Glucagon II pp 19-41 | Cite as

The Amino Acid-Induced Secretion of Glucagon

  • R. Assan
  • M. Marre
  • M. Gormley
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 66 / 2)


An increase in the amino acid concentration in contact with pancreatic A-cells is followed by a stimulation of glucagon release. This phenomenon is observed not only in vitro at some pharmacologic concentrations of amino acid, but also in vivo, during the rise in blood amino acid which follows a protein meal. The magnitude of the A-cell secretory response is modulated by the concomitant physiologic status, i.e., mainly the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and by the nutritional status in the preceding days: short-term and long-term influences can modify amino acid-induced glucagon release. As a clinical consequence of this phenomenon, the administration of an amino acid, or a mixture of amino acids has become a standard functional test for exploration of A-cells in vivo as well as in vitro.


Insulin Release Glucagon Secretion Protein Meal Glucagon Release Hepatic Glucose Output 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akpan JO, Hurley MC, Lands WE (1981) Insulin and glucagon secretion in essentially fatty acid deficient rats. Acta Diabetol Lat 18: 147–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aronoff SL, Bennet PH, Rushforth NB, Miller M, Unger RH (1976) Normal glucagon response to arginine infusion in “prediabetic” Pima Indians. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43: 279–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Assan R (1979) Contribution to the study of glucagon secretion and catabolism in vivo. In: Rodriguez RR, Vallance-Owen J (eds) Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 610–624Google Scholar
  4. Assan R, Girard JR (1975) Glucagon in the human fetal pancreas. In: Early diabetes in early life, vol 1. Camerini-Davalos RA, Cole HS (eds) Academic Press, New York, pp 115–126Google Scholar
  5. Assan R, Rosselin G, Dolais J (1967) Effets sur la glucagonémie des perfusions et ingestions d’acides aminés. Journ Annu Diabetol Hotel 8: 25–41Google Scholar
  6. Assan R, Boillot J, Attali JR, Soufflet E, Ballerio G (1972) Diphasic glucagon release induced by arginine in the perfused rat pancreas. Nature [New Biol] 239: 125–126Google Scholar
  7. Assan R, Plouin PF, Girard JR, Slama G, Hautecouverture M, Buneaux J J (1975) Study of glucagon secretion using in vitro perifusion of rat pancreas pieces. Diabete Metab 1: 110–111Google Scholar
  8. Assan R, Bourdillat N, Attali JR, Boillot J, Selmi A (1976) Influence of cephalic glucose level on glucagon secretion by the isolated and perfused in situ rat pancreas. Diabetologia 12: 377Google Scholar
  9. Assan R, Attali JR, Ballerio G, Boillot J, Girard JR (1977) Glucagon secretion induced by natural and artificial amino-acids in the perfused rat pancreas. Diabetes 26: 300–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Assan R, Soufflet E, Ballerio G, Attali JR, Boillot J, Girard JR (1978) Ambiguous effects of colchicine and vincristine upo A-cell response to arginine. Diabetologia 14: 121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Assan R, Efendic S, Luft R, Cerasi E (1981) Dose-kinetics of pancreatic glucagon responses to arginine and glucose in subjects with normal and impaired pancreatic B-cell function. Diabetologia 21: 452–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Attali JR, Boillot J, Girard JR, Assan R (1979) Glucagon secretion and glucose metabolism in the pancreas. Journ Annu Diabetol Hotel 20: 259–267Google Scholar
  13. Barnes AJ, Bloom SR (1976) Pancreatectomized man: a model for diabetes without glucagon. Lancet 1: 219–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Baum D, Porte D Jr (1980) Stress hyperglycemia and the adrenergic regulation of pancreatic hormones in hypoxia. Metabolism [Suppl 1] 29: 1176–1185Google Scholar
  15. Bilbrey GL, Faloona GR, White MG, Knöchel JR (1974) Hyperglucagonemia of renal failure. J. Clin Invest 53: 841–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Blackard WG, Nelson NC, Andrews SS (1974) Portal and peripheral vein immunoreactive glucagon concentrations after arginine or glucose infusions. Diabetes 23: 199–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bleicher SJ, Levy LJ, Zarowitz H, Spergel (1970) Glucagon-deficiency hypoglycaemia: a new syndrome. Clin Res 18: 355Google Scholar
  18. Boitard C, Debray-Sachs M, Pouplard A, Assan R, Hamburger J (1981) Lymphocytes from diabetics suppress insulin release in vitro. Diabetologia 21: 41–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bomboy JE, Lewis SB, Sinclair-Smith BC, Liljenquist JE (1977) Transient stimulatory effect of sustained hyperglucagonemia on splanchnic glucose output in normal and diabetic man. Diabetes 26: 177–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Buchanan KD, Mawhinney W (1973) Glucagon release from isolated pancreas in strep-tozotocin treated rats. Diabetes 22: 797–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Buchanan KD, Vance JE, Williams RH (1969) Insulin and glucagon release from isolated islets of Langerhans. Diabetes 18: 381–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Buckman MT, Conway MJ, Seibel JA, Eaton PP (1974) Effect of fasting on alanine-stimulated insulin and glucagon secretion. Metabolism 22: 1253–1262Google Scholar
  23. Campillo JE, Luyckx AS, Torres MD, Lefebvre PJ (1977) Effect of phosphate omission on arginine-induced insulin and glucagon release by the isolated perfused rat pancreas. FEBS Lett 84: 141–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cerasi E (1975) Potentiation of insulin release by glucose in man. II. Role of the insulin response and enhancement of stimuli other than glucose. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 79: 502–510Google Scholar
  25. Cerasi E, Luft R (1967) The plasma insulin response to glucose infusion in healthy subjects and in diabetes mellitus. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 55: 278–304Google Scholar
  26. Cherrington AD, Vranic M (1973) Effect of arginine on glucose turnover and plasma free fatty acids in normal dogs. Diabetes 22: 537–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cherrington AD, Vranic M (1974) Effect of interaction between insulin and glucagon on glucose turnover and FFA concentration in normal and depancreatized dogs. Metabolism 23: 729–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chesney TM, Schofield J (1969) Studies on the secretion of pancreatic glucagon. Diabetes 18: 627–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chiasson JL, Liljenquist JE, Sinclair-Smith BC, Lacy WW (1975) Gluconeogenesis from alanine in normal postabsorptive man. Intra-hepatic stimulatory effect of glucagon. Diabetes 24: 574–584Google Scholar
  30. Day JL, Tattersall RB (1975) Glucagon secretion in unaffected monozygotic twins of juvenile diabetics. Metabolism 24: 145–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dunbar JC, Walsh MF, Foä PP (1976) Secretion of immunoreactive insulin and glucagon in hamsters bearing a transplantable insulinoma. Diabete Metab 2: 165–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Edwards JC, Howell SL (1973) Effect of vinblastine and colchicine on the secretion of glucagon from isolated guinea pig islets of Langerhans. FEBS Lett 30: 89–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Edwards JC, Hellerström C, Petersson B, Taylor KW (1972) Oxydation of glucose and fatty acids in normal and A2-cell-rich pancreatic islets isolated from guinea pigs. Diabetologia 8: 93–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Eisenstein AB, Strack K (1978) Amino-acid stimulation of glucagon secretion by perifused islets of high-protein-fed rats. Diabetes 27: 370–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Felig P, Gusberg R, Hendler FE, Kinney JM (1974) Concentration of glucagon and insulin: glucagon ratio in the portal and peripheral circulation. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 147: 88–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Feiig P, Wahren J, Sherwin R, Hendler R (1976) Insulin, glucagon and somatostatin in normal physiology and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 25: 1091–1099Google Scholar
  37. Frankel BJ, Gerich JE, Fanska RE, Gerritsen C, Grodsky GM (1974) Abnormal secretion of insulin and glucagon by the in vitro perfused pancreas of the genetically diabetic Chinese hamster. J Clin Invest 53: 1637–1646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Frankel BJ, Gerich JE, Fanska RE, Gerritsen GC, Grodsky GM (1975) Response to arginine of the perifused pancreas of the genetically diabetic Chinese hamster. Diabetes 24: 273–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gerich JE (1976) Metabolic effects of long-term somatostatin infusion in man. Metabolism [Suppl 1] 25: 1505–1507Google Scholar
  40. Gerich J, Charles MA, Grodsky GM (1974 a) Characterization of the effects of arginine and glucose on glucagon and insulin release from the perfused rat pancreas. J Clin Invest 54: 833–841Google Scholar
  41. Gerich JE, Frankel BJ, Fanska R, West L, Forsham PH, Grodsky GM (1974b) Calcium dependency of glucagon secretion from the in vitro perfused rat pancreas. Endocrinol-ogy 94: 1381–1385Google Scholar
  42. Gerich JE, Lorenzi M, Schneider V, Kwan C, Karam J, Guillemin R, Forsham P (1974 c) Inhibition of pancretic glucagon responses to arginine by somatostatin in normal man and in insulin-dependent diabetics. Diabetes 23: 876–880Google Scholar
  43. Gerich JE, Tsalikian E, Lorenzi M, Karam JH, Schneider V, Gustafson G, Bohannon NV (1975 a) Normalisation of fasting hyperglucagonemia and excessive glucagon response to IV arginine in human diabetes mellitus by prolonged perfusion of insulin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41: 1178–1180Google Scholar
  44. Gerich JE, Lovinger R, Grodsky GM (1975 b) Inhibition by somatostatin of glucagon and insulin release from the perfused rat pancreas in response to arginine, isoproterenol and theophylline: evidence for a preferential effect on glucagon secretion. Endocrinology 96: 749–754Google Scholar
  45. Greco AV, Ghirlanda G, Patrono C, Felidi G, Manna R (1974) Behaviour of pancreatic glucagon, insulin and HGH in liver cirrhosis, after arginine and IV glucose. Acta Diabetol Lat 11: 330–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Grill V, Adamson U, Rundfeldt M, Andersson S, Cerasi E (1979) Glucose memory of pancreatic B and A2 cells: evidence for common time-dependent actions of glucose on insulin and glucagon secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. J Clin Invest 64: 700–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hamaji M (1979) Pancreatic alpha- and beta-cell function in pheochromocytoma. J. Clin Endocrinol Metab 49: 322–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hoist JJ, von Schenck H, Lindkaer S (1979 a) Gel filtration pattern of immunoreactive glucagon secreted by the isolated, perfused, porcine pancreas. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 39: 47–52Google Scholar
  49. Hoist J J, Helland S, Ingemannson S, Pedersen NB, von Schenck H (1979 b) Functional studies in patients with the glucagonoma synrome. Diabetologia 17: 151–156Google Scholar
  50. Hoo-Paris R, Hamsany M, Sutter BCJ, Assan R, Boillot J (1982) Plasma glucose and glucagon concentrations in the hibernating hedgehogs. Gen Comp Endocrinol 46: 246–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Husson A, Vaillant R (1982) Effects of glucocorticosteroids and glucagon on arginosuccinate synthetase, arginino-succinase, and arginase in fetal rat liver. Endocrinology 110: 227–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hutson NJ, Bromley FT, Assimacopoulos FD, Harper SC, Exton JH (1976) Studies on the adrenergic activation of hepatic glucose output: I-studies on the a-adrenergic activation of phosphorylase and gluconeogenesis and inactivation of glycogen synthase in isolated rat liver parenchymal cells J Biol Chem 251: 5200–5208Google Scholar
  53. Itoh M, Mandarino L, Gerich JE (1980) Anti-stomatostatin gamma globulin augments secretion of both insulin and glucagon in vitro: evidence for a physiologic role of endogenous somatostatin in the regulation of pancreatic A- and B-cell function. Diabetes 29: 693–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Iversen J (1971) Secretion of glucagon and insulin from the isolated perfused canine pancreas. J Clin Invest 50: 2123–2136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jacoby JH, Bryce GF (1979) The acute effects of 5 HTP, fluoxetine and quipazine on insulin and glucagon release in the intact rat. Horm Metab Res 11: 90–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jarrousse C, Rosselin G (1975) Regulation by glucose and cyclic nucleotides of the glucagon and insulin release induced by amino-acids. Diabete Metab 1: 135–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kalkhoff RK, Gossain VV, Matute ML (1973) Plasma glucagon in obesity: response to arginine, glucose and protein. N Engl J Med 289: 465–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Karman H, Mialhe P (1973) Glucose-glucagon feed-back mechanism in normal and diabetic geese and ducks. Diabetologia 9: 74 (abstract)Google Scholar
  59. Krejs GJ, Orci L, Conlon JM, Ravazzola M, Davis GR, Raskin P, Collins SM, McCarthy D, Baetens D, Rubenstein A, Aldor T, Unger RH (1979) Somatostatinoma syndrome: biochemical, morphologic and clinical features. N Engl J Med 301: 285–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lacy PE (1962) Electron microscopy of the islets of Langerhans. Diabetes 11: 509–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lacy PE, Walker MM, Finck CJ (1972) Perifusion of isolated rat islets in vitro: participation of the microtubular system in the biphasic release of insulin. Diabetes 20: 987–998Google Scholar
  62. Laube H, Füssganger RD, Maier V, Pfeiffer EF (1973) Hyperglucagonemia of the isolated perfused pancreas diabetic mice (db db). Diabetologia 9: 400–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lawrence AM, Tan S, Hojvat S, Kirsteins L (1975) Salivary gland hyperglycemic factor: an extra-pancreatic source of glucagon-like material. Science 195: 70–72Google Scholar
  64. Leclercq-Meyer V, Marchand T, Malaisse WJ (1974) Possible role of microtubular-microfllamentous system in glucagon secretion. Diabetologia 10: 215–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Leclercq-Meyer V, Marchand J, Malaisse WJ (1976) The role of calcium in glucagon release. Interactions between arginine and calcium. Horm Res 76: 348–362Google Scholar
  66. Leclercq-Meyer V, Marchand J, Malaisse WJ (1978) The role of calcium in glucagon release. Studies with verapamil. Diabetes 27: 996–1004Google Scholar
  67. Leclercq-Meyer V, Marchand J, Malaisse WJ (1979) Calcium-dependency of glucagon-release: its modulation by nutritional factors. Am J Physiol 236: E98–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lefèbvre PJ, Luyckx AS (1977) Factors controlling gastric glucagon release. J Clin Invest 59: 716–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Lefèbvre PJ, Luyckx AS, Nizet AH (1974) Renal handling of endogenous glucagon in the dog: comparison with insulin. Metabolism 23: 753–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lichtenberger LM, Delansorne R, Graziani LA (1982) Importance of amino-acid uptake and decarboxylation in gastrin relase from isolated G cells. Nature 295: 698–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lin RC, Snodgrass PJ (1979) Induction of urea cycle enzymes of rat liver by glucagon. J Biol Chem 253–2748Google Scholar
  72. Lindsay CA, Wilmore DW, Moylan JA, Faloona GR, Unger RH (1972) Glucagon and the insulin/glucagon ( I/G) ratio in burns and trauma. Clin Res 20: 802Google Scholar
  73. Loubatieres-Mariani MM, Chapal J, Puech R, Lignon F, Valette G (1980) Different effects of hypothermia on insulin and glucagon secretion from the isolated perfused rat pancreas. Diabetologia 18: 329–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lundquist K, Fanska F, Grodsky M (1976) Direct calcium-stimulated release of glucagon from the isolated perfused rat pancreas and the effect of chemical sympathectomy. Endocrinology 98: 815–818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Malaisse W, Malaisse-Lagae F, Walker MO, Lacy PE (1971) The stimulus-secretion coupling of glucose-induced insulin release. V. The participation of a microtubular-micro-filamentous system. Diabetes 20: 257–265Google Scholar
  76. Malaisse W, Sener A, Malaisse-Lagae F (1981) Insulin release: reconciliation of the receptor and metabolic hypotheses. Mol Cell Biochem 37: 157–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Marco J, Faloona GR, Unger RH (1971) The glycogenolytic activity of immune-reactive glucagon in plasma. J Clin Invest 50: 1650–1655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Marco J, Diego J, Villanuelva ML, Diaz-Fierros M, Valverde I, Segovia JM (1973) Elevated plasma glucagon in cirrhosis of the liver. N Engl J Med 289: 1107–1111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Marre M, Bobbioni E, Suarez M, Reach G, Dubois MP, Assan R (1979) Control of gastric glucagon secretion in the acutely pancreatectomized rat. Diabetes 28: 213–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Marre M, Attali JR, Helman A, Miller J, Kronheim S, Assan R (1981) Pancreatic and gastric secretions of somatostatin-like-immunoreactivity (SLI) in rat portal vein: an in vivo and in vitro comparative study. Diabetologia 21: 302Google Scholar
  81. Mashiter K, Harding PE, Chou M, Mashiter GD, Stout J, Diamond D, Field JB (1975) Persistent pancreatic glucagon but not insulin response to arginine in pancreatectomized dogs. Endocrinology 96: 678–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Müller WA, Faloona GR, Unger RH (1970) Abnormal alpha cell function in diabetes: response to carbohydrate and protein ingestion. N Eng J Med 283: 109–115Google Scholar
  83. Müller WA, Faloona GR, Unger RH (1971) The effect of experimental insulin deficiency on glucagon secretion. J Clin Invest 50: 1992–1999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Müller WA, Girardier L, Seydoux J, Berger M, Renold AE, Vranic M (1978) Extrapancreatic glucagon and glucagon-like-immuno-reactivity in depancreatized dogs. J Clin Invest 62: 124–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Östenson CG (1979) Regulation of glucagon release: effects of insulin on the pancreatic A2-cell of the guinea-pig. Diabetologia 17: 325–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ohneda A, Parada E, Eisentraut M, Unger RH (1968) Characterization of response of circulating glucagon to intra-duodenal und intravenous administration of amino-acids. J Clin Invest 47: 2305–2322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Orci L (1976) The microanatomy of the islets of Langerhans. Metabolism [Suppl 1] 11: 1303–1313Google Scholar
  88. Orci L, Unger RH (1975) Functional subdivisions of the islets of Langerhans and the possible role of the insular D-cells. Lancet 2: 1243–1244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Pagliara AS, Stillings SN, Hover B, Martin DM, Matchinsky FM (1974) Glucose modulation of amino-acid-induced glucagon and insulin release in the isolated perfused rat pancreas. J Clin Invest 54: 819–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Pagliara AS, Stillings SN, Haymond MW, Hover BA, Matchinsky FM (1975) Insulin and glucose as modulators of the amino-acid-induced glucagon release in the isolated pancreas of alloxan and streptozotocin diabetics rats. J Clin Invest 55: 244–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Pek S, Fajans SS, Floyd JC Jr, Knopf RH, Conn JN (1968) Effect of amino-acids on plasma glucagon in man. J Lab Clin Med 72: 1003Google Scholar
  92. Pek S, Fajans SS, Floyd JC Jr, Knopf RH, Conn JN (1969) Effects upon plasma glucagon of infused and ingested amino-acids and of protein meals in man. Diabetes 18: 523–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Pek S, Santiago JC, Tai TY (1978) L-Leucine-induced secretion of glucagon and insulin, and the “off-response” to L-Leucine in vitro. I. Characterization of the dynamics of secretion. Endocrinology 103: 1208–1218Google Scholar
  94. Pontiroli AE, Micossi P, Foa PP (1979) Effects of histamine, of histidine and of anti-histaminic agents on the release of glucagon and insulin from the rat pancreas. Horm Metab Res 11: 100–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Raskin P, Unger RH (1978) Hyperglucagonemia and its suppression: importance in the metabolic control of diabetes. N Engl J Med 299: 433–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Reach G, Poussier P, Bailey D, Assan R (1978) Acute hypothermia induces insulin lack, glucagon excess and insulin resistance in the rat. Diabetologia 15: 265Google Scholar
  97. Rehfeld JF, Larsson LI, Goltermann NR, Schwartz TW, Hoist JJ, Jensen SL, Morley JS (1980) Neural regulation of pancreatic hormone secretion by the C-terminal tetrapep-tide of CCK. Nature 284: 33–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Rizza R, Verdonk C, Miles J, Service FJ, Gerich JE (1979) Effect of intermittent endogenous hyperglucagonemia on glucose homeostasis in normal and diabetic man. J Clin Invest 63: 1119–1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Rocha DM, Faloona GK, Unger RH (1972) Glucagonstimulating activity of 20 amino-acids in dogs. J Clin Invest 51: 2346–2361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Sacca L, Sherwin R, Felig P (1979) Influence of somatostatin on glucagon and epinephrine stimulated hepatic glucose output in the dog. Am J Physiol 236: E113 — E117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Sai P, Boitard C, Debray-Sachs M, Pouplard A, Assan R, Hamburger J (1981) Complement-fixing islet cell antibodies from some diabetic patients alter insulin release in vitro Diabetes 30: 1051–1057Google Scholar
  102. Seino Y, Goto Y, Taminato T, Ikeda M, Imura H (1974) Plasma insulin and glucagon responses to arginine in patients with thyroid dysfunction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 38: 1136–1140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Sherwin R, Joshi P, Handler R, Felig P, Conn HO (1974) Hyperglucagonemia in Laennec’s cirrhosis. The role of portalsystemic shunting. N Engl J Med 290: 239–242Google Scholar
  104. Sherwin RS, Bastl C, Finkelstein FO, Fisher M, Black H, Hendler R, Felig P (1976) Influence of uremia and hemodialysis on the turnover and metabolic effects of glucagon. J Clin Invest 57: 722–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Tai TY, Pek S, Santiago JC (1978) L-Leucine-induced secretion of glucagon and insulin, and the “off-response” to L-Leucine in vitro. II. The role of D-glucose. Endocrinology 103: 1219–1226Google Scholar
  106. Tiengo A, Assan R, Tchobroutsky G (1972) Metabolic and hormonal patterns after 3 days of total fasting in 27 obese and non obese subjects. Isr J Med Sci 8: 821–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Tiengo A, Bessioud M, Yalverde I, Tabbi-Annemi A, Delprato S, Alexandre JH, Assan R (1982) Absence of islet alpha cell function in pancreatectomized patients. Diabetologia 22: 25–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Unger RH (1974) New aspects of glucagon pathology and pathophysiology. In: Malaisse WJ, Pirart J (eds) Proceedings of the eigth congress of the International Diabetes Federation. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 137–143Google Scholar
  109. Unger RH (1976) Diabetes and the alpha-cell (Banting Memorial Lecture). Diabetes 25: 136–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Unger RH, Ohneda E, Aguilar-Parada E, Eisentraut AM (1969) The role of aminogenic glucagon secretion in blood glucose homeostasis. J Clin Invest 48: 810–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Unger RH, Aguilar-Parada E, Müller WA, Eisentraut A (1970) Studies on pancreatic alpha-cell function in normal and diabetic subjects. J Clin Invest 49: 837–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Vranic M, Engerman R, Doi K, Morita S, Yip CC (1976) Extra-pancreatic glucagon in the dog. Metabolism [Suppl 1] 25: 1469–1473Google Scholar
  113. Weir GC, Knowlton SD, Atkins RF, McKennan KX, Martin DB (1976) Glucagon secretion from the perfused pancreas of streptozotocin-treated rats. Diabetes 25: 275–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Wise JK, Hendler R, Felig P (1970) Evaluation of alpha-cell function by infusion of alanine in normal diabetic and obese subjects. N Engl J Med 288: 484–487Google Scholar
  115. Wise JK, Hendler R, Felig P (1972) Obesity: evidence of decreased glucagon secretion. Science 178: 513–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Wollheim CB, Blondel B, Renold AE, Sharp GW (1976) Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of cyclic AMP on pancreatic glucagon release from monolayer cultures and the controlling role of calcium. Diabetologia 12: 269–277PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Assan
  • M. Marre
  • M. Gormley

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations