Electromagnetic Forces and Energy

  • Jean Van Bladel
Part of the Springer Series in Electronics and Photonics book series (SSEP, volume 15)

Abstract

The evaluation of the electromagnetic forces and torques exerted on bodies in motion is of central importance to the power engineer. When the body is in uniform translation the most efficient way of obtaining the forces is normally by use of “frame hopping”. This method, already used extensively in previous chapters, consists of solving the problem in a convenient frame of reference, and subsequently transforming the results back to the frame in which they originally were needed. We have applied the method to a few elementary examples: a simple magnetic levitation system, and a moving mirror. The preferred frame is often the rest frame of the material, and we are there-fore confronted with the problem of evaluating forces and torques on a motionless body. The literature on the subject is abundant. We summarize its main results in the introductory sections of this chapter.

Keywords

Torque Refraction Nite 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference

  1. 6.1
    J.A. Stratton: Electromagnetic Theory (Mc Graw-Hill, New York 1941) pp.104,108, 124, 139MATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 6.2
    G.M. Graham, D.G. Lahoz: Observation of static electromagnetic angular momentum in vacuo, Nature 285, 154–155 (15 May, 1980 )ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 6.3
    H. Arzeliès: Electricité ( Gauthier-Villars, Paris 1963 ) p. 173Google Scholar
  4. 6.4
    P.L. Csonka: Rotation and shape of high altitude reflectors controlled from the ground, IEEE Trans. AES-19, 215–220 (1983)Google Scholar
  5. 6.5
    J. Van Bladel: Electromagnetic Fields ( McGraw-Hill, New York 1964 ) p. 372Google Scholar
  6. 6.6
    J. Van Bladel: Resonant scattering by dielectric cylinders, Microwaves, Optics, and Acoustics 1, 41–50 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.7
    E. Durand: Electrostatique, Vol.3 (Masson, Paris 1966 ) p. 259Google Scholar
  8. 6.8
    L. Landau, E. Lifshitz: Electrodynamics of Continous Media ( Addison- Wesley, Reading, MA 1960 ) pp. 68–253Google Scholar
  9. 6.9
    B.V. Jayawant: Electromagnetic Levitation and Suspension Techniques (E. Arnold Pub., London 1981 ) p. 36Google Scholar
  10. 6.10
    S.W. Lee, R.C. Menendez: Force on current coils moving over a conductin sheet with application to magnetic levitation, Proc. IEEE 62, 567–577 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 6.11
    R.C. Menendez, S.W. Lee: Side force in coil-sheet magnetic levitation systems, Proc. IEEE 63, 768–776 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 6.12
    J. Van Bladel, D. De Zutter: Magnetic levitation with a simple current source, Internal Report 83–4, Laboratory for Electromagnetism and Acous tics, Univ. of Ghent (1983)Google Scholar
  13. 6.13
    J. Van Bladel, D. De Zutter: Magnetic levitation: the track currents, Appl. Phys. B34(4), 193–201 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 6.14
    D. de Zutter: Calculation of the levitation force acting on a three-dimensional static current source moving over a stratified medium, Internal Report 84–1, Laboratory for Electromagnetism and Acoustics, Univ. of Ghent (1984)Google Scholar
  15. 6.15
    T. Musha: Electrodynamics of anisotropic media with space and time dispersion, Proc. IEEE 60, 1475–1485 (1972)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 6.16
    I. Brevik: Electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor within material media I. Minkowski’s tensor II. Discussion of various tensor forms, Mat. Fys. Medd. Dan. Vid. Selsk, 37, Nrs.11 and 13, københavn (1970)Google Scholar
  17. 6.17
    S.R. de Groot, L.G. Suttorp: Foundations of Electrodynamics ( North Holland, Amsterdam 1972 ) p. 275Google Scholar
  18. 6.18
    D.G. Lahoz, G.M. Graham: The phenomenological electromagnetic force density, Can. J. Phys. 59, 1–14 (1981)ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 6.19
    E. Schmutzer: Relativistische Physik (Teubner, Leipzig 1968 ) pp. 405, 706MATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 6.20
    W. Pauli: Theory of Relativity ( Pergamon, London 1958 ) p. 109MATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 6.21
    D.G. Lahoz, G.M. Graham: Observation of electromagnetic angular momen¬tum within magnetite, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1137–1140 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 6.22
    D.G. Lahoz, M.G. Graham: Experimental decision on the electromagnetic momentum expression for magnetic media, J. Phys. A15, 303–318 (1982)ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 6.23
    I. Brevik: Experiments in phenomenological electrodynamics and the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor, Phys. Rpts. 52, 133–201 (May 1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 6.6
    D.G. Lahoz, G.M. Graham: Measurement of forces related to electromagnetic momentum in material media at low frequencies, Can. J. Phys. 57, 667–676 (1979)ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 6.7
    J.D. Jackson: Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. ( Wiley, New York 1975 ) p. 264MATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Van Bladel
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorium voor Elektromagnetisme en Acustica RijksuniversiteitGentBelgium

Personalised recommendations