ACTH and Grooming Behaviour in the Rat

  • B. Spruijt
  • W. H. Gispen
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)


Over the last two decades, enormous progress has been made in understanding the role that neuropeptides play in brain and behaviour. Although neurochemists have isolated certain peptides from brain tissue, the studies on peptides and behaviour in fact were the first to demonstrate their important regulatory role in brain function. For instance, long before it was recognized that ACTH-like peptides could be found and synthesized in brain tissue, De Wied (1969) had shown that such peptides were able to affect adaptive behaviour through a direct central mechanism of action.


Opiate Receptor Grooming Response Groom Behaviour Groom Bout Excessive Grooming 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aloyo VJ, Spruijt B, Zwiers H, Gispen WH (1982) Peptide-induced excessive grooming behavior: The role of opiate receptors. Soc Neurosci Abstr (in press)Google Scholar
  2. Andrew RJ (1956) Some remarks on behaviour in conflict situations, with special reference to Embrizaspp. Br J Anim Behav 4: 41–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bär PR, Gispen WH, Isaacson RL (1981) Behavioral and regional neurochemical sequelae of hippocampal destruction in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 14: 305–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bindra D (1963) Temporal analysis of relevant and irrelevant behavior components in partial reinforcement and extinction. Psychol Rev 13: 551–563Google Scholar
  5. Bindra D, Spinner N (1958) Response to different degrees of novelty: The incidence of various activities. J Exp Anal Behav 1: 341–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bohus B, Wied D de (1980) Pituitary-adrenal system hormones and adaptive behaviour. In: Chester Jones I, Henderson WH (eds) General, comparative and clinical endocrinology of the adrenal cortex, vol III. Academic Press, London New York, pp 265–347Google Scholar
  7. Bolles RC (1960) Grooming behavior in the rat. J Comp Physiol Psychol 53: 306–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borchelt PL (1980) Care of the body surface (COBS). In: Ray Denny M (ed) Comparative psychology: An evolutionary analysis of animal behavior. Wiley, New York, pp 362–384Google Scholar
  9. Chavkin C, Goldstein A (1981) Specific receptor for the opioid peptide dynorphin: Structureactivity relationship. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 6543–6547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen JA, Price EO (1979) Grooming in the Norway rat: Displacement activity or “boundary-shift”? Behav Neural Biol 26: 177–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohn ML, Cohn M (1975) “Barrel Rotation” induced by intracerebroventricular injections of somatostatin in the nonlesioned rat. Fed Proc 34:738Google Scholar
  12. Colbern D, Isaacson RL, Bohus B, Gispen WH (1977) Limbic-midbrain lesions and ACTH-induced excessive grooming. Life Sci 21: 393–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Colbern DL, Isaacson RL, Green EJ, Gispen WH (1978) Repeated intraventricular injections of ACTH (1–24): The effects of home or novel environments on excessive grooming. Behav Biol 23: 381–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Colbern D, Isaacson RL, Hannigan JH, Gispen WH (1981) Water immersion, excessive grooming and paper shredding in the rat. Behav Neural Biol 32: 420–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cools AR (1977) Two functionally and pharmacologically distinct dopamine receptors in the rat brain. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 16: 215–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cools AR (1980) Role of the neostriatal dopaminergic activity in sequencing and selecting behavioural strategies: Facilitation of processes involved in selecting the best strategy in a stressful situation. Behav Brain Res 1: 361–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cools AR, Wiegant VM, Gispen WH (1978) Distinct dopaminergic systems in ACTH-induced grooming. Eur J Pharmacol 50: 265–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Delanoy RL, Dunn AJ, Tintner R (1978) Behavioral responses to intracerebroventricularly administered neurohypophyseal peptides in mice. Horm Behav 11: 348–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Delius JD (1979) Irrelevant behavior, information processing and arousal homeostasis. Psychol Forsch 33: 165–188Google Scholar
  20. Delius JD, Craig B, Chaudoir C (1976) Adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucose and displacement activities in pigeons. Z Tierpsychol 40: 183–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Delius JD, Craig B, Chaudoir C (1976) Adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucose and displacement activities in pigeons. Z Tierpsychol 40: 183–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Drago F (1982) Prolactin and behavior. Ph D thesis, Univ Utrecht, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  23. Drago F, Bohus B (1981) Hyperprolactinemia-induced excessive grooming in the rat: Time-course and element analysis. Behav Neural Biol 33: 117–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dunn AJ, Green EJ, Isaacson RL (1979) Intracerebral adrenocorticotropic hormone mediates novelty-induced grooming in the rat. Science 203: 281–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dunn AJ, Childers SR, Kramacy NR, Villiger JW (1981a) ACTH-induced grooming involves high-affinity opiate receptors. Behav Neural Biol 31: 105–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dunn AJ, Guild AL, Kramarcy NR, Ware MD (1981b) Benzodiapines decrease grooming in response to novelty but not to ACTH or (3-endorphin. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 15: 605–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Elstein K, Hannigan JH Jr, Isaacson RL (1981) Repeated intracerebroventricular injections of ACTH (1–24) in rats with hippocampal lesions. Behav Neural Biol 32: 248–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fentress JC (1968a) Interrupted ongoing behavior in two species of vole (Microtus agrestisand Clethrionomys brittanicus). I. Response as a function of preceding activity and the context of an apparently “irrelevant” motor pattern. Anim Behav 16: 135–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fentress JC (1968b) Interrupted ongoing behavior in two species of vole (Microtus agrestisand Clethrionomys brittanicus). II. Extended analysis of motivational variables underlying fleeing and grooming behaviour. Anim Behav 16: 154–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fentress JC (1973) Development of grooming in mice with amputated forelimbs. Science 179: 704–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fentress JC (1976) Behavioral networks and the simple system approach. In: Fentress JC (ed) Simple networks and behavior. Sinauer, Sunderland, pp 5–20Google Scholar
  32. Fentress JC (1977) The tonic hypothesis and the patterning of behavior. Ann NY Acad Sci 290: 370–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferrari W (1958) Behavioral changes in animals after intracisternal injection with adrenocorticotrophic hormone and melanocyte stimulating hormone. Nature 181: 925–926PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferrari W, Gessa GL, Vargiu L (1963) Behavioral effects induced by intracisternally injected ACTH and MSH. Ann NY Acad Sci 104: 330–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gessa GL, Pisano M, Vargiu L, Crabai F, Ferrari W (1967) Stretching and yawning movements after intracerebral injections of ACTH. Rev Can Biol 26: 229–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gispen WH (1980) On the neurochemical mechanism of action of ACTH. Prog Brain Res 53: 193–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gispen WH, Isaacson RL (1981) ACTH-induced excessive grooming in the rat. Pharmacol Ther 12: 209–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gispen WH, Wiegant VM, Greven HM, Wied D de (1975) The induction of excessive grooming in the rat by intraventricular application of peptides derived from ACTH; Structure-activity studies. Life Sci 17: 645–652PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gispen WH, Wiegant VM, Bradbury AF, Hulme EC, Smyth DG, Snell CR, Wied D de (1976) Induction of excessive grooming in the rat by fragments of lipotropin. Nature 264: 794–795PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gispen WH, Ormond D, Haaf J ten, Wied D de (1980) Modulation of ACTH-induced grooming by Des-Tyr’-y-endorphin and haloperidol. Eur J Pharmacol 63: 203–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hainsworth FH (1967) Saliva spreading, activity and body temperature regulation in the rat. Am J Physiol 212: 1288–1292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hannigan JH Jr, Isaacson RL (1981) Conditioned excessive grooming in the rat after footshock: Effect of naloxone and situational cues. Behav Neural Biol 33: 280–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Iersel JJA van, Bol AC (1958) Preening of two species: A study on displacement activities. Behaviour 13: 1–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Isaacson RL (1981) Neuronal systems related to behavioral changes. Adv Physiol Sci 17: 485–500Google Scholar
  45. Isaacson RL, Colbern D (1981) Hippocampal lesions, haloperidol and excessive grooming. Physiol Psychol 9: 260–262Google Scholar
  46. Isaacson RL, Green EJ (1978) The effect of ACTH (1–24) on locomotion, exploration, rearing and grooming. Behav Biol 24: 118–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Izumi K, Donaldson J, Barbeau A (1973) Yawning and stretching in rats induced by intraventricularly administered zinc. Life Sci 12: 203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jacquet YF (1979) O-Endorphin and ACTH-opiate peptides with coordinated roles in the regulation of behaviour. TINS 140–143Google Scholar
  49. Jolies J, Wiegant VM, Gispen WH (1978) Inhibition of behavioral effect of ACTH (1–24) and opioids by repeated administration. Neurosci Lett 9: 261–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jolies J, Rompa-Barendregt J, Gispen WH (1979a) Novelty and grooming behavior in the rat. Behav Neural Biol 25: 563–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jolies J, Rompa-Barendregt J, Gispen WH (1979b) ACTH-induced excessive grooming in the rat: The influence of environmental and motivational factors. Horm Behav 12: 60–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Katz RJ (1979) Central injections of substance P elicite grooming behavior and motor inhibition in mice. Neurosci Lett 12: 393–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Katz RJ (1980a) Behavioral effects of dynorphin — a novel opioid neuropeptide. Neuropharmacology 19: 801–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Katz RJ (1980b) Substance P elicited grooming in the mouse: Behavioral and pharmacological characteristics. Int J Neurosci 10: 187–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Katz RJ (1980c) Grooming elicited in intracerebroventricular bombesin and eledoisin in the mouse. Neuropharmacology 19: 143–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kelley AE, Iversen SD (1978) Behavioural response to bilateral injections of substance P into the substantia nigra of the rat. Brain Res 158: 474–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Krieger DT, Liotta AS, Brownstein HJ, Zimmermann EA (1980) ACTH, β-lipotropin and related peptides in brain, pituitary and blood. Recent Prog Horm Res 36: 272–344Google Scholar
  58. Kruse H van, Wimersma Greidanus TjB, Wied D de (1977) Barrel rotation induced by vasopressin and related peptides in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 7: 311–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lankrijer JAM, Nijssen A (1982) Lichaamsoppervlakte verzorging (LOV) van de laboratorium rat gedurende het etmaal. Revesz Ber 38: 1–13Google Scholar
  60. McFarland DJ (1966) The role of attention on the distinction of displacement activity. Q J Exp Psychol 18: 19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Michell RH, Kirk CJ, Jones LM, Downs CP, Creba JA (1981) The stimulation of inositol lipid metabolism that accompanies calcium mobilization in stimulated cells: Defined characteristics and unanswered questions. Philos Trans R Soc London Ser B 296: 123–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Miller NE, Stevenson SS (1936) Agitated behavior of rats during experimental extinction and a curve of spontaneous recovery. J Comp Physiol 21: 205–231Google Scholar
  63. O’Donohue TL, Handelmann GE, Chaconas T, Miller RL, Jacobowitz DM (1981a) Evidence that N-acetylation regulates the behavioral activity of a-MSH in the rat and human nervous system. Peptides 2: 333–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. O’Donohue TL, Handelmann GE, Loh YP, Olton DS, Leibowitz J, Jacobowitz DM (1981b) Comparison of biological and behavioral activities of alpha-and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormones. Peptides 2: 101–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Oestreicher AB, Zwiers H, Gispen WH (1982) Synaptic membrane phosphorylation: Target for neurotransmitters and peptides. Prog Brain Res 55: 349–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ree JM van et al (1981) Behavioral profile of 7-MSH: Relationship with ACTH and g-endorphin action. Life Sci 28: 2875–2888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rees HD, Dunn AJ, Iuvone PM (1976) Behavioral and biochemical responses of mice to the intra-ventricular administration of ACTH peptides and lysine vasopressin. Life Sci 18: 1333–1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Richmond G, Sachs BD (1980) Grooming in Norway rats: The development and adult expression of a complex motor pattern behavior. Behaviour 75: 82–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ritter RC, Epstein AN (1974) Saliva lost by grooming: A major item in the rat’s water economy. Behav Biol 11: 581–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rowell CHP (1961) Displacement grooming in the chaffinch. Anim Behav 9: 38–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Schwyzer R (1980) Organization and transduction of peptide information. TIPS 3:327–331Google Scholar
  72. Sevenster P (1961) A causal analysis of a displacement activity. Behaviour 9: 1–170Google Scholar
  73. Stricker EM, Hainsworth FR (1970) Evaporative cooling in the rat: Effects of hypothalamic lesions and chorda tympani damage. Can J Pharmacol 48: 11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Swenson RM, Randall W (1977) Grooming behavior in cats with pontile lesions. J Comp Physiol Psychol 91: 213–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Thiessen DD (1977) Thermoenergetics and the evolution of pheromone communication. Prog Psychobiol Physiol Psychol 7: 91–191Google Scholar
  76. Thiessen DD, Clancy A, Goodwin M (1976) Harderian gland pheromone in the montolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus. J Chem Ecol 2: 231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tinbergen N (1940) Die Übersprungbewegung. Z Tierpsychol 4: 1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Traber J, Klein HR, Gispen WH (1982) Actions of antidepressant and neuroleptic drugs on ACTH- and novelty-induced behavior in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol 50: 407–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Versteeg DHG (1980) Interaction of peptides related to ACTH, MSH and R-LPH with neurotransmitters in the brain. Pharmacol Ther 11: 535–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wied D de (1969) Effects of peptide hormones on behavior. In: Ganong WF, Martini L (eds) Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. Oxford Univ Press, New York, pp 97–140Google Scholar
  81. Wied D de (1977) Minireview: Peptides and behavior. Life Sci 20: 195–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wied D de (1978) Psychopathology as a neuropeptide dysfunction. Dev Neurosci 4: 113–122Google Scholar
  83. Wiegant VM, Gispen WH (1977) ACTH-induced excessive grooming in the rat: Latent activity of ACTH (4–10). Behav Biol 19: 554–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wiegant VM, Cools AR, Gispen WH (1977a) ACTH-induced excessive grooming involves brain dopamine. Eur J Pharmacol 41: 343–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wiegant VM, Gispen WH, Terenius L, Wied D de (1977b) ACTH-like peptides and morphine: Interaction at the level of the CNS. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2: 63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wiegant VM, Jolles J, Gispen WH (1978a) ß-Endorphin grooming in the rat: Single dose tolerance. Dev Neurosci 4: 447–450Google Scholar
  87. Wiegant VM, Colbern D, Wimersma Greidanus TjB van, Gispen WH (1978b) Differential effects of ACTH (4–10) and (D-Phe) ACTH (4–10). Brain Res Bull 3: 167–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wiegant VM, Jolies J, Colbern D, Zimmermann E, Gispen WH (1979) Intracerebroventricular ACTH activates the pituitary-adrenal system: Dissociation from a behavioral response. Life Sci 25: 1791–1796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wiegant VM, Zwiers H, Gispen WH (1981) Neuropeptides and brain cyclic AMP and phosphoproteins. Pharmacol Ther 12: 463–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wiekema PR (1979) The social significance of selfgrooming in rats. Neth J Zool 29: 623Google Scholar
  91. Wilson NE (1979) Thermal homeostasis in pregnant rats during heat. J Comp Physiol Psychol 93: 585–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zwiers H, Wiegant VM, Schotman P, Gispen WH (1977) Intraventricular administered ACTH and changes in rat brain protein phosphorylation: A preliminary report. Dev Neurosci 2: 267–272Google Scholar
  93. Zwiers H, Aloyo VJ, Gispen WH (1981) Behavioral and neurochemical effects of the new opioid peptide dynorphin (1–13): Comparison with other neuropeptides. Life Sci 2545–2551Google Scholar
  94. Zwiers H, Jolles J, Aloyo VJ, Oestreicher AB, Gispen WH (1982) ACTH and synaptic membrane phosphorylation in rat brain. Prog Brain Res 56: 411–423Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Spruijt
  • W. H. Gispen
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Molecular Neurobiology, Rudolf Magnus Institute for Pharmacology and Institute of Molecular BiologyState University of UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations