Advertisement

Endosymbiotic Cyanobacteria and Cyanellae

  • W. Reisser
Part of the Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology book series (PLANT, volume 17)

Abstract

Cyanobacteria are outstanding among prokaryotes because of their ability to exploit water-bound protons for photosynthesis and to fix molecular nitrogen. Hence they are successful in nearly all types of biotopes and are also frequently observed in close relationship with other organisms.

Keywords

Symbiotic System Heterocyst Frequency Nostoc Punctiforme Cyanidium Caldarium Symbiotic Cyanobacterium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ashton PJ, Walmsley RD (1976) Die Symbiose zwischen dem Wasserfarn Azolla und der Blaualge Anabaena. Endeavour 35: 39–44Google Scholar
  2. Basilier K (1980) Fixation and uptake of nitrogen in Sphagnum blue-green algal associations. Oikos 34: 239–242Google Scholar
  3. Bhaskaran S, Venkatamaran GS (1958) Occurrence of a blue-green alga in nodules of Trifolium alexandrinum. Nature 181: 277–278Google Scholar
  4. Böttcher U, Brandt P, Müller B, Tischner R (1982) Physiologische Charakterisierung der Endocyanelle Cyanocyta korschikoffiana Hall & Claus. I. Photosynthetische und N-assimilatorische Eigenschaften in der symbiontischen Assoziation Cyanophora- Cyanocyta. Z Pflanzenphysiol 106: 167–172Google Scholar
  5. Bond G, Scott GD (1955) An examination of some symbiotic systems for fixation of nitrogen. Ann Bot 19: 67–77Google Scholar
  6. Bonnett HT, Silvester WB (1981) Specificity in the Gunnera-Nostoc endosymbiosis. New Phytol 89: 121–128Google Scholar
  7. Bothe H, Floener L (1978) Physiological characterization of Cyanophora paradoxa, a flagellate containing cyanelles in endosymbiosis. Z Naturforsch 33c: 981–987Google Scholar
  8. Bourdu R, Lefort M (1967) Structure fine, observée en cryodécapage des lamelles photosynthétiques des cyanophycées endosymbiotiques: Glaucocystis nostochinearum Itzigs, et Cyanophora paradoxa Korschikoff. CR Acad Sei Paris 265: 37–40Google Scholar
  9. Bradley PM (1979) Micromanipulation of cyanelles and a cyanobacterium into higher plant cells. Physiol Plant 46: 293–298Google Scholar
  10. Bradley PM (1980) Co-culture of carrot cells and a green alga on medium deficient in nitrogen. Z Pflanzenphysiol 100: 65–67Google Scholar
  11. Bubrick P, Galun M (1980) Symbiosis in lichens: Differences in cell wall properties of freshly isolated and cultured phycobionts. FEMS Microbiol Lett 7: 311–313Google Scholar
  12. Burgoon AC, Bottino PJ (1976) Uptake of the nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae Gloeocapsa into protoplasts of tobacco and maize. J Hered 67: 223–226Google Scholar
  13. Burns RC, Hardy RW (1975) Nitrogen fixation in bacteria and higher plants. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Calvert HE, Peters GA (1981) The Azolla-Anabaena azollae relationship. IX. Morphological analysis of leaf cavity hair populations. New Phytol 89: 327–335Google Scholar
  15. Chapman DJ, Trench RK (1982) Prochlorophyceae: Introduction and bibliography. In: Rosowski JR, Parker BC (eds) Selected papers in phycology II. Phycological Society of America, pp 656–658Google Scholar
  16. Codd GA, Stewart WDP (1977) Quaternary structure of the D-ribulose-l,5-diphosphate carboxylase from the cyanelles of Cyanophora paradoxa. FEMS Lett 1: 35–38Google Scholar
  17. Cohn F (1872) Ueber parasitische Algen. Beitr Biol Pflanz 1:87–108 Collwell GL, Wickstrom CE (1976) Cell, cyanelle, and chlorophyll a relationships in Glaucocystis nostochinearum Itz. J Phycol 12: 11Google Scholar
  18. Cox D, Dwarte DM (1981) Freeze-etch ultrastructure of a Prochloron species - the symbiont of Didemnum molle. New Phytol 88: 427–438Google Scholar
  19. Drum RW, Pankratz S (1965) Fine structure of an unusual cytoplasmic inclusion in the diatom genus, Rhopalodia. Protoplasma 60: 141–149Google Scholar
  20. Duckett JG, Toth R, Soni SL (1975) An ultrastructural study of the Azolla, Anabaena azollae relationship. New Phytol 75: 111–118Google Scholar
  21. Duckett JG, Prasad AKSK, Davis DA, Walker S (1977) A cytological analysis of the Nostoc-bryophyte relationship. New Phytol 79: 349–362Google Scholar
  22. Enderlin CS, Meeks JC (1983) Pure culture and reconstitution of the Anthoceros-Nostoc symbiotic association. Planta 158: 157–165Google Scholar
  23. Famintzin A (1970) Die Symbiose als Mittel der Synthese von Organismen. Biol Zentralbl 27:353-3–4Google Scholar
  24. Fisher CR, Trench RK (1980) In vitro carbon fixation by Prochlor on sp. isolated from Diplosoma vir ens. Biol Bull 159: 636–648Google Scholar
  25. Floener L, Bothe H (1980) Nitrogen fixation in Rhopalodia gibba, a diatom containing blue-greenish inclusions symbiotically. In: Schwemmler W, Schenk HE A (eds) Endo- cytobiology 1. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 541–552Google Scholar
  26. Floener L, Bothe H (1982) Metabolic activities in Cyanophora paradoxa and its cyanelles. II. Photosynthesis and respiration. Planta 156: 78–83Google Scholar
  27. Floener L, Danneberg G, Bothe H (1982) Metabolic activities in Cyanophora paradoxa and its cyanelles. I. The enzymes of assimilatory nitrate reduction. Planta 156: 70–77Google Scholar
  28. Gates JE, Fisher RW, Goggin TW, Azrolan NI (1980) Antigenic differences between Anabaena azollae fresh from the Azolla fern leaf cavity and free-living cyanobacteria. Arch Microbiol 128: 126–129Google Scholar
  29. Geitler L (1924) Der Zellbau von Glaucocystis nostochinearum und Gloeochaete witt- rockiana und die Chromatophoren-Symbiosetheorie von Mereschkowsky. Arch Pro- tistenkd 47: 1–24Google Scholar
  30. Geitler L (1927) Bemerkungen zu Paulinella chromatophora. Zool Anz 73: 333–335Google Scholar
  31. Geitler L (1959) Syncyanosen. In: Ruhland E (ed) Handbuch der Pflanzenphysiologie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York 11, pp 530–545Google Scholar
  32. Geitler L (1977) Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Epithemiaceen Epithemia, Rhopalodia und Denticula (Diatomophyceae) und ihre vermutlich symbiontischen Sphäroid- körper. Plant Syst Evol 128: 259–275Google Scholar
  33. Giddings TH, Wasmann C, Staehelin LA (1983) Structure of the thylakoids and envelope membranes of the cyanelles of Cyanophora paradoxa. Plant Physiol 71: 409–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Granhall U, Hofsten AV (1976) Nitrogenase activity in relation to intracellular organisms in Sphagnum mosses. Physiol Plant 36: 88–94Google Scholar
  35. Grilli Caiola M (1972 a) Cell morphology of the blue-green algae under culture conditions from Cycas revoluta isolated. I. Light microscope observations. Caryologia 25: 137–145Google Scholar
  36. Grilli Caiola M (1972 b) Cell morphology of the blue-green algae under culture conditions from Cycas revoluta isolated. II. An electron microscope study. Caryologia 25: 147–161Google Scholar
  37. Grilli Caiola M (1975 a) A light and electron microscopic study of blue-green algae growing in the coralloid roots of Encephalartos altensteinii and in culture. Phycologia 14:25–33Google Scholar
  38. Grilli Caiola M (1975 b) Structural and ultrastructural aspects of blue-green algae growing in the coralloid-roots of Dioon edule and in culture. Phykos 14:29–34Google Scholar
  39. Grilli Caiola M (1980) On the phycobionts of the cycad coralloid roots. New Phytol 85: 537–544Google Scholar
  40. Hall WT, Claus G (1963) Ultrastructural studies on the blue-green algal symbiont in Cyanophora paradoxa Korschikoff. J Cell Biol 19: 551–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hall WT, Claus G (1967) Ultrastructural studies on the cyanelles of Glaucocystis nostochinearum Itzigsohn. J Phycol 3: 37–51Google Scholar
  42. Herdman M, Stanier RY (1977) The cyanelle: chloroplast or endosymbiotic prokaryote? FEMS 1: 7–12Google Scholar
  43. Hill DJ (1975) The pattern of development of Anabaena in the Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis. Planta 122: 179–184Google Scholar
  44. Hill DJ (1977) The role of ANABAENA in the AZOLLA-ANABAENA symbiosis. New Phytol 78: 611–616Google Scholar
  45. Holst RW, Yopp JH (1979 a) Effect of various nitrogen sources on growth and the nitrate-nitrite reductase system of the Azolla Mexicana-Anabaena Azollae symbiosis. Aquat Bot 7: 359–367Google Scholar
  46. Holst RW, Yopp JH ( 1979 b) Studies of the Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis using azolla mexicana. I. Growth in nature and laboratory. Am Fern J 69: 17–25Google Scholar
  47. Jacob F (1961) Zur Biologie von CODIUM BURSA (L.) Agardh und seiner endophytischen Cyanophyceen. Arch Protistenkd 105: 345–406Google Scholar
  48. Johns RB, Nichols PD, Gillan FT, Perry GJ, Volkman JK (1981) Lipid composition of a symbiotic prochlorophyte in relation to its host. Comp Biochem Physiol 69: 843–849Google Scholar
  49. Kawaguti S (1971) Blue-green algae in echiuroid worms. In: Cheng TC (ed) Aspects of the biology of symbiosis. Baltimore Univ Park Press, pp 265–273Google Scholar
  50. Kawamatu S (1965 a) Electron microscope observations on blue-green algae in the leaf of azolla imbricata Nakai. Cytologia 30:75–79Google Scholar
  51. Kawamatu S (1965 b) Electron microscope observations on the leaf of azolla imbricata Nakai. Cytologia 30:80–87Google Scholar
  52. Kies L (1974) Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an paulinella chromatophora Lauterborn, einer Thekamöbe mit blau-grünen Endosymbionten (Cyanellen). Protoplasma 80: 69–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kies L (1976) Untersuchungen zur Feinstruktur und taxonomischen Einordnung von gloeochaete Wittrockiana, einer apoplastidalen capsalen Alge mit blaugrünen Endosymbionten (Cyanellen). Protoplasma 87: 419–446Google Scholar
  54. Kies L (1979) Zur systematischen Einordnung von Cyanophora Paradoxa, Gloeochaete Wittrockiana und Glaucocystis Nostochinearum. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 92: 445–454Google Scholar
  55. Kies L (1980) Morphology and systematic position of some endocyanoms. In: Schwemmler W, Schenk HE A (eds) Endocytobiology 1. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 7–19Google Scholar
  56. Kies L, Kremer BP (1979) Function of cyanelles in the thecamoeba paulinella chromatophora. Naturwissenschaften 66: 578Google Scholar
  57. Kimor B, Reid FMH, Jordan JB (1978) An unusual occurrence of hemiaulus membranaceus Cleve (Bacillariophyceae) with richelia intracellular is Schmidt (Cyanophyceae) off the coast of Southern California in October 1976. Phycologia 17: 162–166Google Scholar
  58. Knapp E (1933) Über GEOSIPHON PYRIFORME Fr. Wettst., eine intrazellulare Pilz-Algen-Symbiose. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 51: 210–215Google Scholar
  59. Korschikoff AA (1930) glaucosphaera vacuolata, A. new member of the glaucophyceae. Arch Protistenkd 70: 217–222Google Scholar
  60. Kremer BP, Feige GB (1979) Accumulation of photoassimilatory products by phycobili- protein-containing algae with special reference to Cyanidium Caldarium. Z Naturforsch 34c: 1209–1214Google Scholar
  61. Kremer BP, Kies L, Rostami-Rabet A (1979) Photosynthetic performance of cyanelles in the endocyanomes cyanophora, glaucosphaera, gloeochaete, and Glaucocystis. Z Pflanzenphysiol 92: 303–317Google Scholar
  62. Kremer BP, Pardy R, Lewin RA (1982) Carbon fixation and photosynthates of prochloron, a green alga symbiotic with an ascidian, lissoclinum patella. Phycologia 21: 258–263Google Scholar
  63. Lang NJ (1968) The fine structure of blue-green algae. Annu Rev Microbiol 22: 15–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lefort M (1965) Sur le chromatoplasma d’une cyanophycée endosymbiotique: glaucocystis nostochinearum Itzigs. CR Acad Sei Paris 261: 233–236Google Scholar
  65. Lefort M, Pouphile M (1967) Données cytochimiques sur l’organisation structurale du chromatoplasma de glaucocystis nostochinearum. CR Soc Biol 5: 992–998Google Scholar
  66. Lewin RA (1975) A marine synechocystis (Cyanophyta, Chroococcales) epizoic on ascidians. Phycologia 14: 153–160Google Scholar
  67. Lewin RA (1977) Prochloron, type genus of the Prochlorophyta. Phycologia 16: 217Google Scholar
  68. Lewin RA (1981) The Prochlorophytes. In: Starr MP, Stolp H, Trüper HG, Balows A, Schlegel HG (eds) The Prokaryotes. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York pp 257–266Google Scholar
  69. Lewin RA, Cheng L (1975) Associations of microscopic algae with didemnid ascidians. Phycologia 14: 149–152Google Scholar
  70. Lewin RA, Withers NW (1975) Extraordinary pigment composition of a prokaryoticalga. Nature 256: 735–737Google Scholar
  71. Margulis L (1981) Symbiosis in cell evolution. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  72. Marten, S, Brandt P, Wiessner W (1982) On the developmental dependence between Cyanophora paradoxa and Cyanocyta korschikoffiana in symbiosis. Planta 155: 190–192Google Scholar
  73. McCracken DA, Nadakavukaren MJ, Cain JR (1980) A biochemical and ultrastructural evaluation of the taxonomic position of Glaucosphaera vacuolata Korsh. New Phytol 86: 39–44Google Scholar
  74. McLaughlin JJA, Zahl PA (1966) Endozoic algae. In: Henry SM (ed) Symbiosis I. Academic Press, New York pp 257–297Google Scholar
  75. Meeks, JC, Malmberg RL, Wölk CP (1978) Uptake of auxotrophic cells of a heterocyst- forming cyanobacterium by tobacco protoplasts, and the fate of their associations. Planta 139: 55–60Google Scholar
  76. Mereschkowsky C (1905) Über Natur und Ursprung der Chromatophoren im Pflanzenreiche. Biol. Zentralbl 25: 593–604Google Scholar
  77. Miehe H (1924) Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen der Algensymbiose bei Gunner a macrophylla Bl. Flora 117: 1–15Google Scholar
  78. Mignot JP, Joyaon L, Pringsheim EG (1969) Quelques particularités structurales de Cyanophora paradoxa Korsch., protozoaire flagellé. J Protozool 16: 138–145Google Scholar
  79. Mollenhauer D (1970) Botanische Notizen Nr. 1: Beobachtungen an der Flechte Geosiphon pyriforme. Nat Mus 100: 213–223Google Scholar
  80. Moore AW (1969) Azolla: Biology and agronomic significance. Bot Rev 35: 17–34Google Scholar
  81. Mucke H, Löffelhardt W, Bohnert HJ (1980) Partial characterization of the genome of the “endosymbiotic” cyanelles from Cyanophora paradoxa. Febs Lett 111: 347–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Nathanielsz CP, Staff IA (1975) On the occurrence of intracellular blue-green algae in cortical cells of the apogeotropic roots of Macrozamia communis L. Johnson. Ann Bot 39: 363–368Google Scholar
  83. Neumann D (1977) Ultrastrukturelle Untersuchungen zur Symbiose von Cyanophyceen mit Cycadeen (Cycas circinnalis L., Zamia furfuracea L.). Biochem Physiol Pflanz 171: 313–322Google Scholar
  84. Neumann D, Ackermann M, Jacob F (1970) Zur Feinstruktur der endophytischen Cyanophyceen von Gunner a chilensis Lam. Biochem Physiol Pflanz 161: 483–498Google Scholar
  85. Newton JW, Selke ES (1981) Assimilation of ammonia by the Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis. J Plant Nutr Soil Sei 3: 803–811Google Scholar
  86. Obukowicz M, Schaller M, Kennedy GS (1981) Ultrastructure and phenolic histochemistry of the Cycas revoluta-Anabaena symbiosis. New Phytol 87: 751–759Google Scholar
  87. Oschman JL (1966) Development of the symbiosis of Convoluta roscoffensis Graff and Platymonas sp. J Phycol 2: 105–111Google Scholar
  88. Pascher A (1914) Über Symbiosen von Spaltpilzen und Flagellaten mit Blaualgen. Ber Dtsch Bot Ges 32: 339–352Google Scholar
  89. Pascher A (1929a) Studien über Symbiosen. I. Über einige Endosymbiosen von Blaualgen in Einzellern. Jahrb Wiss Bot 71: 386–462Google Scholar
  90. Pascher A (1929 b) Über die Natur der blaugrünen Chromatophoren des Rhizopoden Paulinella chromatophora. Zool Anz 81:189–194Google Scholar
  91. Peirce GJ (1906) Anthoceros and its Nostoc colonies. Bot Gaz 24: 55–59Google Scholar
  92. Peters GA (1975) The Azolla-Anabaena azollae relationship. III. Studies on metabolic capabilities and a further characterization of the symbiont. Arch Microbiol 103: 113–122Google Scholar
  93. Peters GA, Mayne BC (1974a) The Azolla-Anabaena azollae relationship. I. Initial characterization of the association. Plant Physiol 53: 813–819Google Scholar
  94. Peters GA, Mayne BC (1974b) The Azolla-Anabaena azollae relationship. II. Localization of nitrogenase activity as assayed by acetylene reduction. Plant Physiol 53: 820–824Google Scholar
  95. Peters GA, Toia RE, Lough SM (1977) The Azolla-Anabaena azollae relationship. V. 15N2 fixation, acetylene reduction, and H2 production. Plant Physiol 59: 1021–1025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Peters GA, Toia RE, Raveed D, Levine NJ (1978) The Azolla-Anabaena azollae relationship. VI. Morphological aspects of the association. New Phytol 80: 583–593Google Scholar
  97. Pickett-Heaps J (1972) Cell division in Cyanophora paradoxa. New Phytol 71: 561–567Google Scholar
  98. Pool RR (1979) The role of algal antigenic determinants in the recognition of potential algal symbionts by cells of Chlorohydra. J Cell Sei 35: 367–379Google Scholar
  99. Rai AN, Rowell P, Stewart WDP (1981) Glutamate synthase activity in symbiotic cyanobacteria. J Gen Microbiol 126: 515–518Google Scholar
  100. Ray TB, Toia RE, Mayne BC (1978) Azolla-Anabaena relationship. VII. Distribution of ammonia-assimilating enzymes, protein, and chlorophyll between host and sym- biont. Plant Physiol 62: 463–467Google Scholar
  101. Ray TB, Mayne BC, Toia RE, Peters GA (1979) Azolla-Anabaena relationship. VIII. Photosynthetic characterization of the association and individual partners. Plant Physiol 64: 791–795Google Scholar
  102. Reinsch PF (1879) Beobachtungen über entophyte und entozoische Pflanzenparasiten. Bot Ztg 37: 33–43Google Scholar
  103. Reisser W, Radunz A, Wiessner W (1982) Participation of algal surface structures in the cell recognition process during infection of aposymbiotic Paramecium bursaria with symbiotic chlorellae. Cytobios 33: 39–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Richardson FL, Brown TE (1970) Glaucosphaera vacuolata, its ultrastructure and physiology. J Phycol 6: 165–171Google Scholar
  105. Robinson DG, Preston RD (1971) Studies on the fine structure of Glaucocystis nostochinearum Itzigs. J Exptl Bot 22: 635–643Google Scholar
  106. Rodgers GA, Stewart WDP (1977) The cyanophyte-hepatic symbiosis. I. Morphology and physiology. New Phytol 78: 441–458Google Scholar
  107. Sara M (1971) Ultrastructural aspects of the symbiosis between two species of the genus Aphanocapsa (Cyanophyceae) and Ircinia variabilis (Demospongiae). Mar Biol 11: 214–221Google Scholar
  108. Schaede R (1944) Über die Korallen wurzeln der Cycadeen und ihre Symbiose. Planta 34: 98–124Google Scholar
  109. Schaede R (1951) Über die Blaualgensymbiose von Gunnera. Planta 39: 154–170Google Scholar
  110. Schenk HE A (1977) Inwieweit können biochemische Untersuchungen der Endocyanosen zur Klärung der Plastiden-Entstehung beitragen? Arch Protistenkd 119: 274–300Google Scholar
  111. Schimper AFW (1883) Über die Entwicklung der Chlorophyllkörner und Farbkörper. Bot Ztg 41: 105–112Google Scholar
  112. Schmidt B, Kies L, Weber A (1979) Die Pigmente von Cyanophora paradoxa, Gloeochaete wittrockiana und Glaucocystis nostochinearum. Arch Protistenkd 122: 164–170Google Scholar
  113. Schnepf E (1964) Zur Feinstruktur von Geosiphon pyriforme. Ein Versuch zur Deutung cytoplasmatischer Membranen und Kompartimente. Arch Mikrobiol 49: 112–131Google Scholar
  114. Schnepf E (1965) Structur der Zellwände und Cellulosefibrillen bei Glaucocystis. Planta 67: 213–224Google Scholar
  115. Schnepf E, Brown RM (1971) On relationships between endosymbiosis and the origin of plastids and mitochondria. In: Reinert J, Ursprung H (eds) Origin and continuity of cell organells. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New Yprk, pp 299–322Google Scholar
  116. Schnepf E, Koch W, Deichgräber G (1966) Zur Cytologie und taxonomischen Einordnung von Glaucocystis. Arch Mikrobiol 55: 149–174Google Scholar
  117. Seckbach J, Hammermann IS, Hanania J (1981) Ultrastructural studies of Cyanidium caldarium: contribution to phylogenesis. Ann NY Acad Sei 361: 409–425Google Scholar
  118. Silvester WB, McNamara PJ (1976) The infection process and ultrastructure of the Gunnera-Nostoc symbiosis. New Phytol 77: 135–141Google Scholar
  119. Silvester WB, Smith DR (1969) Nitrogen fixation by Gunnera-Nostoc symbiosis. Nature 224: 12–31Google Scholar
  120. Skuja H (1954) Glaucophyta. In: Melchior H, Werdermann E (eds) A. Engler’s Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien I. Borntraeger, Berlin, pp 56–57Google Scholar
  121. Smith D, Muscatine L, Lewis D (1969) Carbohydrate movement from autotrophs to heterotrophs in parasitic and mutualistic symbiosis. Biol Rev 44: 17–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Stackebrandt E, Seewaldt E, Fowler VJ, Schleifer KH (1982) The relatedness of Prochloron sp. isolated from didemnid ascidian hosts. Arch Microbiol 132: 216–217Google Scholar
  123. Stewart WDP, Rodgers GA (1977) The cyanophyte-hepatic symbiosis. II. Nitrogen fixation and the interchange of nitrogen and carbon. New Phytol 78: 459–471Google Scholar
  124. Sybesma J, van Duyl FC, Bäk RPM (1981) The ecology of the tropical compound ascidian Trididemnum solidum. III. Symbiotic association with unicellular algae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 6: 53–59Google Scholar
  125. Tel-Or E, Sandovsky T, Kobiler D, Arad C, Weinberg R (1983) The unique symbiotic properties of Anabaena in the water fern Azolla. In: Papageorgiou GC, Packer L (eds) Photosynthetic procaryotes. Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam Oxford New York, pp 303–314Google Scholar
  126. Trench RK ( 1982 a) Cyanelles. In: Schiff JA (ed) On the origins of chloroplasts. Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam Oxford New York, pp 56–76Google Scholar
  127. Trench RK ( 1982 b) Physiology, biochemistry, and ultrastructure of cyanellae. In: Round FE, Chapman DJ (eds) Progress in phycological research 1. Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam Oxford New York, pp 257–288Google Scholar
  128. Trench RK, Pool RR, Logan M, Engelland A (1978) Aspects of the relation between Cyanophora paradoxa (Korschikoff) and its endosymbiotic cyanelles Cyanocyta kor- schikoffiana (Hall & Claus). I. Growth, ultrastructure, photosynthesis and the obligate nature of the association. Proc R Soc Lond B 202: 423–443Google Scholar
  129. Watanabe A, Kiyohara T (1963) Symbiotic blue-green algae of lichens, liverworts and cycads. In: Studies on microalgae and photosynthetic bacteria. Jap Soc Plant Pysiolog- ists, Univ of Tokyo Press, pp 189–196Google Scholar
  130. Weare NM, Azam F, Mague TH, Holm-Hansen O (1974) Microautoradiographic studies on the marine phycobionts Rhizoselenia and Richelia. J Phycol 10: 369–371Google Scholar
  131. Werner D, Wilcockson J, Stripf R, Mörschel E (1980) Differentiation of Rhizobium japonicum to bacteroids in the symbiosis of soybean nodules and in vitro. In: Schwemmler W, Schenk HEA (eds) Endocytobiology 1. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 473–490Google Scholar
  132. Wettstein F v (1915) Geosiphon Fr. Wettst., eine neue interessante Siphonee. Öster Bot Z 65: 145–156Google Scholar
  133. Whatley JM (1977) The fine structure of Prochloron. New Phytol 79: 309–313Google Scholar
  134. Whatley JM, John P, Whatley FR (1979) From extracellular to intracellular: the establishment of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Proc R Soc Lond B 204: 165–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Whitton BA (1973) Interactions with other organisms. In: Carr NG, Whitton BA (eds) The biology of blue-green algae. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 415–433Google Scholar
  136. Wilkinson CR (1980) Cyanobacteria symbiotic in marine sponges. In: Schwemmler W, Schenk HEA (eds) Endocytobiology 1. de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 553–563Google Scholar
  137. Wilkinson CR, Fay P (1979) Nitrogen fixation in coral reef sponges with symbiotic cyanobacteria. Nature 279: 527–529Google Scholar
  138. Wittmann W, Bergersen FJ, Kennedy GS (1965) The coralloid roots of Macrozamia communis L. Johnson. Aust J Biol Sei 18: 1129–1134Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Reisser

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations