Drug Combinations

  • W. Peters
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 68 / 2)

Abstract

In this chapter discussion is limited to the different types of antimalarial drug combinations that have been described in experimental situations or for clinical use. The possible value of drug combinations in the prevention of drug resistance will be covered in Chap. 16. Combinations of drugs may be considered under several headings, namely those that are complementary (e.g. against different stages of a parasite), combinations that are additive but acting against the same stages and those that are synergistic. All have their place in the control of malaria. While this chapter is written within the context of “Novel Methods of Drug Development”, some of the older drug combinations will be referred to for the sake of completion and as a guide to future developments.

Keywords

Pyrimidine Erythromycin Trop Uridine Triazine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnold J, Alving AS, Hockwald RS, Clayman CB, Dem RJ, Beutler E, Jeffery GM (1954) The effect of continuous and intermittent primaquine therapy on the relapse rate of Chesson strain vivax malaria. J Lab Clin Med 44:429–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aviado DM, Brugler B, Bellet J (1968) Pathologic physiology and chemotherapy of Plasmodium berghei V. Suppression of parasitaemia, diuresis and cardiac depression by pteridines. Exp Parasitol 23:294–302Google Scholar
  3. Chapman HD (1978) Drug resistance in Coccidia. In: Long PL, Boorman KN, Freeman BM (eds) Avian coccidiosis. British Poultry Science, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheng CC (1971) Structure and antimalarial activity of aminoalcohols and 2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-piperidyl) tetrahydrofuran. J Pharm Sci 60:1596–1598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clyde DF (1974) Treatment of drug-resistant malaria in man. Bull WHO 50:243–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Coatney GR, Cooper WC, Young MD, Burgess RW, Smarr RG (1947) Studies in human malaria II. The suppressive action of sulfadiazine and sulfapyrazine against sporozoiteinduced vivax malaria (St. Elizabeth strain ). Am J Hyg 46:105–118Google Scholar
  7. Fairley NH (1945) Chemotherapeutic suppression and prophylaxis in malaria. An experimental investigation undertaken by medical research teams in Australia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 38:311–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferone R (1977) Folate metabolism in malaria. Bull WHO 55:291–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferone R, Burchall JJ, Hitchings GH (1969) P. berghei dihydrofolate reductase. Isolation, properties and inhibition by antifolates. Mol. Pharmacol 5:49–59Google Scholar
  10. Friedkin M, Crawford EJ, Plante LT (1971) Empirical vs rational approaches in chemotherapy. Ann NY Acad Sci 186:209–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Genther CS, Smith CC (1977) Antifolate studies. Activities of 40 potential antimalarial compounds against sensitive and chlorguanide triazine resistant strains of folate-requiring bacteria and Escherichia coli. J Med Chem 20:237–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gero AM, O’Sullivan WJ (1979) Studies on dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from human spleen and the malarial parasite, Plasmodium berghei. Proc Aust Biochem Soc 12:9Google Scholar
  13. Greenberg J, Boyd BL, Josephson ES (1948) Synergistic effect of chlorguanide and sulfadiazine against Plasmodium gallinaceum in the chick. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 94:60–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gutteridge WE, Coombs GH (1977) Biochemistry of parasitic protozoa. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Hall AP (1977) Sequential treatment with quinine and mefloquine or quinine and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for falciparum malaria. Br Med J 1:1626–1628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Howells RE, Peters W, Homewood CA (1972) Physiological adaptability of malaria parasites. In: Van den Bossche H (ed) Comparative biochemistry of parasites. Academic, New York, pp 235–258Google Scholar
  17. Hunsicker LG, Schwarz RA, Barnwell FM (1967) Malaria from Vietnam. Ann Intern Med 66:1046Google Scholar
  18. Jaffe J (1980) Filarial folate-related metabolism as a potential target for selective inhibitors. In: Van den Bossche J (ed) The host-invader interplay. Elsevier-North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 219–234Google Scholar
  19. Joyner LP, Norton CC (1978) The activity of methyl benzoquate and clopidol against Eimeria maxima:synergy and drug resistance. Parasitology 76:369–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaddu JB, Warhurst DC, Peters W (1974) The chemotherapy of rodent malaria, XIX. The action of a tetracycline derivative, minocycline, on drug-resistant Plasmodium berghei. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 68:41–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kinnamon KE, Davidson DE (1980) Plasmodium berghei:folic acid antagonist combinations for treatment of malaria in rhesus monkeys. Exp Parasitol 49:277–280Google Scholar
  22. Kinnamon KE, Ager AL, Orchard RW (1976) Plasmodium berghei:combining folic acid antagonists for potentiation against malaria infections in mice. Exp Parasitol 40:95–102Google Scholar
  23. Kisliuk RL, Friedkin M, Schmidt LH, Rossan RN (1967) Antimalarial activity of tetrahydrohomopteroic acid. Science 156:1616–1617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. O’Sullivan WJ, Ketley K (1980) Biosynthesis of uridine monophosphate in Plasmodium berghei. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 74:109–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Pearlman EJ, Lampe RM, Thiemanun W, Kennedy RS (1977) Chemosuppressive field trials in Thailand. III. The suppression of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasitaemias by a sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination. Am J Trop Hyg 26:1108–1115Google Scholar
  26. Peters W (1970a) Chemotherapy and drug resistance in malaria. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  27. Peters W (1970b) A new type of antimalarial drug potentiation. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 64:462–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Peters W (1970c) The chemotherapy of rodent malaria, XII. Substituted tetrahydrofurans, a new chemical family of antimalarials. The action of 2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-piperidy1)-tetrahydrofuran against Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium chabaudi. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 64:189–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Peters W, Portus JH, Robinson BL (1973) The chemotherapy of rodent malaria, XVII. Dynamics of drug resistance, part 3:influence of drug combinations on the development of resistance to chloroquine in P. berghei. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 67:143–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Peters W, Davies EE, Robinson BL (1975) The chemotherapy of rodent malaria, XXIII. Causal prophylaxis, part II:practical experience with Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis in drug screening. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 69:311–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Peters W, Howells RE, Portus J, Robinson BL, Thomas S, Warhurst DC (1977) The chemotherapy of rodent malaria, XXVII. Studies on mefloquine (WR 142,490). Ann Trop Med Parasitol 71:407–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Powers KG, Jacobs RL, Good WC, Koontz LC (1969) Plasmodium vinckei:Production of chloroquine-resistant strain. Exp Parasitol 26:193–202Google Scholar
  33. Rabinovich SA (1965) Experimental investigations of antimalarial drug Haloquine. III. Investigation of the possibility to restrain the development of chemoresistance to chloridine (Daraprim) by combined administration of chloridine with Haloquine. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 34:434–439Google Scholar
  34. Raether W, Fink E (1979) Antimalarial activity of floxacrine (HOE 991). I. Studies on blood schizontocidal action of floxacrine against Plasmodium berghei, P. vinckei and P. cynomolgi. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 73:505–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Rieckmann KH, McNamara JV, Frischer H, Stockert TA, Carson PE, Powell RD (1968) Gametocytocidal and sporontocidal effects of primaquine and sulfadiazine with pyrimethamine in a chloroquine-resistant strain of P. falciparum. Bull WHO 38:625–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Rollo IM (1955) The mode of action of sulphonamides, proguanil and pyrimethamine on Plasmodium gallinaceum. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 10:208–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Rosario VE (1976) Genetics of chloroquine-resistance in malaria parasites. Nature 261:585–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ryley JF, Betts MJ (1973) Chemotherapy of chicken coccidiosis. Adv Pharmacol Chemother 11:221–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ryley JF, Peters W (1970) The antimalarial activity of some quinolone esters. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 64:209–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Schmidt LD (1979a) Studies on the 2,4-diamino-6-substituted quinazolines. III. The capacity of sulfadiazine to enhance the activities of WR-158,122 and WR-159,412 against infections with various drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in owl monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28:808–818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmidt LD (1979b) Antimalarial properties of floxacrine, a dihydroacridinedione derivative. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 16:475–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Schmidt LH, Harrison J, Rossan RN, Vaughan D, Crosby R (1977) Quantitative aspects of pyrimethamine-sulfonamide synergism. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26:837–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Sherman IW (1979) Biochemistry of Plasmodium (malarial parasites). Microbiol Rev 43:453–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Tigertt WD (1966) Present and potential malaria problem. Milit Med [Suppl] 131:853–856Google Scholar
  45. Vivona S, Brewer GJ, Conrad M, Alving AS (1961) The concurrent weekly administration of chloroquine and primaquine for the prevention of Korean vivax malaria. Bull WHO 25:267–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Warhurst DC (1977) Chloroquine-erythromycin potentiation of P. berghei. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 71:383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Warhurst DC, Robinson BL, Peters W (1976) The chemotherapy of rodent malaria, XXIV. The blood schizontocidal action of erythromycin upon Plasmodium berghei. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 70:253–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Wilkinson RN, Noeypatimanondh S, Gould DJ (1976) Infectivity of falciparum patients for anopheline mosquitoes before and after chloroquine treatment. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 70:306–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Peters

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations