nijs JCM den, Sterk AA (1980) Cytogeographical studies of Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum (= sect. Vulgaria) in Central Europe. Bot Jahrb Syst 101:527–554Google Scholar
  149. Nitzsche W (1981) Interspecific hybrids between apomictic forms of Poa palustris L. x Poa pratensis L. Proc XIV Intl Grassland Congr Lexington Ky 1981:155–157Google Scholar
  150. Noack KL (1939) Über Hypericum-Kreuzungen VI. Fortpflanzungsverhältnisse und Bastarde vonHypericum perforatum L. Z Indukt Abstamm Vererbungslehre 76:569–601Google Scholar
  151. Nogler GA (1971) Genetik der Aposporie bei Ranunculus auricomus s.l.W.Koch. I. Embryologie. Ber Schweiz Bot Ges 81:139–179Google Scholar
  152. Nogler GA (1972) Genetik der Aposporie bei Ranunculus auricomus. II. Endospermzytologie. Ber Schweiz Bot Ges 82:54–63Google Scholar
  153. Nogler GA (1973) Genetik der Aposporie bei Ranunculus auricomus. III. F2-Rückkreuzungsbastarde. Ber Schweiz Bot Ges 83:295–305Google Scholar
  154. Nogler GA (1975) Genetics of apospory in Ranunculus auricomus. IV. Embryology of F3 and F4 back-cross offspring. Phytomorphology 25:485–490Google Scholar
  155. Nogler GA (1978) Zur Zytogenetik der Apomixis bei Ranunculus auricomus. Unpubl. Habilitationsschrift ETH Zürich (mimeographed)Google Scholar
  156. Nogler GA (1982) How to obtain diploid apomictic Ranunculus auricomus plants not found in the wild state. Bot Helv 92:13–22Google Scholar
  157. Nogler GA (1984) Genetics of apospory in Ranunculus auricomus. V. Conclusions. Bot Helv 94 (2) (in press)Google Scholar
  158. Nygren A (1946) The genesis of some Scandinavian species ofCalamagrostis. Hereditas 32:131–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Nygren A (1950) Cytological and embryological studies in arctic Poae. Symb Bot Ups 10(4): 1–64Google Scholar
  160. Nygren A (1962) Artificial and natural hybridization in European Calamagrostis. Symb Bot Ups 17(3): 1–105Google Scholar
  161. Okabe S (1932) Parthenogenesis bei Ixeris dentata. Bot Mag (Tokyo) 46:518–523Google Scholar
  162. Osawa J (1913) Studies on the cytology of some species of Taraxacum. Arch Zellforsch 10:450–469Google Scholar
  163. Ostenfeld CH (1910) Further studies on the apogamy and hybridization of the Hieracia. Z Indukt Abstamm Vererbungslehre 3:241–285Google Scholar
  164. Pace L (1913) Apogamy inAtamosco. Bot Gaz 56:376–394Google Scholar
  165. Pernès J, Combes D, Réné-Chaume R, Savidan Y (1975a) Biologie des populations naturelles du Panicum maximum Jacq. Cah ORSTOM Sér Biol 10:77–89Google Scholar
  166. Pernès J, Savidan Y, Réné-Chaume R (1975b) Panicum: structures génétiques du complexe des „Maximae“ et organisation de ses populations naturelles en relation avec la spéciation. Boissiera 24:383–402Google Scholar
  167. Petrov DF (1976) Genetically regulated apomixis as a method of fixing heterosis and its significance in breeding. In: Khokhlov SS (ed) Apomixis and breeding. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 18–28Google Scholar
  168. Petrov DF (1984) Apomixis and its role in evolution and breeding. D.K. Agencies, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  169. Petrov DF, Belousova NI, Fokina ES (1978) The inheritance pattern of apomictic elements in interspecific hybrids between maize and Tripsacum. Abstr Proc XIV Int Congr Genet, Moscow, vol II, p 184Google Scholar
  170. Philipson MN (1978) Apomixis inCortaderia jubata (Gramineae). N Z J Bot 16:45–59Google Scholar
  171. Powers L (1945) Fertilization without reduction in guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) and a hypothesis as to the evolution of apomixis and polyploidy. Genetics 30:323–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Quarin CL, Hanna WW (1980) Effect of three ploidy levels on meiosis and mode of reproduction in Paspalum hexastachyum. Crop Sci 20:69–75Google Scholar
  173. Quarín CL, Hanna WW, Fernández A (1982) Genetic studies in diploid and tetraploid Paspalum species. J Hered 73:254–256Google Scholar
  174. Ramanna MS (1979) A re-examination of the mechanisms of 2n gamete formation in potato and its implications for breeding. Euphytica 28:537–561Google Scholar
  175. Rao PN (1974) Male parthenogenesis in tetraploid Job’s tears. Heredity 32:412–414Google Scholar
  176. Rao PN, Narayana DS (1980) Occurrence and identification of semigamy in Coix aquatica. J Hered 71:117–120Google Scholar
  177. Read JC, Bashaw EC (1974) Intergeneric hybrid between pearl millet and buffelgrass. Crop Sci 14:401–403Google Scholar
  178. Reddy PS, d’Cruz R (1969) Mechanism of apomixis in Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk) Stapf. Bot Gaz 130:71–79Google Scholar
  179. Renner O (1916) Zur Terminologie des pflanzlichen Generationswechsels. Biol Zentralbl 36:337–374Google Scholar
  180. Reusch JDH (1961) The relationship between reproductive factors and seed set in Paspalum dilatatum. S Afr J Agrie Sci 4:513–530Google Scholar
  181. Richards AJ (1970a) Eutriploid facultative agamospermy in Taraxacum. New Phytol 69:761–774Google Scholar
  182. Richards AJ (1970b) Hybridization inTaraxacum. New Phytol 69:1103–1121Google Scholar
  183. Richards AJ (1973) The origin ofTaraxacum agamospecies. Bot J Linn Soc 66:189–211Google Scholar
  184. Rollins RC (1945) Evidence for genetic variation among apomictically produced plants of several F1 progenies of guayule (Parthenium argentatum) and mariola(P. incanum). Am J Bot 32:554–560Google Scholar
  185. Rosenberg O (1908) Cytological studies on the apogamy in Hieracium. Bot Tidsskr 28:143–170Google Scholar
  186. Rosenberg O (1930) Apogamie und Parthenogenesis bei Pflanzen. In: Baur E, Hartmann M (eds) Handbuch Vererbungswiss II (12). Borntraeger, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  187. Rousi A (1956) Cytotaxonomy and reproduction in the apomictic Ranunculus auricomus complex. Ann Bot Soc Vanamo 29(2): 1–64Google Scholar
  188. Rutishauser A (1943) Untersuchungen über die Fortpflanzung und Bastardbildung apomiktischer Potentinen. Ber Schweiz Bot Ges 53:1–83Google Scholar
  189. Rutishauser A (1948) Pseudogamie und Polymorphie in der Gattung Potentilla. Arch Julius Klaus-Stift Vererbungsforsch 23:267–424Google Scholar
  190. Rutishauser A (1954a) Die Entwicklungserregung des Endosperms bei pseudogamen Ranunculusarten. Mitt Naturforsch Ges Schaffhausen 25:1–45Google Scholar
  191. Rutishauser A (1954b) Entwicklungserregung der Eizelle bei pseudogamen Arten der Gattung Ranunculus. Bull Schweiz Akad Med Wiss 10:491–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Rutishauser A (1961) Pseudogamous reproduction and evolution. Recent advances in botany. Univ Toronto Press, pp 699–702Google Scholar
  193. Rutishauser A (1965) Genetik der Pseudogamie bei Ranunculus auricomus s.l.W.Koch. Ber Schweiz Bot Ges 75:157–182Google Scholar
  194. Rutishauser A (1967) Fortpflanzungsmodus und Meiose apomiktischer Blütenpflanzen. Protoplasma-tologia VI/F/3, Springer, WienGoogle Scholar
  195. Rutishauser A (1969) Embryologie und Fortpflanzungsbiologie der Angiospermen. Springer, WienGoogle Scholar
  196. Rychlewski J (1961) Cyto-embryological studies in the apomictic species Nardus stricta L. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 4:1–23Google Scholar
  197. Rychlewski J (1967) Karyological studies on Nardus stricta L. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 10:55–72Google Scholar
  198. Saran S, det JMJ (1970) The mode of reproduction in Dichanthium intermedium (Gramineae). Bull Torrey Bot Club 97:6–13Google Scholar
  199. Saran S, det JMJ (1976) Environmental control of reproduction in Dichanthium intermedium. J Cytol Genet 11:22–28Google Scholar
  200. Saran S, Narain PD (1982) X-irradiation studies inPennisetum pedicellatum. J Cytol Genet 18: (in press)Google Scholar
  201. Savidan Y (1975) Hérédité de l’apomixie. Contribution à l’étude de l’hérédité de l’apomixie sur Panicum maximum Jacq. (analyse des sacs embryonnaires). Cah ORSTOM Sér Biol 10:91–95Google Scholar
  202. Savidan Y (1978) L’apomixie gamétophytique chez les Graminées et son utilisation en Amélioration des Plantes. Ann Amélior Plant (Paris) 28:1–9Google Scholar
  203. Savidan Y (1980) Chromosomal and embryological analyses in sexual x apomictic hybrids of Panicum maximum Jacq. Theor Appl Genet 57:153–156Google Scholar
  204. Savidan Y (1981) Genetics and utilization of apomixis for the improvement of Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.). Proc XIV Intl Grassland Congr Lexington Ky 1981:182–184Google Scholar
  205. Savidan Y (1982) Nature et hérédité de l’apomixie chez Panicum maximum Jacq. Trav Doc ORSTOM 153:1–159Google Scholar
  206. Savidan Y, Pernès J (1982) Diploid-tetraploid-dihaploid cycles and the evolution of Panicum maximum Jacq. Evolution 36:596–600Google Scholar
  207. Sax K (1959) The cytogenetics of facultative apomixis in Malus species. J Arnold Arbor (Harv Univ) 40:289–297Google Scholar
  208. Schmidt H (1964) Beiträge zur Züchtung apomiktischer Apfelunterlagen I. Zytogenetische und embryologische Untersuchungen. Z Pflanzenzücht 52:27–102Google Scholar
  209. Schmidt H (1977) Contributions on the breeding of apomictic apple stocks IV. On the inheritance of apomixis. Z Pflanzenzücht 78:3–12Google Scholar
  210. Schwendener J (1969) Experimente zur Evolution vonPotentilla procumbens Sibth. Ber Schweiz Bot Ges 79:49–92Google Scholar
  211. Sherwood RT, Young BA (1979) Effect of plant growth regulators on embryo sac development in buffelgrass. Agron Abstr 1979: C-1Google Scholar
  212. Simpson CE, Bashaw EC (1969) Cytology and reproductive characteristics inPennisetum setaceum. Am J Bot 56:31–36Google Scholar
  213. Skalińska M (1959) Embryological studies in Poa granitica Br.Bl., an apomictic species of the Carpathian range. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 2:91–112Google Scholar
  214. Skalińska M (1973) Further studies in facultative apomixis of Hieracium aurantiacum L. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 16:121–133Google Scholar
  215. Skalinska M (1976) Cytological diversity in the progeny of octoploid facultative apomicts of Hieracium aurantiacum. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 19:39–46Google Scholar
  216. Skalińska M, Kubien E (1972) Cytological and embryological studies in Hieracium pratense Tausch. Acta Biol Cracov Ser Bot 15:39–50Google Scholar
  217. Smith GL (1963a) Studies in Potentilla L. I. Embryological investigations into the mechanism of agamospermy in British P. tabernaemontani Aschers. New Phytol 62:264–282Google Scholar
  218. Smith GL (1963b) Studies in Potentilla L. II. Cytological aspects of apomixis in P. crantzii (Cr.) Beck ex Fritsch. New Phytol 62:283–300Google Scholar
  219. Snyder LA (1957) Apomixis inPaspalum secans. Am J Bot 44:318–324Google Scholar
  220. Snyder LA, Hernandez AR, Warmke HE (1955) The mechanism of apomixis in Pennisetum ciliare. Bot Gaz 116:209–221Google Scholar
  221. Solntzeva MP (1974) Disturbances in the process of fertilization in angiosperms under hemigamy. In: Linskens HF (ed) Fertilization in higher plants. North-Holland Publ, Amsterdam, pp 311–324Google Scholar
  222. Solntzeva MP (1978) Apomixis and hemigamy as one of its forms. Proc Indian Natl Sci Acad 44B:78–90Google Scholar
  223. Sørensen Th (1958) Sexual chromosome-aberrants in triploid apomictic Taraxaca. Bot Tidsskr 54:1–22Google Scholar
  224. Souciet JL (1978) Contrôle de l’inhibition de la germination chez une espèce apomictique, le Panicum maximum. Thèse 2385, Univ Paris-SudGoogle Scholar
  225. Sparvoli E (1960) Osservazioni cito-embriologiche inEupatorium riparium Reg. II. Megasporogenesi e sviluppo del gametofito femminile. Ann di Bot (Rome) 26:481–504Google Scholar
  226. Spoor W, Hay JM (1978) Identification ofPoa pratensis lines using electrophoresis of seed extracts. Seed Sci Technol 7:467–474Google Scholar
  227. Stebbins GL (1932) Cytology ofAntennaria II. Parthenogenetic species. Bot Gaz 94:322–344Google Scholar
  228. Stebbins GL (1941) Apomixis in the angiosperms. Bot Rev 7:507–542Google Scholar
  229. Stebbins GL (1950) Variation and evolution in plants. Columbia Univ Press, New York, pp 380–419Google Scholar
  230. Stebbins GL, Jenkins JA (1939) Aposporic development in the North American species of Crepis. Genetica 21:191–224Google Scholar
  231. Sukhareva NB (1976) Elements of apomixis in strawberry. In: Khokhlov SS (ed) Apomixis and breeding. Amerind New Delhi, pp 120–123Google Scholar
  232. Sukhareva NB (1978) Apomixis in remote hybridization of Fr agar ia. Abstr Proe XIV Intl Congr Genet Moscow, vol II, p 195Google Scholar
  233. Taliaferro CM, Bashaw EC (1966) Inheritance and control of obligate apomixis in breeding buffelgrass, Pennisetum ciliare. Crop Sci 6:473–476Google Scholar
  234. Tang CY, Schertz KF, Bashaw EC (1980) Apomixis in Sorghum lines and their F1 progenies. Bot Gaz 141:294–299Google Scholar
  235. Tateoka T, Hiraoka A, Tateoka TN (1977) Natural hybridization in JapaneseCalamagrostis. II. Bot Mag (Tokyo) 90:193–209Google Scholar
  236. Tinney FW (1940) Cytology of parthenogenesis in Poa pratensis. J Agric Res (Washington) 60:351–360Google Scholar
  237. Turesson G (1929) Zur Natur und Begrenzung der Arteinheiten. Hereditas 12:323–333Google Scholar
  238. Urbańska-Worytkiewicz K (1974) L’agamospermie, système de reproduction important dans la spéciation des Angiospermes. Bull Soc Bot Fr 121:329–346Google Scholar
  239. Valentine DH (1960) The treatment of apomictic groups in Flora Europaea. Feddes Repert 63:119–127Google Scholar
  240. Venkateswarlu J, Rao PN (1975) Apomixis in Coix aquatica Roxb. Ann Bot 39:1131–1136Google Scholar
  241. Voigt PW, Bashaw EC (1972) Apomixis and sexuality in Eragrostis curvula. Crop Sci 12:843–847Google Scholar
  242. Voigt PW, Burson BL (1981) Breeding of apomicticEragrostis curvula. Proc XIV Intl Grassland Congr Lexington Ky 1981:160–163Google Scholar
  243. Walters SM (1966) The taxonomic implications of apomixis. In: Hawkes JG (ed) Reproductive biology and taxonomy of vascular plants. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 162–168Google Scholar
  244. Warmke HE (1954) Apomixis inPanicum maximum. Am J Bot 41:5–11Google Scholar
  245. Wehner DJ, Duich JM, Watschke TL (1976) Separation of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars using peroxidase isoenzyme banding patterns. Crop Sci 16:475–480Google Scholar
  246. Weimarck G (1967) Apomixis and sexuality in Hierochloe australis and in Swedish H. odorata on different polyploid levels. Bot Not 120:209–235Google Scholar
  247. Weimarck G (1970) Apomixis and sexuality in Hierochloë alpina (Gramineae) from Finland and Greenland and in H. monticola from Greenland. Bot Not 123:495–504Google Scholar
  248. Williamson CJ (1978) Problems in the utilization of interspecific hybrids of Poa in a plant breeding programme. Proc 8th EUCARPIA Congr Madrid, pp 289–298Google Scholar
  249. Williamson CJ (1981) The influence of light regimes during floral development on apomictic seed production and on variability in resulting seedling progenies of Poa ampla and P. pratensis. New Phytol 87:769–797Google Scholar
  250. Williamson CJ, Killick RJ (1978) Multivariate methods as an aid in identifying Poa ampla x P. pratensis hybrids from maternal-type offspring. Heredity 41:215–225Google Scholar
  251. Williamson CJ, Watson PJ (1980) Production and description of interspecific hybrids between Poa pratensis and P. longifolia. Euphytica 29:715–725Google Scholar
  252. Winkler H (1908) Über Parthenogenesis und Apogamie im Pflanzenreiche. Progr Rei Bot 2:293–454Google Scholar
  253. Young BA, Sherwood RT, Bashaw EC (1979) Cleared-pistil and thick-sectioning techniques for detecting aposporous apomixis in grasses. Can J Bot 57:1668–1672Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations