Neuro Hormonal Control of Intestinal Transport

  • L. A. Turnberg
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)


An extremely complex picture is emerging of factors which influence intestinal transport and it is likely that final control is dependent on the complicated interplay of a variety of agents which influence the transporting epithelium. While a clear division between hormonal and neurological chemical messengers was originally discerned it is now clear that the division between these is becoming somewhat indistinct and artificial. The classical hormones, liberated from glands at a site removed from the point of action, such as thyroid, adrenal cortex and gonad are fairly clear-cut. However, the gut endocrine system made up of isolated cells in the gut mucosa specialised to produce one or more peptides not only subserves a hormonal role, by secreting their peptides into the bloodstream, but they also effect the local epithelial and sub-epithelial cells without recourse to the circulation. Such may be the case, for example, for gastrin, CCK, substance P and enteroglucagon. There has been an explosion of developments in the recognition of a variety of neurotransmitters other than the classical cholinergic and adrenergic agonists. Thus vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), substance P, serotonin, enkephalins and bombesin have been found in the enteric nervous system. Some nerves apparently contain more than one type of peptide. It is clear that some of these peptides are not restricted to nerves but some may also be found in paracrine cells. In addition, some of the neurotransmitters may escape into the bloodstream and subserve an endocrine role.


Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Enteric Nervous System Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide Intestinal Transport Intestinal Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amiranoff B, Laburthe M, Rosselin G (1980) Characterization of specific binding sites for vasoactive intestinal peptide in rat intestinal epithelial cell membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 627:215–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beubler E, Juan H (1978) PGE-mediated laxative effect of diphenolic laxatives. Naunyn-Schmie-Deberg’s Arch Pharmacol 305:241–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Binder HJ (1978) Effect of dexamethasone on electrolyte transport in the large intestine of the rat. Gastroenterology 75:212–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cassuto J (1981) Nervous mechanisms in cholera secretion. An experimental study in cats and rats. Ph D thesis, University of GoteborgGoogle Scholar
  5. Cassuto J, Jodal M, Tuttle R, Lundgren O (1981) On the role of intramural nerves in the pathogenesis of cholera toxin-induced intestinal secretion. Scand J Gastroenterol 16:377–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cassuto J, Fahrenkrug J, Jodal M, Tuttle R, Lundgren O (1982) The release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide from the cat small intestine exposed to cholera toxin. Gut (in press)Google Scholar
  7. Chang EB, Field M, Miller RJ (1982) a2 adrenergic receptor regulation of ion transport in rabbit ileum. Am J Physiol G237-G242Google Scholar
  8. Chang EB, Field M, Miller RJ (1983) Enterocyte a2 adrenergic receptors: Yohimbine and P-aminoclonidine binding relative to ion transport (in press)Google Scholar
  9. Crocker AD, Willavoys SP (1975) Effect of bradykinin on transepithelial transfer of sodium and water in vitro. J Physiol (Lond) 253:401–410Google Scholar
  10. Davis GR, Santa CA, Morawski SG, Fordtran JS (1981) Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on active and passive transport in the human jejunum. J Clin Invest 67:1687–1694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dharmsathaphorn K, Sherwin RS, Dobbins JW (1980) Somatostatin inhibits fluid secretion in the rat jejunum. Gastroenterology 78:1554–1558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dobbins J, Racusen L, Binder HJ (1980) Effect of D, alanine methionine enkephalin amide on ion transport in rabbit ileum. J Clin Invest 66:19–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dolman D, Edmonds CJ (1975) The effect of aldosterone and the renin angiotensin system on sodium, potassium and chloride transport by proximal and distal rat colon in vivo. J Physiol (Lond) 250:597–611Google Scholar
  14. Donowitz M, Asarkof N, Pike G (1980) Calcium dependence of serotonin-induced changes in rabbit ileal electrolyte transport. J Clin Invest 66:341–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Florey HW, Wright RD, Jennings MA (1941) The secretions of the intestines. Physiol Rev 21: 36–69Google Scholar
  16. Frizzell RA, Schultz SG (1978) Effect of aldosterone on ion transport by rabbit colon in vitro. J Membr Biol 39:1–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gershon MD (1981) The enteric nervous system: an apparatus for intrinsic control of gastrointestinal motility. Viewpoints Digest Dis 13:13–16Google Scholar
  18. Guandalini S, Kachur JF, Smith PL, Miller RJ, Field M (1980) In vitro effects of somatostatin on ion transport in rabbit intestine. Am J Physiol 238:G67-G74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hicks T, Turnberg LA (1974) Influence of glucagon on the human jejunum. Gastroenterology 67:1114–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Isaacs PET, Turnberg LA (1977) Failure of glucagon to influence ion transport across human jejunal and ileal mucosa in vitro. Gut 18:1059–1061PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Isaacs PET, Corbett Ch, Riley AK, Hawker PC, Turnberg LA (1976) In vitro behaviour of human intestinal mucosa. The influence of acetylcholine on ion transport. J Clin Invest 58:539–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Isaacs PET, Whitehead JS, Kim YS (1982) Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors of the small intestine and pancreas of the rat: distribution and the effect of vagotomy. Clin Sci 62:203–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kachur JF, Miller RJ, Field M (1980) Control of guinea pig intestinal electrolyte secretion by 6-opiate receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:2753–2756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kachur JF, Miller RJ, Field M, Rivier J (1982a) Neurohormonal control of ileal electrolyte transport. I. Bombesin and related peptides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 220:449–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kachur JF, Miller RJ, Field M, Rivier J (1982b) Neurohormonal control of ileal electrolyte transport. II. Neurotensin and substance P. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 220:456–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kenney Gray T, Brannan P, Juan D, Morawski SG, Fordtran JS (1976) Ion transport changes during calcitonin-induced intestinal secretion in man. Gastroenterology 71:392–398Google Scholar
  27. Levens NR, Munday KA, Stewart CP (1977) The effect of noradrenaline and angiotensin upon intestinal fluid transport in vivo in the rat. J Physiol (Lond) 270:77–78Google Scholar
  28. Linaker BD, McKay JS, Higgs NB, Turnberg LA (1981) Mechanisms of histamine stimulated secretion in rabbit ileal mucosa. Gut 22:964–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lorenz W, Matejka E, Schmal A (1973) A phylogenetic study on the occurrence and distribution of histamine in the gastrointestinal tract and other tissues of man and various animals. Comp Gen Pharmacol 4:229–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mainoya JR (1975) Analysis of the role of endogenous prolactin on fluid and sodium chloride absorption by the rat jejunum. J Endocrinol 67:343–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mainoya JR, Bern HA, Regan JW (1974) Influence of ovine prolactin on transport of fluid and sodium chloride by the mammalian intestine and gall bladder. J Endocrinol 63:311–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Matuchansky C, Huet PM, Mary JY, Rambaud JC, Bernier JJ (1972) Effects of cholecystokinin and metoclopramide on jejunal movements of water and electrolytes and on transit time of luminal fluid in man. Eur J Clin Invest 2:169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McKay JS, Linaker BD, Turnberg LA (1981) Influence of opiates on ion transport across rabbit ileal mucosa. Gastroenterology 80:279–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Modligliani R, Huet PM, Rambaud JC, Bernier J J (1971) Effect of secretin upon movements of water and electrolytes across the small intestine in man. Rev Eur Etud Clin Biol 16:361–364Google Scholar
  35. Modligliani R, Mary JY, Bernier J J (1976) Effect of synthetic human gastrin I on movements of water, electrolytes, and glucose across the human small intestine. Gastroenterology 71:978–984Google Scholar
  36. Morris AI, Turnberg LA (with the technical assistance of L Hall and K Pimblett) (1980) The influence of a parasympathetic agonist and antagonist on human intestinal transport in vivo. Gastroenterology 79:861–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Pansu D, Bosshard A, Dechelette MA, Vagne M (1980) Effect of pentagastrin, secretin and cholecystokinin on intestinal water and sodium absorption in the rat. Digestion 20:201–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Poat JA, Parsons BJ, Munday KA (1976) Effects of angiotensin on transporting epithelia. J Endocrinol 68:2–3Google Scholar
  39. Poitras P, Modigliani R, Bernier J J (1980) Effect of a combination of gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin, glucagon, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide on jejunal absorption in man. Gut 21: 299–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rask-Madsen J, Bukhave K (1981) The role of prostaglandins in diarrhoea. Clin Res Rev 1 (Suppl 1): 33–48Google Scholar
  41. Rimele TJ, O’Dorisio MS, Gaginella TS (1981) Evidence for muscarinic receptors on rat colonic epithelial cells: binding of [3H]Quinuclidinyl benzilate. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 218:426–434Google Scholar
  42. Rubens RD, Lambert HP (1972) The homeostatic function of the colon in acute gastroenteritis. Gut 13:915–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schultzberg M, Hokfelt T, Nilsson G, Terenius L, Rehfeld JF, Brown M, Elde R, Goldstein M, Said S (1980) Distribution of peptide- and catecholamine-containing neurons in the gastrointestinal tract of rat and guinea-pig: immunohisto chemical studies with antisera to substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, enkephalins, somatostatin, gastrin/cholecystokinin, neurotensin and dopamine O-hydroxylase. Neuroscience 5:689–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sellin JH, Field M (1981) Physiologic and pharmacologic effects of glucocorticoids on ion transport across rabbit ileal mucosa in vitro. J Clin Invest 67:770–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Smith TW, Hughes J, Kosterlitz HW et al. (1976) Enkephalins, isolation, distribution and function. In: Kosterlitz HW (ed) Opiates and endogenous opiate peptides. Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam New York, pp 57–62Google Scholar
  46. Tai Yean-Heng, Decker RA, Marnane WG, Charney AN, Donowitz M (1981) Effects of methylprednisolone on electrolyte transport by in vitro rat ileum. Am J Physiol 240:G365-G370Google Scholar
  47. Thomas DH, Skadhauge E (1979) Chronic aldosterone therapy and the control of transepithelial transport of ions and water by the colon and coprodeum of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) in vivo. J Endocrinol 83:239–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Turnberg LA, McKay J, Higgs N (1982) The role of opiates in the control of small intestinal transport. In: Case RM, Garner A, Turnberg LA, Young JA (eds) Electrolyte and water transport across gastrointestinal epithelia. Raven Press, New York, pp 287–294Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. A. Turnberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Hope HospitalUniversity of Manchester School of MedicineSalfordGreat Britain

Personalised recommendations