Glykoside

  • K. Theisen
Part of the Handbuch der inneren Medizin book series (INNEREN, volume 9 / 1)

Zusammenfassung

Therapeutische Digitalisdosen verändern an isolierten Purkinje-Fasern bei kurzer Exposition und niedriger Stimulationsfrequenz das Ruhemembranpotential, die Aktionspotentialamplitude, den Zeitablauf von De- und Repolarisation nicht oder nur unwesentlich (Rosen et al. 1973). Unter diesen Bedingungen ist der wesentliche initiale elektrophysiologische Effekt eine Verlängerung des Aktionspotentials (Vassalle et al. 1962; Kassebaum 1963; Hoffman 1972). Rosen et al. (1973) untersuchten Purkinje-Fasern, die mit Blut eines lebenden Spendertiers perfundiert wurden. Dabei entsprach die Ouabain-(g-Strophanthin)-Konzentration im Blut des Spenderhundes der des Perfundats. An diesem Modell konnte ebenfalls gezeigt werden, daß bei niedrigen Digitalisdosen initial eine geringe Verlängerung des Aktionspotentials eintrat, zu einem Zeitpunkt, bei dem es im EKG des Hundes zu ST- und T-Wellenänderungen kam.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Abendroth RR, Breithardt G, Borggrefe M, Seipel L (1979) Einfluß von Digitalis auf ventrikuläre Arrhythmien. Z Kardiol 68:636Google Scholar
  2. Abiko Y (1963) A mechanism of reflexogenic bradycardia produced by cardiac glycosides. Nature 198:1208–1209Google Scholar
  3. Abiko Y (1966) Inhibitory effect of strospeside on the efferent discharges in the sympathetic cardiac nerves in cats. Jpn J Pharmacol 13:305–313Google Scholar
  4. Abiko Y, Mukahira K, Tanabe T (1965) On the role of vagi and sinus nerves in the reflexogenic inhibition of sympathetic discharges induced by strospeside in cats. Jpn J Pharmacol 15:143–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Agarwal BL, Agarwal BV (1971) Atrial fibrillation: a manifestation of digitalis intoxication. J Assoc Physicians India 19:719–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Akera T, Larsen FS, Brody TM (1970) Correlation of cardiac sodium- and potassiumactivated adenosine triphosphatase activity with ouabain-induced inotropic stimulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 173:145–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Akera T, Bennett RT, Olgaard MK, Brody TM (1976) Cardiac (Na++K+)-adenosine triphosphatase inhibition by ouabain and myocardial sodium: A computer simulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 199:287–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Akera T, Ku D, Brody TM (1977) Lack of effect on brain stem and cerebral cortex Na+, K +-ATPase during heart block produced by chronic digoxin treatment. Eur J Pharmacol 45:243–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Alberti KGMM, Shahriari AA, Levine HD (1971) Reversal of ouabain-induced arrhythmias in the dog by intravenous arginine. Cardio vasc Res 5:226–235Google Scholar
  10. Algara FJ (1980 a) Atrial tachycardia with atrioventricular block. In: Bayes A, Cosin J (eds) Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 697–699Google Scholar
  11. Algara FJ (1980b) Non-paroxysmal atrioventricular junctional tachycardia (NPST). In: Bayes A, Cosin J (eds) Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 695–697Google Scholar
  12. Allen JC, Schwartz A (1971) Further therapeutic implications of potassium-digitalis interaction with the transport enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase. Circulation [Suppl II] 44:134Google Scholar
  13. Allen JD, Kofi-Ekne JM, Shanks RG, Zaidi SA (1972) The effect of KÖ 1173, a new anticonvulsant agent on experimental cardiac arrhythmias. Br Pharmacol 45:561–573Google Scholar
  14. Ammar EM, Afifi A (1974) Cardiac arrhythmias, blood pressure and respiratory changes produced by injection of ouabain in the lateral ventricle of unanesthetized rabbits. In: Proceedings of the Eighth Conference for Pharmaceutical Science, Cairo, Egypt, pp 243–245Google Scholar
  15. Anderson GJ (1974) K+ mediated release of ouabain from purkinje cells. Am J Cardiol 33:113Google Scholar
  16. Anderson GJ, Greenspan K, Fisch C, Bailey JC (1972) Electrophysiological studies of Wenckebach structures below the AV junction. Am J Cardiol 30:232–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Anderson GJ, Bailey JC, Reiser J, Freeman A (1976) Electrophysiological observations on the digitalis-potassium interaction in canine Purkinje fibers. Circ Res 39:717–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Anschütz F, Toker Y (1975) Studies on the efficacy of strophanthin treatment in cardiac infarction with the alternating method. Ärztl Z 14:609Google Scholar
  19. Arnim T von, Krawietz W, Vogt W, Erdmann E (1980) Is the determination of serum digoxin concentration useful for the diagnosis of digitalis toxicity? Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 18:261–268Google Scholar
  20. Aronson JK (1978) Cardiac glycosides and drugs used in dysrhythmias. In: Dukes MNG (ed) Side effects of drugs Annual 2. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam Oxford, pp 158–164Google Scholar
  21. Aronson JK, Grahame-Smith DG (1976) Altered distribution of digoxin in renal failure — a cause of digoxin toxicity? Br J Clin Pharnacol 3:1045–1051Google Scholar
  22. Aronson JK, Grahame-Smith DG, Wigley FM (1978) Monitoring digoxin therapy. The use of plasma digoxin concentration measurements in the diagnosis of digoxin toxicity. Q J Med, New Series XLVII 186:111–122Google Scholar
  23. Aronson RS, Cranefield PF (1974) The effect of resting potential on the electrical acivity of canine cardiac Purkinje fibers exposed to Na-free solution or to ouabain. Pfluegers Arch 347:101–116Google Scholar
  24. Aronson RS, Gelles JH (1977) The effect of ouabain, dinitrophenol and lithium on the pacemaker current in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers. Circ Res 40:517–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Asplund J, Edhag O, Mogensen L, Nyquist O, Orinius E, Sjögren A (1971) Four cases of massive digitalis poisoning. Acta Med Scand 189:293–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Avenhaus H (1967) Rhythmusstörungen des Herzens bei Glykosidtherapie. Dtsch Med J 18:189–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Avenhaus H (1972) Rhythmusstörungen des Herzens und Elektrolytstoffwechsel. Z Prakt Med 3:116–123Google Scholar
  28. Avery GS (1973) Check list to potentially clinically important interactions. Drugs 5:187211 Baedeker W (1978) Digitalis als Ursache von Herzrhythmusstörungen. Ther Ggw 117:1590–1604Google Scholar
  29. Bailey JC, Greenspan K, Elizari MV, Anderson GJ, Fisch C (1972) Effects of acetylcholine on automaticity and conduction in the proximal portion of the His-Purkinje specialized conduction system of the dog. Circ Res 30:210–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Balant L, Fabre J (1974) Digoxinémie et digitalisation. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 104:65–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Baligadoo S, Chiche P (1981) Frequency of toxicity of digitoxin and factors predisposing to toxicity in ambulatory patients. In: Kochsiek K, Rietbrock N (Hrsg) Digitalistherapie bei Herzinsuffizienz. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München Wien Baltimore, S 118–126Google Scholar
  32. Baligadoo S, Laurell P, Chiche P (1976) Intoxication digitalique massive volontaire ou accidentelle. Coeur Med Int 15:265–271Google Scholar
  33. Barnes KL, Ferrario CM, Conomy JP (1979) Comparison of the hemodynamic changes produced by electrical stimulation of the area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarii in the dog. Circ Res 45:136–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Barr I, Klein MD, Lown B (1971) Correlation of serum digoxin level with aceylstrophan-thidin tolerance. Ann Intern Med 74:817Google Scholar
  35. Barr I, Smith TW, Klein MD, Hagemeijer F, Lown B (1972) Correlation of the electrophysiologic action of digoxin with serum digoxin concentration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 180:710–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Barth N, Muscholl E (1976) Die Rolle adrenerger Mechanismen bei der Entstehung von Arrhythmien nach Einnahme trizyklischer Antidepressiva. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 101:88–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Bashour FA, Edmonson RE, Gupta DN, Prati R (1968) Treatment of digitalis toxicity by diphenylhydantoin (Dilantin). Dis Chest 53:263–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Baskin SI, Dutta S, Marks BH (1973) The effects of diphenylhydantoin and potassium on the biological activity of ouabain in the guinea-pig heart. Br J Pharmacol 47:85–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Bassingthwaighte JB, Fry CH, McGuigan JAS (1976) Relationship between internal calcium and outward current in mammalian ventricular muscle: a mechanism for the control of the action potential duration? J Physiol (Lond) 262:15–37Google Scholar
  40. Basu Ray BN, Booker WM, Dutta SN, Pradhan SN (1972) Effects of microinjection of ouabain into the hypothalamus in cats. Br J Pharmacol 45:197–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Batley RL, Lieberman LJ, Eliat RS (1970) Alprenolol: An effective beta blocker for digitalis induced ventricular arrhythmias. Ann Intern Med 72:778Google Scholar
  42. Baum GL, Dick MM, Schotz S, Gumpel RC (1956) Digitalis toxicity in chronic cor pulmonale. South Med J 49:1037–1042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Baum GL, Dick MM, Blum A, Kaupe A, Carballo J (1959) Factors involved in digitalis sensitivity in chronic pulmonary insufficiency. Am Heart J 57:460–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Baum T, Eckfeld DK, Shropshire AT, Rowles G, Varner LL (1971) Observations on models used for the evaluation of antiarrhythmic drugs. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 193:149–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Beck OA, Hochrein H (1978) Wirksamkeit und Risiken von Propafenon bei der Akutbehandlung von Herzrhythmusstörungen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 103:1261–1265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Beck OA, Krämer KD, Hochrein H (1974) Verlauf einer suizidalen Digoxin-Intoxikation mit Hyperkaliämie. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 99:756–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Becker DJ, Nonkin PM, Bennet LD, Kimball SG, Sternberg MS, Wasserman F (1962) Effect of isoproterenol on digitalis cardiotoxicity. Am J Cardiol 10:242–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Beer N, Puigbo JJ, Aparicio JM, Hirschhaut E, Valecillos R (1977) Effect of digoxin on ventricular automaticity in Chagasic cardiomyopathy. Postgrad Med J 53:537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Beeler GW (1977) Ionic currents in cardiac muscle: a framework for glycoside action. Fed Proc 36:2209–2213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Belier GA, Smith TW (1973) Digitalis intoxication and serum levels. An epidemiologic study. In: Storstein O (ed) International Symposium on Digitalis. Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, Oslo, p 287Google Scholar
  51. Beller GA, Smith TW, Abelmann WH, Haber E, Hood WT (1971) Digitalis intoxication, a prospective clinical study with serum level correlation. N Engl J Med 284:889–997Google Scholar
  52. Beller GA, Smith TW, Hood WB (1975 a) Effects of ischemia and coronary reperfusion on myocardial digoxin uptake. Am J Cardiol 36: 902–907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Beller GA, Giamber SR, Saltz SB, Smith TW (1975 b) Cardiac and respiratory effects of digitalis during chronic hypoxia in intact conscious dogs. Am J Physiol 229: 270–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Beller GA, Conrouy J, Smith TW (1976) Ischemia-induced alterations in myocardial (Na+ + K+)-ATPase and cardiac glycoside binding. J Clin Invest 57:341–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Belz GG, Aust PE, Munkes R (1981) Digoxin plasma concentrations and nifedipine. Lancet 1:844–845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Bentley JD, Burnett GH, Conklin RL, Wasserburger RH (1970) Clinical application of serum digitoxin levels. A simplified plasma determination. Circulation 41:67–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Bernuth G von, Lang D (1978) Digoxin-Dosierung bei Neugeborenen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 103:289Google Scholar
  58. Berti F, Shore PA (1967) A kinetic analysis of drugs that inhibit the adrenergic neuronal membrane amine pump. Biochem Pharmacol 16:2091–2094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Bertler A, Redfors A (1971) Plasma levels of digoxin in relation to toxicity. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Kbh) 29:281–287Google Scholar
  60. Bertler A, Gustafson A, Ohlin P, Monti M, Redfors A (1973) Digoxin intoxication and plasma glycoside levels. In: Storstein O (ed) International Symposium on Digitalis, Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, Oslo, p 300Google Scholar
  61. Besch HR Jr, Allen JC, Glick G, Schwartz A (1970) Correlation between the inotropic action of ouabain and its effects on subcellular enzyme systems from canine myocardium. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 171:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Bigger JT Jr (1973) Mechanisms of digitalis toxic arrhythmias and the clinical recognition of digitalis toxicity. In: Palmer RF (ed) Controversies in clinical pharmacology and drug development. Future, Mount Kisco, NY, p 126Google Scholar
  63. Bigger JT Jr, Heissenbuttel R (1969) The use of procaine amide and lidocaine in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 11:515–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Bigger JT Jr, Heissenbuttel RH (1969) The use of procaine amide and lidocaine in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. In: Friedberg CD (ed) Current status of drugs in cardiovascular disease. Grune & Stratton, New York, pp 125–144Google Scholar
  65. Bigger JT, Jaffe CD (1971) The effect of bretylium tosylate on the electrophysiological properties of ventricular muscle and Purkinje fibers. Am J Cardiol 27:82–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Bigger JT Jr, Mandel WJ (1970) Effects of lidocaine on the electrophysiological properties of ventricular muscle and Purkinje fibers. J Clin Invest 49:63–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Bigger JT Jr, Strauss HC (1972) Digitalis toxicity: Drug interactions promoting toxicity and the management of toxicity. Semin Drug Treat 2:147–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Bigger JT Jr, Schmidt DH, Kutt H (1968 a) Relationship between the plasma level of diphenylhydantoin sodium and its cardiac antiarrhythmic effects. Circulation 38: 363–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Bigger JT Jr, Bassett AL, Hoffman BF (1968 b) Electrophysiological effects of diphenylhydantoin in canine Purkinje fibers. Circ Res 22: 221–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Binnion PF (1978) Drug interactions with digitalis gylcosides. Drugs 15:369–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Binnion PF, Das Gupta R (1975) Tritiated digoxin metabolism after prior treatment with propranolol or diphenylhydantoin sodium. Int J Clin Pharmacol 12:96–101Google Scholar
  72. Binnion PF, Morgan LM (1971) Effect of acute hypokaliemia on 3H-digoxin metabolism. Cardiovasc Res 5:431–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Bircher R, Kanai T, Wang SC (1963) Action of anticonvulsants (pentobarbital, trimethadione and 3-methyl-5,5-phenylethyl-hydantoin) on the EEG, ECG and blood pressure changes induced by pentylenetetrazol, Picrotoxin and deslanoide in dogs. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 141:357–376Google Scholar
  74. Bismuth C, Motte G, Conso F, Chaucin M, Gaultier M (1977) Acute digitoxin intoxication treated by intracardiac pacemaker: Experience in sixty-eight patients. Clin Toxicol 10:443–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Biss HA, Fishman WE, Smith PM (1963) Effect of alterations of blood pH on digitalis toxicity. J Lab Clin Med 62:53–58Google Scholar
  76. Blumberger KJ (1971) Glykosidtherapie im Alter. Z Präklin Geriatr 1:145Google Scholar
  77. Bluschke V, Bonn R, Greeff K (1976) Increase in the (Na++K+)-ATPase activity in heart muscle after chronic treatment with Digitoxinol potassium deficient diet. Eur J Pharmacol 37:189–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Bodem G, Gilfrich HJ (1973) Methoden zur Bestimmung von Digoxin und Digitoxin im Blut und ihre klinische Bedeutung. Klin Wochenschr 51:57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Bodem G, Gilfrich HJ, Aulepp H, Ochs H, Dengler HJ (1977) Klinische und pharmakokinetische Untersuchungen zur Digitalisintoxikation. Klin Wochenschr 55:13–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Bodem G, Ochs H, Meyer R, Baur MP (1979) Prospektive Untersuchungen zur Digitalistherapie von Patienten bei der Klinikaufnahme. Z Kardiol 68:41–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Bolte HD, Lüderitz B, Erdmann E (1971) Beziehungen zwischen Elektrolytstörungen und Glykosidwirkungen. In: Kluthe R (Hrsg) Medikamentöse Therapie bei Nierenerkrankungen. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 139–143Google Scholar
  82. Bolte HD, Buckesfeld R, Lankisch PK, Larbig D (1973) Speichelelektrolyte und Glykosidintoxikation. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 79:1047–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Bond RC, Engel TR, Schaal SF (1973) The effect of digitalis on sinoatrial conduction in man. Circulation [Suppl IV] 48:147Google Scholar
  84. Bonelli J, Hruby K, Magometschnigg D, Hitzenberger G, Kaik G (1977) The bio-availability of β-acetyldigoxine alone and combined with aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide (Alucol). Int J Clin Pharmacol 15:337Google Scholar
  85. Boura ALA, Green AF (1959) The actions of bretylium: Adrenergic neurone blocking and other effects. Br J Pharmacol 14:536–548Google Scholar
  86. Boyajy LD, Nash CB (1965) Influence of reserpine on arrhythmias, inotropic effects and myocardial potassium balance induced by digitalis materials. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 148:193–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Bozler E (1943) The initiation of impulses in cardiac muscle. Am J Physiol 138:273–282Google Scholar
  88. Brass H, Philipps H (1970) Die Elimination von α-Acetyldigoxin und k-Strophanthin bei Niereninsuffizienz. Klin Wochenschr 48:972–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Brater DC, Morelli HF (1977) Digoxin toxicity in patients with normokalemic potassium depletion. Clin Pharmacol Ther 22:21–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Bremner WF, Third JLHC, Lawrie TDV (1977) Massive digoxin ingestion. Report of a case and review of currently available therapies. Br Heart J 39:688–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Brest AN, Durge NG, Goldberg H (1960) Conversion of atrial fibrillation to atrial flutter as a manifestation of digitalis toxicity. Am J Cardiol 6:682–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Brewster WR, Isaacs JP, Osgood PF, King TL (1956) The hemodynamic and metabolic interrelationship in the activity of epinephrine, norepinephrine and the thyroid hormones. Circulation 13:1–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Brock A (1975) Binding of digoxin to human serum proteins: Influence of pH on the binding of digitoxin to human albumin. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Kbh) 36:13–24Google Scholar
  94. Brooker G, Jelliffe RW (1972) Serum cardiac glycoside assay based upon displacement of 3H-ouabain from Na-K-ATPase. Circulation 45:20–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Brown DD, Juhl RP (1976) Decreased bioavailability of digoxin due to antacids and kaolin-pectin. N Engl J Med 295:1034–1037PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Brown DD, Juhl RP, Warner SL (1978) Decreased bioavailability of digoxin due to hypocholesterolemic interventions. Circulation 58:164–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Brown TE, Acheson GH, Grupp G (1962) The saturated lactone glycoside dihydroouabain; effects on potassium balance of the dog heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 136:107–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Brown RH, Cohen I, Noble D (1978) The interactions of protons, calcium and potassium ions on cardiac Purkinje fibers. J Physiol (Lond) 282:345–352Google Scholar
  99. Buckesfeld RP, Bolte HD (1974) Glykosidtoleranz und Glykosidkonzentration im Serum. Klinische Untersuchungen bei herzkranken Patienten unter Digoxin therapie. Verh Dtsch Ges Kreislaufforsch 40:315–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Burch GE, De Pasquale NP (1964) A history of electrocardiography. Year Book Medical Publishers, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  101. Burger R, Schmehe G, Strothmann G, Engelhardt K (1977) Arzneimittelnebenwirkungen bei Patienten einer Medizinischen Klinik. Med Klin 72:21–27Google Scholar
  102. Burgess MJ, Green LS, Miliar K, Wyatt R, Abildskov JA (1972) The sequence of normal ventricular recovery. Am Heart J 84:660–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Burnett GH, Conklin RL (1971) The enzymatic assay of plasma digoxin. J Lab Clin Med 78:779–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Bussmann WD, Kober G, Becker HJ, Peteresen P, Lutz E, Kaltenbach M (1974) Bestimmung der Kontraktilitätsreserve mit Orciprenalin bei Patienten mit koronarer Herzkrankheit. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 80:1108–1110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Buterbaugh GG, Spratt JL (1970) Effect of digitoxigenin in sublethal and lethal doses on biogenic amine content of whole rat. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 186:345–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Butler VP (1972) Assays of digitalis in the blood. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 14:571–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Butler VP, Chen JP (1967) Digoxin-specific antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 57:71–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Cady WJ, Rehder TL, Campbell J (1979) Use of cholestyramine resin in the treatment of digitoxin toxicity. Am J Hosp Pharm 36:92–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Caldwell JH, Greenberger NJ (1971) Interruption of enterohepatic circulation of digitoxin by cholestyramine. I. Protection against lethal digitoxin intoxication. J Clin Invest 50:2626–2637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Calesnick B, Dina A (1976) Improved micro radioimmunoassay of digoxin in serum with use of 125I labelled digoxin. Clin Chem 20:903–909Google Scholar
  111. Cantu RC, Nahas GG, Manger WM (1966) Effect of hypercapnic acidosis and of hypoxia on adrenal catecholamine output of the spinal dog. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 122:434–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Capeller D von, Copeland GD, Stern TN (1959) Digitalis intoxication: clinical report of 148 cases. Ann Intern Med 50:869–878Google Scholar
  113. Carmeliet E, Vereecke J (1969) Adrenaline and the plateau phase of the cardiac action potential. Importance of Ca++, Na+ and K+ conductance. Pfluegers Arch 313:300–315Google Scholar
  114. Carroll PR, Gelbart A, O’Rourke MF, Shortus J (1973) Digoxin concentrations in the serum and myocardium of digitalized patients. Aust NZ J Med 3:400–403Google Scholar
  115. Carruthers SG, Kelly JG, McDevitt DG (1974) Plasma digoxin concentrations in patients on admission to hospital. Br Heart J 36:707–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Carvallo A, Ramirez B, Honig H, Knepschield I, Schreiner GE, Gelfand MC (1976) Treatment of digitalis intoxication by charcoal hemoperfusion (CHP). Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 22:718–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Castellanos A Jr, Ghafour AA, Soffer A (1969) Digitalis-induced arrhythmias: recognition and therapy. In: Brest AN (ed) Cardiovascular therapy. Davis, Philadelphia, p 108Google Scholar
  118. Castellanos A Jr, Myerburg RJ, Befeler B, Agha AS (1973) Factors regulating ventricular rate during atrial flutter and fibrillation in preexcitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White) syndrome. Br Heart J 35:811–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Chai CY, Wang HH, Hoffman BF, Wang SC (1967) Mechanisms of bradycardia induced by digitalis substances. Am J Physiol 212:26–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Chamberlain DA, White RJ, Howard MR, Smith TW (1970) Plasma digoxin concentrations in patients with atrial fibrillation. Br Med J 3:429–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Chavaz A, Balant L, Fabre J (1974) Digoxinémie et digitalisation. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 104:65–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Chiche P, Baligadoo S, Larvelle P, Borgard JP (1976) Intoxications digitaliques et déviations de l’activité thérapeutique de la digitaline. Coeur Med Interne 15:249–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Childers R (1980) Digitalis toxicity: Electrocardiographic implications. In: Bayes A, Cosin J (eds) Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Pergamon Press, Oxford New York, pp 680–695Google Scholar
  124. Chopra D, Janson P, Sawin CT (1977) Insensitivity to digoxin associated with hypocalcemia. N Engl J Med 296:917–918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Chou T-C (1970) Digitalis-induced arrhythmias. Mod Treatm 7:96–116Google Scholar
  126. Chung EK (1969) Digitalis-induced cardiac arrhythmias: a report of 180 cases. Jpn Heart J 10:409–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Chung E (1970) Prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of digitalis-induced dysrhythmias. In: Sandoe E (ed) Cardiac arrhythmias. Astra, Södertälje, Schweden, pp 613–620Google Scholar
  128. Citrin D, Stevenson FH, O’Malley K (1972) Massive digoxin overdose: observation on hyperkalemia and plasma digoxin levels. Scott Med J 17:275–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Coburn JW, Massry SG, Popovtzer MM, Kleeman CR (1969) The physioco-chemical state and renal handling of divalent ions in chronic renal failure. Arch Intern Med 124:302–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Cohen IS, Jick H, Cohen SI (1977) Adverse reactions to quinidine in hospitalized patients: Findings based on data fom the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 20:151–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Cole CH (1973) Decreased ouabain-sensitive adenosine triphosphatase activity in the erythrocyte membrane of patients with chronic renal diseases. Clin Sci Mol Med 45:775–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Coltart DJ, Güllner HG, Billingham M, Goldman RH, Stinson EB, Kaiman SM, Harrison DC (1974) Physiological distribution of digoxin in human heart. Br Med J 4:733–736PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Cook SL, Doherty JE, Straub KD, Nash CB, Caldwell RW (1981) Digoxin uptake into peripheral autonomic cardiac nerves: Possible mechanism of digitalis-induced antiarrhythmic and toxic electrophysiologic actions. Am Heart J 102:58–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Conn RD (1965) DPH sodium in cardiac arrhythmias. N Engl J Med 272:277–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Corazza LH, Pastor BH (1958) Cardiac arrhythmias in chronic cor pulmonale. N Engl J Med 259:862–865Google Scholar
  136. Corr PB, Gillis RA (1978) Autonomic neural influences on the dysrhythmias resulting from myocardial infarction. Circ Res 43:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Cranefield PF (1975) The conduction of the cardiac impulse. Futura, Mount Kisco, NYGoogle Scholar
  138. Cranefield PF, Aronson RS (1974) Initiation of sustained rhythmic activity by single propagated action potentials in canine cardiac Purkinje fibers exposed to sodium-free solution or to ouabain. Circ Res 34:477–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Cree JE, Coltart J, Howart MR (1973) Plasma digoxin concentration in children with heart failure. Br Med J 1:443–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Croxson MS, Ibbertson HK (1975) Serum digoxin in patients with thyroid disease. Br Med J 3:566–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Curfman GD, Crowley TJ, Smith TW (1977) Thyroid-induced alterations in myocardial sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase, monovalent cation active transport, and cardiac glycoside binding. J Clin Invest 59:586–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Cusack B, Kelly J, O’Malley K, Noel J, Lavan J, Horgan J (1979) Digoxin in the elderly: Pharmacokinetic consequences of the old age. Clin Pharmacol Ther 25:772–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Dall JLC (1965) Digitalis intoxication in elderly patients. Lancet 1:194–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Damato AN, Lau SH (1970) Clinical valve of the electrogram of the onducting system. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 13:119–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Damato AN, Caracta AR, Akhtar M, Lau SH (1975) The effects of commonly used cardiovascular drugs on A-V conduction and refractoriness. In: Narula OS (ed) His bundle electrocardiography and clinical electrophysiology. Davis, Philadelphia, pp 105–125Google Scholar
  146. Danilo P, Rosen MR, Hordof AJ (1978) Effects of acetylcholine on the ventricular specialized conducting system of neonatal and adult dogs. Circ Res 43:777–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Davis LD (1973) Effect of changes in cycle length on diastolic depolarization produced by ouabain in canine Purkinje fibers. Circ Res 32:206–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Davis LD, Temte JV (1969) Electrophysiological actions of lidocaine on canine ventricular muscle and Purkinje fibers. Circ Res 24:639–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Dawes GS (1946) Synthetic substitutes for quinidine. Br Med J 1:43–51Google Scholar
  150. Dazzi A, Sabbadin D (1962) La terapia strofantinica nell’infarcto miocardio in fase acute. Minerva Med 53:137–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Deglin S, Deglin J, Chung EK (1977) Direct current shock and digitalis therapy. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 11:76–80Google Scholar
  152. Dessaint JP (1974) Dosage radio-immunologique des digitaliques (digitoxine et digoxine) dans le sang. Lille Med 19:156–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Dhingra RC, Amat-y-Leon F, Wyndham C, Wu D, Denes P, Rosen K (1975) The electrophysiological effects of ouabain on sinus node and atrium in man. J Clin Invest 56:555–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Dick HLM, McCowley EL, Fisher WA (1962) Reserpine-digitalis toxicity. Arch Intern Med 109:503–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Djonlagic H, von Kurnatowski A, Diederich K-W (1974) Bidirektionale Tachykardie bei Digitalisbehandlung. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 99:502–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Dobbs S, Rodgers EM, Kenyon WI, Livshin D, Slater E, Godsmark B (1977) Digoxin prescribing in perspective. Br J Clin Pharmacol 4:327–335Google Scholar
  157. Doering W (1979) Quinidine-digoxin interaction. N Engl J Med 301:400–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Doering W, König E (1978) Anstieg der Digoxinkonzentration im Serum unter Chinidin-medikation. Med Klin 73:1085–1088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Doering W, König E, Sturm W (1977) Digitalis intoxication: Specificity and significance of cardiac and extracardiac symptoms. Part I. Patients with digitalis-induced arrhythmias. Z Kardiol 66:121–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Doering W, Höhne M, König E (1980) New aspects of digoxin-quinidine interaction. VIII. Congress of Cardiology, Paris, Abstracts, p 193Google Scholar
  161. Doherty JE (1973) Digitalis glycosides. Ann Intern Med 79:229–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Doherty JE, Perkins WH (1966) Digoxin metabolism in hypo- and hyperthyroidism: Studies with tritiated digoxin in thyroid disease. Ann Intern Med 64:489–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Doherty JE, Perkins WH, Flanigan WJ (1967 a) The distribution and concentration of tritiated digoxin in human tissues. Ann Intern Med 65: 116–124Google Scholar
  164. Doherty JE, Flanigan J, Perkins HW, Ackerman GL (1967 b) Studies with tritiated digoxin in anephric human subjects. Circulation 35: 298–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Doherty JE, Kane J J, Phillips JR, Damson JS (1977) Digitalis in pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale). Drug 13:132–151Google Scholar
  166. Doherty JE, Straub KD, Murphy ML, de Soyza N, Bissett JK, Kane JJ (1980) Digoxin-quinidine interaction. Am J Cardiol 45:1196–1200Google Scholar
  167. Donald DE, Kvale J, Shepherd JT (1964) The effect of an adrenergic beta-receptor antagonist on the cardiovascular system of the dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 143:344–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Dowdy EG, Fabian LW (1963) Ventricular arrhythmias induced by succinylcholine in digitalized patients. Anesth Analg (Cleve) 42:501–513Google Scholar
  169. Dreifus LS, McKnight EH, Katz M (1963) Digitalis intolerance. Geriatrics 18:494–502Google Scholar
  170. Dreifus LS, de Azevedo IM, Watanabe Y (1974) Review: Electrolyte and antiarrhythmic drug interaction. Am Heart J 88:95–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Duarte CG, Winnacker JL, Becker KL, Pace A (1971) Thiazide-induced hypercalcemia. N Engl J Med 284:828–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Dubnow MH, Burchell HB (1965) A comparison of digitalis intoxication in two separate periods. Ann Intern Med 62:956–965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Dudel J, Trautwein W (1958) Elektrophysiologische Messungen zur Strophanthinwirkung am Herzmuskel. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Exp Pathol 232:393–407Google Scholar
  174. Duhme DW, Greenblatt DJ, Koch-Weser J (1974) Reduction of digoxin toxicity associated with measurement of serum levels. A report from the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program. Ann Intern Med 80:516–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Duke M (1972) Atrioventricular block due to accidental digoxin ingestion treated with atropine. Am J Dis Child 124:754–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Dunbar RW, Boettner RN et al. (1970) The effect of mepivacaine, bupivacaine and lidocaine on digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Anaesth Analg Curr Res 49:761–766Google Scholar
  177. Dungan WT, Doherty JE, Harvey C, Char F, Dalrymple GV (1972) Tritiated digoxin. XVIII. Studies in infants and children. Circulation 46:983–988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Dutta S, Rhee HM, Marks BH (1970) H3-ouabain accumulation and Na+-K+-ATPase activities in relation to therapeutic, toxic and lethal doses of ouabain in dogs. In: Recent advances on cardiac structure and metabolism (myocardial biology), vol 4Google Scholar
  179. Edhag O, Rosen A (1967) A study on the effect of lanatoside C on ventricular automati-city in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 23:43–47Google Scholar
  180. Edmonds CJ, Jasani BM (1972) Total-body potassium in hypertensive patients during prolonged diuretic therapy. Lancet 2:8–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Eichelbaum M (1976) Drug metabolism in thyroid disease. Clin Pharmacokinetics 1:339–350Google Scholar
  182. Eickenbusch W, Lahrtz H, Seppelt U, Zwieten van PA (1970) Serum concentration and urinary excretion of 3H-ouabain and 3H-digitoxin in patients suffering from hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Klin Wochenschr 48:270–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Ejvinsson G (1978) Effect of quinidine on plasma concentrations of digoxin. Br Med J 1:279–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. El-Sherif N, Lazzara R (1978) Reappraisal of the mechanism of action of antiarrhythmic drugs on ischemic reentrant ventricular arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 41:417Google Scholar
  185. Engel TR, Schaal SF (1973) Digitalis in sick sinus syndrome; the effects of digitalis on sinoatrial automaticity and atrioventricular conduction. Circulation 48:1201–1207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Enselberg CD, Simmons HC, Mintz AA (1950) The effects of potassium upon the heart, with special reference to the possibility of treatment of toxic arrhythmias due to digitalis. Am Heart J 39:713–728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Erdmann E (1977) Cell membrane receptors for cardiac glycosides in the heart. Basic Res Cardiol 72:315–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Erdmann E, Boite HD (1979) Zellulärer Mechanismus der Digitaliswirkung. In: Greeff K, Rietbrock N (Hrsg) Digitoxin als Alternative in der Therapie der Herzinsuffizienz. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, S 131–140Google Scholar
  189. Erdmann E, Bolte HD (1981) Über den Wirkmechanismus der Herzglykoside unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Digoxins. In: Kochsiek K, Rietbrock R (Hrsg) Digitalistherapie bei Herzinsuffizienz. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München Wien Baltimore, S 66–70Google Scholar
  190. Erdmann E, Hasse W (1975) Quantitative aspects of ouabain binding to human erythrocytes and cardiac cell membranes. J Physiol 251:671–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Erdmann E, Schoner W (1974) Die Affinität verschieden strukturierter Herzglykoside sowie DPH und Ro 2–2985 zum Glykosidrezeptor. Verh Dtsch Ges Kreislaufforsch 40:309–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Erdmann E, Werdan K (1981) Untersuchungen zur Chinidin-, Digoxin- und Chinidin-Digitoxin-Interaktion. In: Kochsiek K, Rietbrock R (Hrsg) Digitalistherapie bei Herzinsuffizienz. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München Wien Baltimore, S 143–145Google Scholar
  193. Erdmann E, Bolte HD, Lüderitz B (1971) The (Na++K+)-ATPase activity of guinea pig heart muscle in potassium deficiency. Arch Biochem 145:121–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Erdmann E, Krawietz W, Poppert D (1976 a) Experimentelle und klinische Befunde zur Therapie der Herzglykosidintoxikation. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 82: 1678–1681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Erdmann E, Presek P, Swozil R (1976 b) Über den Einfluß von Kalium auf die Bindung von Strophanthin an menschliche Herzmuskelzellmembranen. Klin Wochenschr 54: 383–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Erdmann E, Krawietz W, Vogt W (1976c) Zur Bedeutung der Digoxin-Serumkonzentration und deren Beeinflussung. Fortschr Med 94:567–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Erlij D, Mendez R (1964) The modification of digitalis intoxication by excluding adrenergic influences on the heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 144:97–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Ettinger S, Gould L, Carmichael JA, Tashjian RJ (1969) Phentolamine: use in digitalisinduced arrhythmias. Am Heart J 77:636–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Ettinger PO, Calabro J, Regan TJ, Oldewurtel HA (1977) Origin of acetyl strophanthidin-induced ventricular arrhythmias. J Clin Invest 59:193–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Evans DE, Gillis RA (1974) Effect of diphenylhydantoin and lidocaine on cardiac arrhythmias induced by hypothalamic stimulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 191:506–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Evans DE, Gillis RA (1975) Effect of ouabain and its interaction with diphenylhydantoin on cardiac arrhythmias induced by hypothalamic stimulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 195:577–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Evered DC, Chapman C (1971) Plasma digoxin concentrations and digoxin toxicity in hospital patients. Br Heart J 33:540–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Ewy GA, Kapadia GG, Yao L, Cullin M, Marcus FJ (1969) Digoxin metabolism in the elderly. Circulation 39:449–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Ewy GA, Groves BM, Ball FM, Nimmo B, Jackson FI (1971) Digoxin metabolism in obesity. Circulation 44:810–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Ewy GA, Marcus FI, Fillmore SJ (1974) Digitalis intoxication. Diagnosis, management, and prevention. Cardio vasc Clin VI/2:153–174Google Scholar
  206. Farah A, Loomis TA (1950) The action of cardiac glycosides on mental auricular flutter. Circulation 2:742–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Ferrer IM (1977) Preexcitation. Am J Med 62:715–730Google Scholar
  208. Ferrer MI, Bradley SE, Wheeler HO, Enson YP, Harvey RM (1965) The effect of digoxin in the splanchnic circulation in ventricular failure. Circulation 32:524–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Ferrier GR (1976) The effects of tension on acetyl-strophanthidin-induced transient depolarizations and after-contractions in canine myocardial and Purkinje tissue. Circ Res 38:156–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Ferrier GR (1977) Digitalis arrhythmias: Role of oscillatory afterpotentials. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 19:459–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Ferrier GR, Moe GK (1973) Effect of calcium on acetyl-strophanthidin-induced transient depolarizations in canine Purkinje tissue. Circ Res 33:508–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Ferrier GR, Saunders JH, Mendez C (1973) A cellular mechanism for the generation of ventricular arrhythmias by acetylstrophanthidin. Circ Res 32:600–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Feuerstein J, Mantz JM, Kurtz D, Isch-Treussard C (1973) EEG and massive digitalis intoxication. A case of epi-respiratory manifestations and prolonged apnoea. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 34:313–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Fingl E, Woodbury LA, Hecht HH (1951) Effects of innervation and drugs upon direct membrane potentials of embryonic chick myocardium. J Pharmacol 104:103–114Google Scholar
  215. Finkelstein FO, Goffinet JA, Hendler ED, Lindenbaum J (1975) Pharmacokinetics of digoxin and digitoxin in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Am J Med 58:525–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Fisch C, Knoebel SB (1970) Recognition and therapy of digitalis toxicity. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 13:71–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Fisch C, Stone JM (1969) Recognition and treatment of digitalis toxicity. In: Fisch C, Surawicz B (eds) Digitalis. Grime & Stratton, New York, p 168Google Scholar
  218. Fisch C, Greenspan K, Knoebel S, Feigenbaum H (1964) Effects of digitalis on conduction of the heart. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 6:343–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Flacke JW, Osgood PF, Bendixen BB (1967) Propranolol and isoproterenol in dogs deprived of sympathetic nerve activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 158:519–530Google Scholar
  220. Flasch CI, Heinz N (1979) Multizentrische Studie zur Therapie mit Digoxin-Tabletten hoher biologischer Verfügbarkeit. Arzneim Forsch 29:1737–1772Google Scholar
  221. Flasch H, Flasch CJ (1981) Nebenwirkungshäufigkeit bei digitalisierten Patienten. Ärztl Forsch 28:31Google Scholar
  222. Fogelman AM, LaMont JT, Finkelstein S et al. (1971) Fallibility of plasma-digoxin in differentiating toxic from non-toxic patients. Lancet 2:727–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Follath F, Roth M (1980) Bedeutung der Serumkonzentrationsbestimmung bei der Diagnose einer Digitalisintoxikation. Cardiology [Suppl I] 65:9–12Google Scholar
  224. Follath F, Roth M, Wenk M, Peyer H, Fridrich R (1977) Bestimmung des Serumdigoxins: Ein Weg zur besseren Therapiekontrolle? Schweiz Med Wochenschr 107:1561–1563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Foster PR, King RM, DeB Nicoll A, Zipes DP (1976) Suppression of ouabain-induced ventricular rhythms with aprindine HCl. A comparison with other antiarrhythmic agents. Circulation 53:315–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Friedberg CK, Donoso E (1960) Arrhythmias and conduction disturbances due to digitalis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2:408–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Frye RL, Braunwald E (1971) Studies on digitalis III. The influence of triiodothyronine on digitalis requirements. Circulation 23:376–382Google Scholar
  228. Gabriel KL, Roberts J, Kelliher GH (1975) Effect of denervation of the non-uniform effect of ouabain in the heart. Fed Proc 34:745Google Scholar
  229. Gabriel KL, Kelliher GJ, Roberts J, Overton WR (1978) Involvement of adrenergic nervous influences in ouabain-induced non-uniformity of ventricular repolarization. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 207:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Gadsby DC, Cranefield PF (1979) Direct measurement of changes in sodium pump current in canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:1783–1787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Gaffney TE, Kahn JB Jr, Van Mannen EF, Acheson GH (1958) A mechanism of the vagal effect of cardiac glycosides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 122:423–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Gaffney TE, Braunwald E, Kahler RL (1961) Effects of guanethidine on tri-iodothyronine-induced hyperthyroidims in man. N Engl J Med 265:16–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Gaffney TE. Lipicky RJ (1969) The cardiac pharmacology of digitalis and of antiarrhythmic and antihypertensive drugs. In: Gordon BL, Carleton RA, Faber LP (eds) Clinical cardiopulmonary physiology, 3rd edn. Grune & Stratton, New York, p 91Google Scholar
  234. Galmarini D, Campodonico JF, Wenk RD (1973) Effect of alkalosis on ouabain toxicity in the dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 186:199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Gambassi G, Carbonin PU (1980) L’impiego clinico dei glicosidi cardioattivi. Boll Soc Ital Cardiol [Suppl] 71–97Google Scholar
  236. Garvey HL (1970) The nervous system as a site of digitalis action. Cardiovasc Res 4:202Google Scholar
  237. Gassel WD, Wol J, Kaffarnik H (1971) Zum Digitaliseinfluß auf die Kammerendteile des EKG’s bei Patienten mit Thyreotoxikose. Klin Wochenschr 49:1128–1133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Gaultier M, Fournier E, Efthymiou ML, Frejaville JP, Jouannot P, Dentan M (1968) Intoxication digitalique aiguë (70 observations). Bull Soc Med Hop Paris 119:247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Geier GE, Dayton MA, Wightman RM (1977) Electrochemical detection of synaptosomal release of endogenous dopamine. Neurosci Abstr 3:1289Google Scholar
  240. Geiger HJ, Rietbrock N (1976) Narkosevorbereitung mit Digoxin. Plasmakonzentrationen nach präoperativer Digitalisierung. Anaesthesist 25:405–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Gelles JM, Aronson RS, Hoffman BF (1975) Effect of transmembrane potential on the manifestations of ouabain toxicity in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers. Cardiovasc Res 9:600–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Gessman L, Rosen M (1980) The cellular electrophysiologic effects of digitalis and quini-dine. Circulation [Suppl III] 62:282Google Scholar
  243. Ghani MF, Smith JR (1974) The effectiveness of magnesium chloride in the treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias due to digitalis intoxication. Am Heart J 88:621–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Gibson D, Sowton E (1969) The use of beta-adrenergic receptor blocking drugs in dysrhythmias. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 12:16–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Gilfrich H J (1976) Untersuchungen zur Pharmakokinetik von Digoxin bei hyperthyreoten Patienten. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 82:1726–1728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Gilfrich HJ, Schölmerich P (1975) Digitalisintoxikation. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 100:831–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Gilfrich HJ, Okonek S, Manns M, Schuster CJ (1978) Digoxin and digitoxin elimination in man by charcoal hemoperfusion. Klin Wochenschr 56:1179–1183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Gillis RA (1969) Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity: Changes induced by ouabain and propranolol. Science 166:508–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Gillis RA, Quest JA (1979) The role of the nervous system in the cardiovascular effects of digitalis. Pharmacol Rev 31:19–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Gillis RA, McClellan JR, Sauer TS, Standaert FG (1971) Depression of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity by diphenylhydantoin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 179:599–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Gillis RA, Dionne RA, Standaert FG (1972) Suppression by Clonidine (St-155) of cardiac arrhythmias induced by digitalis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 182:218–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Gillis RA, Glancy MM, Anderson RJ (1973) Deleterious effects of bretylium in cats with digitalis-induced ventricular tachycardia. Circulation 47:974–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Gillis RA, Quest JA, Thibodeaux H, Clancy MM, Evans DE (1975) Neural mechanisms involved in acetylstrophanthidin-induced bradycardia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 193:336–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Gillmann H (1963) Grundlagen der Therapie mit Herzglykosiden. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 88:10–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. Gilmore JP, Zucker IH (to be published) Characterization of atrial stretch receptors under normal and pathologic states. In: Symposium on Cardiac Receptors. Cambridge University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  256. Glynn IM (1964) The effect of cardiac glycosides on ion movements. Pharmacol Rev 16:381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Gold H, Edwards DJ (1927) The effects of ouabain on the heart in the presence of hypercalcemia. Am Heart J 3:45–50Google Scholar
  258. Goldfinger SE, Heizer WD, Smith TW (1973) Absorption of digoxin in patients with malabsorption syndrome. In: Storstein O (ed) International Symposium on Digitalis. Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, Oslo, p 224Google Scholar
  259. Goldman RH, Harrison DC (1970) The effect of hypoxemia and hypercapnea on myocardial catecholamines. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 174:307–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Goldman RH, Kleiger RE, Schweizer E, Harrison DC (1971) The effect of myocardial 3H-digoxin of magnesium deficiency. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 136:747–759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Goldman RH, Coltart DJ, Friedman JP (1973) The inotropic effects of digitalis on hyperkalemia. Circulation 48:830–838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Goldsmith C, Kapadia GG, Nimmo L et al. (1969) Correlation of digitalis intoxication with myocardial concentration of tritiated digoxin in hypokalemic and normokalemic dogs. Circulation [Suppl 3] 92:39–40Google Scholar
  263. Goldstein RF, Penzotti SC, Kuehl KS, Prindle KH Jr, Hall CA, Titus EO, Epstein SI (1973) Correlation of antiarrhythmic effects of diphenylhydantoin with digoxin-induced changes in myocardial contractility, sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity, and potassium efflex. Circ Res 33:175–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Goodman DJ, Rossen RM, Ingham R, Rider AK, Harrison DC (1975 a) Sinus node function in the denervated human heart. Effect of digitalis. Br Heart J 37: 612–618Google Scholar
  265. Goodman DJ, Rossen RM, Dannom DS, Rider AK, Harrison DC (1975 b) Effects of digoxin on atrioventricular conduction. Studies in patients with and without cardiac autonomic innervation. Circulation 51: 251–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Gorodischer R, Jusko WJ, Jaffe S J (1977) Renal clearance of digoxin in young infants. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 16:363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Gould L, Zahir M, Shariff M, Guiliani MG (1969) Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias with phentolamine. Am Heart J 78:189–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Gould L, Umali F, Colinaberranco M, Gomprecht RF (1972) Control of supraventricular premature beats with phentolamine. J Clin Pharmacol 12:356–361Google Scholar
  269. Grabensee B (1977) Hämoperfusion. In: Just HJ, Schuster HP (Hrsg) Intensivmedizin der inneren Medizin, Bd 8. Thieme, Stuttgart, S 80Google Scholar
  270. Grabensee B, Peters U, Risler T, Grosse-Brockhoff F (1978) Digitoxin and digoxin in patients with chronic renal failure and on hemodialysis. In: Bodem G, Dengler HJ (eds) Cardiac glycosides. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 317–323Google Scholar
  271. Grabensee B, Peters U, Risler T (1981) Digitoxin-Elimination durch Plasmaseparation. In: Kochsiek K, Rietbrock R (Hrsg) Digitalistherapie bei Herzinsuffizienz. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München Wien Baltimore, S 157–158Google Scholar
  272. Grahame-Smith DG, Everest MS (1969) Measurement of digoxin in plasma and its use in diagnosis of digoxin intoxication. Br Med J 1:286–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Greeff K (1982) Interaktion herzwirksamer Glykoside mit anderen Arzneimitteln. Verh Dtsch Ges Herz-Kreislaufforsch 48:40–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Greeff K, Köhler E, Fortmüller HW, Schmidt R (1973) Wechselwirkungen zwischen herzwirksamen Glykosiden und β-Sympathikomimetika. Arzneim Forsch 23:759–764Google Scholar
  275. Green LH, Smith TW (1977) The use of digitalis in patients with pulmonary disease. Ann Intern Med 87:459–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Greenberger NJ (1968) The intestinal absorption of digitalis glycosides. A neglected area. Am J Med Sci 256:207–209Google Scholar
  277. Greenblatt DJ (1978) International patterns of clinical use and toxicity of digitalis glycosides: Report from the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program. In: Bodem G, Dengler HJ (eds) Cardiac glycosides. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 326Google Scholar
  278. Greenspan K, Lord TJ (1973) Digitalis and vagal stimulation during atrial fibrillation: Effects on atrioventricular conduction and ventricular arrhythmias. Cardiovasc Res 7:241–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Gremels H (1935) Über die Wirkung des Vagus auf die Herztätigkeit. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 179:360–402Google Scholar
  280. Grosse-Brockhoff F, Hengels KJ, Fritsch WP, Grabensee B, Hausamen TU (1973) Serumdigoxinspiegel und Nierenfunktion. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 98:1547–1551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Gruber G, Pietruschka WD, Reuschel I, Sorger D, Günther K (1980) Zur Digoxinbehandlung im Alter unter Serumspiegelkontrolle mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Hypertonie. Z Ges Inn Med 35:17–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Grupp G, Charles A (1964) Effect of ouabain and 3-acetylstrophanthidin on potassium exchange in the dog heart in situ. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 143:356–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Güllner HG, Stinson EB, Harrison DC (1974) Correlation of serum concentrations with heart concentrations of digoxin in human subjects. Circulation 50:653–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Gundert-Remy V, Weber E (1976) Häufigkeit von auf Digitalisüberdosierung verdächtigen Symptomen und Digoxinplasmaspiegel bei stationären Patienten. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 82:1716–1717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Gursel E (1970) Effects of diuretics on renal and intestinal handling of calcium. NY State J Med 70:399–405Google Scholar
  286. Haasis R, Larbig D (1975) Serumglykosidkonzentration und Digitalisintoxikation. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 100:1768–1773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Haasis R, Larbig D, Stunkat R, Bader H, Seboldt H (1977) Radioimmunologische Bestimmung der Glykosidkonzentration im menschlichen Gewebe. Klin Wochenschr 55:23–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Härtel G, Kyllönen K, Marikallio E, Ojala K, Manninen V, Reisseil P (1976) Human serum and myocardial digoxin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 19:153–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Haft JI (1975) Clinical experience. In: Donoso E (ed) Drugs in cardiology, vol 1, part 2. Grune & Stratton, New York pp 104–123Google Scholar
  290. Hagemeijer F, Lown B (1970) Effect of heart rate on electrically induced repetitive ventricular responses in the digitalized dog. Circ Res 23: 333–344Google Scholar
  291. Hagemeijer F, Van Houwe E (1975) Titrated energy cardioversion of patients on digitalis. Br Heart J 37:1303–1307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. Hager WD, Fenster P, Mayersohn M, Perrier D, Graves P, Marcus FI, Goldman S (1979) Digoxin-quinidine interaction. N Engl J Med 300:1238–1241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Haiat R, Chapelle M, Benaim R, Witchitz S, Chiche P (1972) Effect of diphenylhydantoin on intraventricular conduction disturbance: report of a case. J Electrocardiol 5:197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. Han J, Moe GK (1964) Nonuniform recovery of excitability in ventricular muscle. Circ Res 14:44–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. Hansen HW, Marquart B, Pelz W (1974) Die Indikation für Phenytoin bei Rhythmusstörungen des Herzens. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 99:638–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Hargreave FD (1965) Digitalis and cor pulmonale (letter). Br Med J 2:943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Harrison CE Jr, Wakim KG (1969) Inhibition of binding of tritiated digoxin to myocardium by sodium depletion in dogs. Circ Res 24:263–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. Harrison DC, Robison SC (1970) Use of propranolol (Inderal) in the treatment and prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. Mod Treat 7:143–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. Harrison DG, Robinson MD, Kleiger RE (1968) Role of hypoxia in digitalis toxicity. Am J Med Sci 256:352–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Hartley H (1971) Effects of high-altitude environment on the cardiovascular system of man. JAMA 215:241–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. Hartmann CR, Klaassen CD, Huffman DH (1975) The biliary excretion of digoxin and metabolites in hyperthyroid rats. Clin Res 23: 220 AGoogle Scholar
  302. Hashimoto K, Moe GK (1973) Transient depolarizations induced by acetylstrophanthidin in specialized tissues of dog atrium and ventricle. Circ Res 32:618–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. Hauswirth O, Noble D, Tsien RW (1969) The mechanism of oscillatory activity at low membrane potentials in cardiac Purkinje fibres. J Physiol 220:225–265Google Scholar
  304. Hayes CJ, Butler VP, Gersony WM (1973) Serum digoxin studies in infants and children. Pediatrics 52:561–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Heizer WD, Smith TW, Goldfinger SE (1971) Absorption of digoxin in patients with malabsorption syndromes. N Engl J Med 285:257–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. Heifant RH, Scherlag BJ (1967) Protection from digitalis toxicity with the prophylactic use of diphenylhydantoin sodium. An arrhythmic-inotropic dissociation. Circulation 36:119–124Google Scholar
  307. Heifant RH, Scherlag BJ, Damato A (1967) The electrophysiological properties of diphenylhydantoin sodium as compared to procaine amide in the normal and digitalisintoxicated heart. Circulation 36:108–118Google Scholar
  308. Heifant RH, Seuffert GW, Patton RD, Stein E, Damato AN (1969) The clinical use of diphenylhydantoin (Dilantin) in the treatment and prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. Am Heart J 77:315–323Google Scholar
  309. Heike CJ (1978) The role of monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems. Arrhythmogenic effects of digitalis. PhD Thesis, Georgetown University, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  310. Heike CJ, Dias Souza J, Hamilton B, Gillis RA (1978 a) No evidence for a central serotonergic mechanism in arrhythmogenic effects of deslanoside (letter to the editor). Nature 274: 925–926Google Scholar
  311. Helke CJ, Kellar KJ, Gillis RA (1978 b) Effect of arrhythmic doses of deslanoside on the uptake of monoamines in brain tissue and cardiac tissue. Eur J Pharmacol 52: 47–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. Helke CJ, Zavadil AP III, Gillis RA (1979) Forebrain noradrenaline mechanisms and digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmias. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 208:57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Hellmann E, Lind A (1956) Bidirectional tachycardia. Am Heart J 51:140–148Google Scholar
  314. Hennersdorf G, Mariss P, Biermann S, Haindi H, Lichtlen P (1977) Zusammenhang digoxinbedingter kardialer Arrhythmien mit dem Serumdigoxinspiegel. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 102:381–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. Hertting G, Axelrod J, Patrick RW (1962) Actions of bretylium guanethidine on the uptake and release of H3-noradrenaline. Br J Pharmacol 18:161–166Google Scholar
  316. Hesch RD, Gerlach W, Henning HV, Emrich D, Scheler F, Kattermann R (1972) Untersuchungen zur intestinalen 47Ca-Absorption bei Gesunden und Patienten mit chronischer Niereninsuffizienz. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 97:1735–1742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. Hess T (1981) Antikörpertherapie der Digitalisintoxikation. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  318. Hess T, Scholtysk G, Riesen W (1978) The prevention and reversal of digoxin intoxication with specific antibodies. Am Heart J 96:486–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Heymans C (1929) Über die Physiologie und Pharmakologie des Herz-Zentrums. Ergeb Physiol 28:244–311Google Scholar
  320. Hillestad L, Hansteen V, Hatle L, Storstein L, Storstein O (1973) Digitalis intoxication. In: Storstein O (ed) International Symposium on Digitalis. Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, Oslo, p 281Google Scholar
  321. Hobson JD, Zettner A (1973) Digoxin serum half-life following suicidal digoxin poisoning. JAMA 223:147–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. Hoeschen RJ, Proveda V (1971) Serum digoxin by radioimmunoassay. Can Med Assoc J 105:170–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Hoffman BF (1969) Effects of digitalis on electrical acitivity of cardiac fibers. In: Fisch C, Surawicz B (eds) Digitalis. Grune & Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  324. Hoffman BF (1972) Effecs of digitalis on electrical activity of cardiac membranes. In: Marks BH, Weissler AM (eds) Basic and clinical pharmacology of digitalis. Thomas, Springfield, pp 118–127Google Scholar
  325. Hoffman BF, Cranefield PF (1960) Electrophysiology of the heart. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  326. Hoffman BF, Singer DH (1964) Effects of digitalis on electrical activity of cardiac fibers. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 7:226–260Google Scholar
  327. Hogan PM, Wittenberg SM, Klocke FJ (1973) Relationship of stimulation frequency to automaticity in the canine Purkinje fiber during ouabain administration. Circ Res 32:377–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. Holford FD, Mithoefer JC (1973) Cardiac arrhythmias in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Res Dis 108:879–885Google Scholar
  329. Holloway LS Jr, Bradley IB, Janssen H, O’Brien LJ (1976) Cardiovascular effects of cerebroventricular ouabain perfusion in the adult dog. Am J Physiol 230:1168–1172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Holzmann M (1965) Klinische Elektrokardiographie. Stuttgart, Thieme, S 694Google Scholar
  331. Holzmann M (1969) Ursache und Entstehungsbedingungen der Rhythmusstörung. Verh Dtsch Ges Kreislaufforsch 35:56–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. Hood WB Jr, McCarthy B, Lown B (1967) Myocardial infarction following coronary ligation in dogs. Circ Res 21:191–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Hooymans PM, Merkus FWHM (1978) Effect of quinidine on plasma concentration of digoxin. Br Med J 2:1022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Hordof AJ, Spotnitz A, Rosen MR (1976 a) Therapeutic and toxic effects of ouabain on human atrial specialized conducting fibers. Am J Cardiol 37: 143Google Scholar
  335. Hordof AJ, Edie R, Malm JR, Hoffman BF, Rosen MR (1976 b) Electrophysiologic properties and response to pharmacologic agents of fibers from diseased human atria. Criculation 54: 774–779Google Scholar
  336. Hordof AJ, Spotnitz A, Mary-Rabine L, Edie RN, Rosen MR (1978) The cellular electrophysiologic effects of digitalis on human atrial fibers. Circulation 57:223–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Hordof AJ, Gressman L, Danilo P et al. (1980) Ventricular arrhythmias resulting from triggered activity (abstr) Circulation [Suppl III] 62:138Google Scholar
  338. Hougen TJ, Smith TW (1978) Inhibition of myocardial cation active transport by subtoxic doses of ouabain in the dog. Circ Res 42:856–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Hougen TJ, Lloyd BL, Smith TW (1979) Effects of inotropic and arrhythmogenic digoxin doses and of digoxin-specific antibody on myocardial monovalent cation transport in the dog. Circ Res 44:23–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Howard D, Smith CI, Stewart G et al. (1973) A prospective survey of the incidence of cardiac intoxication with digitalis in patients being admitted to hospital and correlation with serum digoxin levels. Aust NZ J Med 3:279–284Google Scholar
  341. Huffman DH, Crow JW, Pentikainen P, Azarnoff DL (1976) Association between clinical cardiac status, laboratory parameters, and digoxin usage. Am Heart J 91:28–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Hurwitz N (1969) Predisposing factors in adverse reactions to drugs. Br Med J 1:536–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. Hurwitz N, Wade OL (1969) Intensive hospital monitoring of adverse reactions to drugs. Br Med J 1:531–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Idahl U (1974) Digitalis and hypomagnesemia. A case report. Opusc Med 19:163Google Scholar
  345. Iisalo E, Dahl M, Sundquist H (1973) Serum digoxin in adults and children. J Clin Pharmacol 7:219–222Google Scholar
  346. Ingelfinger JA, Goldman P (1976) The serum digitalis concentration — does it diagnose toxicity? N Engl J Med 294:867–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. Irons GV Jr, Orgain ES (1966) Digitalis-induced arrhythmias and their management. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 8:539–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Isenberg G, Trautwein W (1974) The effect of dihydroouabain and lithium ions on the outward current in cardiac Purkinje fibers. Evidence for electrogenicity of active transport. Pfluegers Arch 350:41–54Google Scholar
  349. Iseri LT, Freed J, Bures AR (1975) Magnesium deficiency and cardiac disorders. Am J Med 58:837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. Ismail-Beigi F, Edelman IS (1971) The mechanism of the calorigenic action of thyroid hormone: Stimulation of Na+ + K+-activated adenosine-triphosphatase. J Gen Physiol 57:710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. Jahrmärker H (1975) Probleme der Digitalisintoxikation. In: Jahrmärker H (Hrsg) Digitalistherapie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 80–84Google Scholar
  352. Jahrmärker H (1978) Treatment of digitalis intoxication. In: Bodem G, Dengler H J (eds) Cardiac glycosides, part II. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 367–372Google Scholar
  353. Jahrmärker H, Theisen K (1974) Kammerflattern und Kammerflimmern. In: Effert S, Antoni H (Hrsg) II.Wiener Arrhythmie-Symposium, Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, S 291Google Scholar
  354. Jelliffe RW (1967) A mathematical analysis of digitalis kinetics in patients with normal and reduced renal function. Math Bio Sci 1:305–325Google Scholar
  355. Jelliffe RW, Blankenhorn DH (1966) Effect of phenobarbital on digitoxin metabolism. Clin Res 14:160Google Scholar
  356. Jørgensen AW, Sørensen OH (1970) Digitalis intoxication. A comparative study of the incidence of digitalis intoxication during the periods 1950–52 and 1964–66. Acta Med Scand 188:179–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. Johnson BF, O’Grady J, Bye C (1978) The influence of digoxin particle size on absorption of digoxin and the effect of propantheline and metochlopramide. Br J Clin Pharmacol 5:465–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Johnson GD, McDevitt DG (1980) Epidemiology of plasma digoxin concentrations in three patient populations. Ir J Med Sci 149:43–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. Johnston CI, Pinkus NB, Down M (1972) Plasma digoxin levels in digitalized and toxic patients. Med J Aust 1:863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. Juhl RP, Summers RW, Guillory JK, Blaug SM, Cheng FH, Brown DD (1976) Effect of sulfasalazine on digoxin bioavailability. Clin Pharmacol Ther 20:387–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. Jusko WJ, Weintraub M (1974) Myocardial distribution of digoxin and renal function. Clin Pharmacol Ther 16:449–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. Kalk WJ, Lawrence JR, Ratcliffe WA, Sumner DJ, Whiting B (1976) Digoxin pharmacokinetics in hyperthyroidism. Br J Clin Pharmacol 3:954Google Scholar
  363. Karliner JS (1967) Intravenous DPH sodium in cardiac arrhythmias. Dis Chest 3:256–269Google Scholar
  364. Kass RS, Tsien RW, Weingart R (1978 a) Ionic basis of transient inward current induced by strophanthidin in cardiac Purkinje fibers. J Physiol 281: 209–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. Kass RS, Lederer WJ, Tsien RW, Weingart R (1978 b) Role of calcium ions in transient inward currents and aftercontractions induced by strophanthidin in cardiac Purkinje fibers. J Physiol 281: 187–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Kassebaum DG (1963) Electrophysiological effects of strophanthin in the heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 140:329–338Google Scholar
  367. Kastor J, Goldreyer A (1973) Digitalis intoxication in patients with atrial fibrillation. Circulation 47:888–896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. Kastor JA, Yurchak PM (1967) Recognition of digitalis intoxication in the presence of atrial fibrillation. Ann Intern Med 67:1045–1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. Katsuragi T, Suzuki T (1976) Ouabain-induced release of extraneuronal catecholamine in the isolated guinea pig vas deferens. Experientia (Basel) 32:727–728Google Scholar
  370. Katz RI, Kopin IJ (1969) Electrical field-stimulated release of norepinephrine-H3 from rat atrium. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 169:229–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. Kelliher GJ, Roberts J (1973) A comparison of the effects of Sotalol and of the isomers of practolol on adrenergic nervous activity. Life Sci 13:1231–1243Google Scholar
  372. Kent KM, Smith ER, Redwood DR, Epstein SE (1973) Electrical stability of acutely ischemic myocardium: Influence of heart rate and vagal stimulation. Circulation 47:291–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. Kewitz H (1977) Erhebungen über die Arzneitherapie in der Klinik. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 83:1487–1502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. Kim YI, Noble RJ, Zipes DP (1975) Dissociation of the inotropic effect of digitalis from its effect on atrioventricular conduction. Am J Cardiol 36:459–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. Kirkendall WM, Stein JH (1968) Clinical pharmacology of furosemide and ethacrynic acid. Am J Cardiol 22:162–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Kirpekar SM, Furchgott RF (1964) The sympathomimetic action of bretylium on isolated atria and aortic smooth muscle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 143:64–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. Kisin IE (1956) Effects of cardiac denervation on sensitivity to cardiac glycosides. Farmakol Toksikol 19:41–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. Klaus W, Kuschensky G, Lüllman H (1963) The influence of therapeutic and toxic concentrations of digitoxogenin on the K flux and the ion concentrations in isolated guinea pig auricles. In: Proceedings of the First International Pharmacological Meeting, vol 3, London, p 211Google Scholar
  379. Kleiger R, Lown B (1966) Cardioversion and digitalis. II. Clinical studies. Circulation 33:878–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. Kleiger RE, Katsutaka S (1966) Effects of chronic depletion of potassium and magnesium upon the action of acetylstrophanthidin. Am J Cardiol 17:520–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. Klein U, Gikalov I, Keller M, Hoigne R (1972) “Drug monitoring” in der Medizinischen Abteilung eines Regionalspitals. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 102: 1083–1090PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. Klein MD, Lown B, Barr I, Hagemeijer F, Garrison A, Axelrod P (1974) Comparison of serum digoxin level measurement with acetyl strophanthidin tolerance testing. Circulation 49:1053–1062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. Klein MD, Mclnerey K, Levine PA, Ryan TI (1977) Digitalis tolerance in cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 39:271Google Scholar
  384. Kochsiek K, Larbig D, Haasis R (1977) Klinik und Therapie der Digitalisintoxikation. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 83:99–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. Koch-Weser J, Duhme DW, Greenblatt DJ (1974) Influence of serum digoxin concentration measurements on frequency of digitoxicity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 16:284–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. Kolman BS, Verrier RL, Lown B (1975) The effect of vagus nerve stimulation upon vulnerability of the canine ventricle: role of sympathetic-parasympathetic interactions. Circulation 52:578–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. Kolman BS, Verrier RL, Lown B (1976) Effect of vagus nerve stimulation upon excitability of the canine ventricle. Am J Cardiol 37:1041–1045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. Konzett H, Rothlin E (1952) Effect of cardioactive glycosides on a sympathetic ganglion. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 89:343–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Korth C, Marx H, Weinberg S (1937) Über die Wirkung des Strophanthins auf das Zentralnervensystem. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmakol Exp Pathol 185:42–56Google Scholar
  390. Kosowsky BD, Haft JI, Lau SH, Kohli RK (1968) The effects of digitalis on atrioventricular conduction in man. Am Heart J 75:736–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. Koup JR, Jusko WJ, Ellwood CM, Stein E, Damato AN (1975) Digoxin pharmacokinetics: Role of renal failure in dosage regimen design. Clin Pharmacol Ther 18:9–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. Kramer P (1977) Digitalis pharmacokinetics and therapy with respect to impaired renal function. Klin Wochenschr 55:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. Kramer P, Horenkamp J, Willms B, Scheler F (1970) Das Kumulationsverhalten verschiedener Herzglykoside bei Anurie. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 95:444–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. Kramer P, Quellhorst E, Horenkamp J, Scheler F (1972) Dialysance und prozentuale Elimination verschiedener Herzglykoside während der Hämo- und Peritonealdialyse. Klin Wochenschr 50:609–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. Kramer P, Langenscheid C, Saul J, Heuer E, Löffler G, Köthe E, Mcintosh C, Scheler F (1977) Plasma digoxin levels in anuric patients and normal subjects taking digoxin. Klin Wochenschr 55:245–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. Krasula R, Tanagi R, Hastreider AR, Levitsky S, Soykal F (1974) Digoxin intoxication in infants and children. J Pediatr 84:265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. Krayer O (1944) A difference in cardiodecelerator action between digitoxin and digitoxogenin. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 57:167–169Google Scholar
  398. Ku DD, Lucchesi BR (1979) Ischemic-induced alterations in cardiac sensitivity to digitalis. Eur J Pharmacol 57:135–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Lader S, Bye A, Marsdin P (1972) The measurement of plasma digoxin concentration: A comparison of two methods. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 5:22–27Google Scholar
  400. Landahl S, Lindblad B, Roupe S, Steen B, Svanborg A (1977) Digitalis therapy in a 70-year-old population. Acta Med Scand 202:437–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. Lang R, Klein HO, Weiss E, Libhaber C, Kaplinsky E (1980) Effect of verapamil on blood level and renal clearance of digoxin. Circulation [Suppl III] 62:83Google Scholar
  402. Larbig D (1975) Herzinsuffizienz: Digitalistherapie. Therapiewoche 25:48–61Google Scholar
  403. Larbig D, Haasis R (1975) Radioimmunchemische Bestimmungen der Konzentration von Digoxin und Digoxin-Derivaten. In: Jahrmärker H (Hrsg) Digitalistherapie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  404. Larbig D, Kochsiek K (1971) Radioimmunochemische Bestimmung von Digoxin im menschlichen Serum. Klin Wochenschr 49:1031–1032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. Larbig D, Kochsiek K, Schrader Chr (1972) Klinische Aspekte der radioimmunchemischen Bestimmung der Serum-Digoxinkonzentration. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 97:139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. Larbig D, Haasis R, Bundschu HD, Buckesfeld RG, Lankisch PG, Ilg R, Girudt J (1974) Radioimmunochemische Bestimmung von Digoxin und Digoxinderivaten im Serum und Urin bei normaler und eingeschränkter Nierenfunktion. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 80:1077–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. Larbig D, Haasis R, Kochsiek K (1978) Die Glykosidkonzentration und ihre klinische Bedeutung. Boehringer, Mannheim, S 88–90Google Scholar
  408. Lasagna L (1976) How useful are serum digitalis measurements? N Engl J Med 16:898–899Google Scholar
  409. Lathers CM, Kelliher GJ, Roberts J, Beasley AB (1978) Nonuniform cardiac sympathetic nerve discharge. Mechanism for coronary occlusion and digitalis-induced arrhythmia. Circulation 57:1058–1065PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. Lawrence JR, Sumner DJ, Kalk WJ, Ratcliffe WA, Whiting B, Gray K, Lindsay M (1977) Digoxin kinetics in patients with thyroid dysfunction. Clin Pharmacol Ther 22:7–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. Leachman RD, Cokkinos DVP, Cabrera R, Leatherman LL, Rochelle DG (1971) Response of the transplanted, denervated human heart to cardiovascular drugs. Am J Cardiol 27:272–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. Leahey EB, Reiffei JA, Drusin RE, Heissenbuttel RH, Lovejoy WP, Bigger JT (1978) Interaction between quinidine and digoxin. JAMA 240:533–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. Leahey ED Jr, Hougen ThJ, Bigger Th Jr, Smith THW (1980) Effect of quinidin on digoxin inhibited monovalent cation active transport. Circulation [Suppl III] 62:258Google Scholar
  414. Lederer WJ, Tsien RW (1975) Transient inward current underlying strophanthidin’s enhancement of pace-maker activity in Purkinje fibers. J Physiol 249:40–41Google Scholar
  415. Lederer WJ, Tsien RW (1976) Transient inward current underlying arrhythmogenic effects of cardiotonic steroids in Purkinje fibers. J Physiol 263:73–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. Lee KS, Klaus W (1971) The subcellular basis for the mechanism of inotropic action of cardiac glycosides. Pharmacol Rev 23:193–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. Lee TM, Kuo JS, Chai CY (1972) Central integrating mechanism of the Bezold-Jarisch and baroreceptor reflexes. Am J Physiol 222:713–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. Lee WY, Morimoto PK, Bronsky D, Waldstein SS (1961) Studies of thyroid and sympathetic nervous system interrelationships. I. The blepharoptosis of myxedema. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 21:1402–1412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. Lehmann HU (1979) Toxikologische Probleme und Risiken der Digitalisanwendung. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  420. Lehmann HU, Witt E, Temme L, Hochrein H (1980) Digitoxische Herzrhythmusstörungen in Abhängigkeit zur Höhe der Kalium- und Kreatininkonzentration im Blutserum. Intensivmed 17:153–158Google Scholar
  421. Lely AH, Van Enter CHJ (1970) Large-scale digitoxin intoxication. Br Med J 3:737–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. Levitt B, Raines A, Sohn YJ, Standaert FG, Hirshfeld JW (1970 a) The nervous system as a site of action for digitalis and antiarrhythmic drugs. Mt Sinai J Med NY 37: 227–240Google Scholar
  423. Levitt B, Gillis RA, Roberts J, Raines A (1970 b) Influence of the cardiac vagus nerves of the cardiotoxicity of acetylstrophanthidin (AcS) ouabain (O), and digitoxin (D). Pharmacologist 12:304Google Scholar
  424. Levy MN, Blattberg B (1976) Effect of vagal stimulation on the overflow of norepinephrine into the coronary sinus during cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation in the dog. Circ Res 38:81–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. Lewis PJ, Haeusler G (1975) Reduction of sympathetic nervous system activity as a mechanism for the hypotensive effect of propranolol. Nature 256:440–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. Lewis T (1911) Observations upon disorders of the hearts action. Heart 3:276–292Google Scholar
  427. Lichey J, Schröder R, Rietbrock V (1977) Aktuelle Plasmadigitoxinkonzentration von Patienten bei Krankenhausaufnahme. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 102:1056–1060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. Lindenbaum J, Maulitz RM, Butler VP Jr (1976) Inhibition of digoxin absorption by neomycin. Gastroenterology 71:399–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. Lindenbaum J, Rudd DG, Butler BP, Tse-Eng D, Saha JR (1981) Inactivation of digoxin by the gut flora: reversal by antibiotic therapy. N Engl J Med 305:789–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. Lipski JI (1975) Digitalis. In: Donoso E (ed) Drugs in cardiology, vol 1, part 2. Grune & Stratton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  431. Lloyd BL, Smith TW (1978) Contrasting rates of reversal of digoxin toxicity by digoxin-specific IgG and Fab fragments. Circulation 58:280–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. Lloyd BL, Taylor RR (1975) Augmentation of myocardial digoxin concentration in hemorrhagic shock. Circulation 51:718–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. Lloyd Bl, Taylor RR (1976) Influence of myocardial mechanical activity and coronary blood flow on myocardial digoxin uptake. Cardiovasc Res 10:487–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. Löffelholz K, Muscholl E (1970) Inhibition by parasympathetic nerve stimulation of the release of the adrenergic transmitter. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmakol Exp Pathol 267:181–184Google Scholar
  435. Lorenz RR, Powis DA, Shepherd JT (1978) Effect of acetylstrophanthidin on adrenergic neurotransmission in vascular smooth muscle. Fed Proc 37:3177Google Scholar
  436. Lossnitzer K (1971) Hypo- und Hypermagnesiämie aus kardiologischer Sicht. Klin Wochenschr 49:1153–1163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. Lowenstein JM (1965) A method for measuring plasma levels of digitalis glycosides. Circulation 31:228–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. Lown B (1968) Electrical stimulation to estimate the degree of digitalization. Am J Cardiol 22:251–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. Lown B, Levine SA (1954) Current concepts in digitalis therapy. N Engl J Med 250:866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. Lown B, Levine HD (1958) Atrial arrhythmias, digitalis and potassium. Landsberger, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  441. Lown B, Marcus FI, Levine HD (1959) Digitalis and atrial tachycardia with block. N Engl J Med 260:301–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. Lown B, Ehrlich L, Lysschultz B, Blake J (1961) Effect of digitalis in patients receiving reserpine. Circulation 24:1185–1191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. Lown B, Kleiger R, Williams J (1965) Cardioversion and digitalis drugs: Changed threshold to electric shock in digitalized animals. Circ Res 17:519–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. Lown B, Klein MD, Barr I, Hagenmeijer F, Kosowsky BD, Garrison H (1972) Sensitivity to digitalis drugs in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 30:388–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. Lown B, Graboys TB, Podrid PJ, Cohen BH, Stockman MB, Ganghan CE (1977) Effect of a digitalis drug on ventricular premature beats. N Engl J Med 296:301–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. Lucchesi BR (1977) Inotropic agents and drugs used to support the failing heart. In: Antonaccio M (ed) Cardiovascular pharmacology. Raven Press, New York, p 337Google Scholar
  447. Luckey H (1954) Selection of digitalis preparations and their proper administration. Conference on therapy. Am J Med 17:271–286Google Scholar
  448. Lüderitz B (1979) Wirkung körpereigener Hormone auf elektrophysiologische Meßgrößen des Herzens. In: Antoni H, Bender F, Gerlach E, Schlepper M (Hrsg) Herzrhythmusstörungen: Neue theoretische und klinische Aspekte. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, S 123–138Google Scholar
  449. Lüderitz B, Naumann d’Alnoncourt C, Bolte HD (1972) Zur kardialen Wirkung der Schilddrüsenhormone. Elektrophysiologische Messungen am Papillarmuskel des Herzens. Klin Wochenschr 50:978–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. Lüderitz B, Steinbeck G, Bolte HD (1973) Zur Glykosidwirkung beim chronischen Kaliummangel — myokardiale Kationenkonzentrationen und elektrophysiologische Parameter. Intensivmedizin 10:17–22Google Scholar
  451. Lukas DS (1972) Of toads and flowers. Circulation 46:1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. Lukas DS, Peterson RE (1966) Double isotope dilution derivative assay of digitoxin in plasma, urine and stool of patients maintained on the drug. J Clin Invest 45:782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. Luria MH, Adelson EI, Miller AJ (1966) Acute and chronic effects of an adrenergic beta-receptor blocking agent (propranolol) in treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Circulation 34:767–773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. Lydtin H (1975) Interaktion zwischen Herzglykosiden, β-Rezeptorenblockern und anderen Arzneimitteln. In: Jahrmärker H (Hrsg) Digitalistherapie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 96–104Google Scholar
  455. Malcolm A, Coltart J (1977) Relation between concentrations of digoxin in the myocardium and in the plasma. Br Heart J 39:935–938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. Malmcrona R (1972) Use of digitalis in the coronary care unit. In: Schröder R, Greeff K (Hrsg) Aktuelle Digitalisprobleme. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München Berlin Wien, S 79Google Scholar
  457. Malmcrona R, Schröder G, Werkö L (1966) Hemodynamic effects of digitalis in acute myocardial infarction. Acta Med Scand 180:55–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. Mandel WJ, Bigger T, Butler VP (1972) The electrophysiologic effects of low and high digoxin concentrations on isolated mammalian cardiac tissue: Reversal by digoxin-specific antibody. J Clin Invest 51:1378–1387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. Manninen V, Nyberg L (1981) Interactions between cardiac glycosides and other substances in the body. In: Greeff K (ed) Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 56/II. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 299–336Google Scholar
  460. Manninen V, Apajalahti A, Melin J, Karesoja M (1973) Altered absorption of digoxin in patients given proprantheline and metoclopramide. Lancet I:398–400Google Scholar
  461. Marcus FI (1972) Metabolic factors determining digitalis dosage in man. In: Marks BH, Weissler AM (eds) Basic and clinical pharmacology of digitalis. Thomas, Springfield, p 243Google Scholar
  462. Marcus FI (1975) Digitalis pharmacokinetics and metabolism. Am J Med 58:452–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. Marcus FI, Peterson A, Salel A, Scully J, Kapadia GG (1966) The metabolism of tritiated digoxin in renal insufficiency in dogs and man. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 152:372–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. Margolis JR, Strauss HC, Miller HC, Gilbert M, Wallace AG (1975) Digitalis and the sick sinus syndrome. Clinical and electrophysiologic documentation of a severe toxic effect on sinus node function. Circulation 52:162–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. Mason DT, Zelis R, Lee G, Hughes JI, Spann JF, Amsterdam EH (1971) Current concepts and treatment of digitalis toxicity. Am J Cardiol 27:546–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  466. Master AM (1955) Practical considerations of digitalis administration. NY State J Med 55:619–627Google Scholar
  467. Matsui H, Schwartz A (1968) Mechanism of cardiac glycoside inhibition of the (Na+-K+)-ATPase from cardiac tissue. Biochim Biophys Acta 151:655–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. Matta RJ, Verrier RL, Lown B (1976) Repetitive extrasystole as an index of vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation. Am J Physiol 230:1469–1473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. McCall D (1979) Cation exchange and glycoside binding in cultured rat heart cells. Am J Physiol 236:C87–C95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. McCredie RM, Chia BL, Knight PW (1974) Infant versus plasma digoxin levels. Aust NZ J Med 4:223–227Google Scholar
  471. McEwen LM (1956) The effect on the isolated rabbit heart of vagal stimulation and its modification by cocaine, hexamethonium and ouabain. J Physiol 131:678–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  472. McLain PL (1970) Effects of ouabain on spontaneous efferent activity in the aortic and carotid sinus nerves of cats. Neuropharmacology 9:399–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  473. Medzihradsky F, Nandhasri PS, Khanna U (1971) Enzymatic determination of cardiac glycosides. Biochem Med 5:285–296Google Scholar
  474. Meldgaard L, Steiness E, Waldorff S (1981) Time course of ouabain uptake in isolated myocardial cells. Br J Pharmacol 73:341–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. Melville KI (1952) On the mechanism of the cardiovascular action of digitalis; observations on the influence of flaxedil, atropine or vagotomy. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 106:208–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  476. Mendez R, Mendez C (1953) The action of cardiac glycosides on the refractory period of heart tissues. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 107:24–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  477. Mendez C, Mendez R (1957) The action of cardiac glycosides on the excitability and conduction velocity of the mammalian atrium. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 121:402–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. Mendez C, Aceves J, Mendez R (1961a) Inhibition of adrenergic cardiac acceleration by cardiac glycosides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 131:191–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. Mendez C, Aceves J, Mendez R (1961b) The anti-adrenergic action of digitalis on the refractory period of the A-V transmission system. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 131:199–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  480. Merx W, Wende W, Fleischmann D, Effert S (1974) Bidirektionale paroxysmale Tachykardie mit Ursprung im linken Ventrikel. Z Kardiol 63:781–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  481. Michel D (1981) Digitalistherapie im Alter. Folge 3: Therapieüberwachung, Digitalisintoxikationen. Fortschr Med 99:1026–1028PubMedGoogle Scholar
  482. Moe GK (1975) Evidence for reentry as a mechanism of cardiac arrhythmias. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 72:56–81Google Scholar
  483. Moe GK, Mendez R (1951) The action of several cardiac glycosides on conduction velocity and ventricular excitability in the dog heart. Circulation 4:729–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  484. Morris JJ, Taft CV, Whalen RE, Mcintosh HD (1969) Digitalis and experimental myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 77:342–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  485. Morrison J, Killip T (1970) Radioimmunoassay of digitoxin. Clin Res 18:668Google Scholar
  486. Morrison J, Killip T (1971) Hypoxemia and digitalis toxicity in patients with chronic lung disease. Circulation [Suppl II] 44:41Google Scholar
  487. Morrison J, Killip T, Stason WB (1970) Serum digoxin levels in patients undergoing cardio-pulmonary bypass. Circulation [Suppl III] 42:110Google Scholar
  488. Morrison J, Donnelly W, Killip T (1972) Digitalis and acute myocardial infarction. Circulation [Suppl II] 46:113Google Scholar
  489. Morrow DH (1970) Anesthesia and digitalis toxicity. Anesth Analg (Cleve) 49:305–311Google Scholar
  490. Morrow DH, Townley NT (1964) Anesthesia and digitalis toxicity: an experimental study. Anesth Analg (Cleve) 43:510Google Scholar
  491. Morrow DH, Gaffney TE, Braunwald E (1963) Studies on digitalis. VIII. Effect of autonomic innervation and of myocardial catecholamine stores upon the cardiac action of ouabain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 140:236–242Google Scholar
  492. Moss AJ, Davis HT, Conard DL, Delamilla JJ, Odoroff CHL (1981) Digitalis-associated mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation 64:1150–1156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  493. Moysey JO, Jaggarao NSV, Grundy EN, Chamberlain DA (1981) Amiodarone increases plasma digoxin concentrations. Br Med J 282:272Google Scholar
  494. Mudge GH Jr, Lloyd BL, Greenblatt DJ, Smith TW (1978) Inotropic and toxic effects of a polar cardiac glycoside derivative in the dog. Circ Res 43:847–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. Murad F, Chi YM, Rail TW, Sutherland EW (1962) Adenyl cyclase. III. The effect of catecholamines and choline esters on the formation of adenosine 3′5′-phosphate by preparations from cardiac muscle and liver. J Biol Chem 237:1233–1238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  496. Muscholl E, Lindmar R, Löffelholz K (1973) Muscarinic inhibition of the release of the adrenergic transmitter from peripheral sympathetic fibers. Acta Physiol Pol 24:177–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  497. Myers RW, Pearlman AS, Hyman RM, Goldstein RA, Kent KM, Goldstein RE, Epstein SE (1974) Beneficial effects of vagal stimulation and bradycardia during experimental acute myocardial ischemia. Circulation 49:943–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  498. Nadeau RA, Amir-Jahed AK, Gauthier P, Perlier GA (1971) Effects of cardiac glycosides injected into the atrioventricular node artery of the dog. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 49:113–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  499. Navab F, Honey M (1967) Self-poisoning with digoxin: successful treatment with atropine. Br Med J 3:660–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  500. Neff MS, Mendelson S, Kim KE, Banach S, Swartz C, Seller RH (1972) Magnesium sulfate in digitalis toxicity. Am J Cardiol 29:377–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  501. Neuss H, Schaumann HJ, Stegaru B (1976) Drug effects on AV-conduction. In: Lüderitz B (ed) Cardiac pacing, diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 132Google Scholar
  502. Noble D, Tsien RW (1968) The kinetics and rectifier properties of the slow potassium current in cardiac Purkinje fibers. J Physiol 195:184–214Google Scholar
  503. Nowak FG (1981) Pathogenese und Differentialtherapie akut bedrohlicher Herzrhythmusstörungen. Pharmakotherapie 4:1–20Google Scholar
  504. Nyberg L, Wettrell G (1978) Digoxin dosage schedules for neonates and infants based on pharmacokinetic considerations. Clin Pharmacokinetics 3:453–461Google Scholar
  505. Oberg B, Thoren P (1972) Studies on left ventricular receptors, signalling in non-medullated vagal afferents. Acta Physiol Scand 85:145–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. Ochs HR, Smith TW (1977) Reversal of advanced digitoxin toxicity and modification of pharmacokinetics by specific antibodies and Fab fragments. J Clin Invest 60:1303–1313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  507. Ochs HR, Bodem G, Otten H, Meyer R, Baur MP (1978) Verhalten von Urinausscheidung und Plasmaspiegeln verschiedener Herzglykoside bei der Klinikaufnahme. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 84:749–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  508. Ogilvie RI, Ruedy J (1972) An educational program in digitalis therapy. JAMA 222 1:50–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  509. Ohnhaus EE, Spring P, Dettli L (1974) Eliminationskinetik und Dosierung von Digoxin bei Patienten mit Niereninsuffizienz. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 99:1797–1803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  510. Ohnhaus EE, Vozeh S, Nüesch E (1975) Untersuchungen zur Resorption von Digoxin bei Patienten mit dekompensierter Rechtsherzinsuffizienz. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 105:1782–1783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  511. Okita GT, Richardson F, Roth-Schechter BF (1973) Dissociation of the positive inotropic action of digitalis from inhibition of sodium and potassium activated adenosine triphosphatase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 185:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  512. Oliver GC, Parker BM, Parker CW (1971) Radioimmunoassay for digoxin. Technic and clinical application. Am J Med 51:186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  513. Osterberg RE, Raines A (1973) Changes in spinal neural mechanisms associated with digitalis administration. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 187:246–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. Pace DG, Gillis RA (1976) Neuroexcitatory effects of digoxin in the cat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 199:583–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  515. Pace DG, Martin P (1978) Interactions between digoxin and brief vagal bursts influencing atrioventricular conduction. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 205:657–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. Pace DG, Quest JA, Gillis RA (1974) The effect of the vagus nerves on the bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias induced by digitoxin and digoxin. Eur J Pharmacol 28:288–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  517. Paciaroni E, Foschi F, Victori N, Saccomanno G, Raspa EG (1974) La digoxinemia nei soggeti con core pulmonese cronico. Giornale Gerontology 22:832–836Google Scholar
  518. Paes de Carvalho A (1971) Excitation del nodo auriculoventricular durante el ritmo normal. Efectos de la acetilcolina. In: Dreifus LS, Likoff W (eds) Arritmias cardiacs; décimocuarto symposium Hahneman. Cientifico-Médica, Barcelona, p 409Google Scholar
  519. Paes de Carvalho A, Langan WB (1963) Influence of extracellular potassium levels on atrioventricular transmission. Am J Physiol 205:375–381Google Scholar
  520. Papp JG, Vaughan Williams EM (1969) The effect of bretylium on intracellular cardiac action potentials in relation to its antiarrhythmic and local anesthetic activity. Br J Pharmacol 37:380–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  521. Park HM, Chen IW, Manitassas GT, Lowey A, Saenger L (1973) Clinical evaluation of radioimmunoassay of digoxin. J Nucl Med 14:531–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  522. Pebay-Peyroula F, Gaultier M, Nicaise AM (1971) Assay of digitalis glycosides: Its application in clinical toxicology. Clin Toxicol 4:419–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  523. Peleska B (1963) Cardiac arrhythmias following condenser discharges and their dependence upon strength of current and phase of cardiac cycle. Circ Res 13:21–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  524. Perry WLM, Reinert H (1954) The action of cardiac glycosides on autonomic ganglia. Br J Pharmacol 9:324–328Google Scholar
  525. Peters U, Hausamen TU, Grosse-Brockhoff F (1974) Serial tests of serum digitoxin levels during digitoxin treatment. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 99:1701–1707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  526. Peters U, Fritsch WP, Grabensee B, Hausamen TU, Grosse-Brockhoff F (1976a) Serum-Digitoxinspiegel bei terminaler Niereninsuffizienz. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med 82:1532–1535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  527. Peters U, Hausamen TU, Grosse-Brockhoff F (1976 b) Einfluß von Tuberkulostatika auf die Pharmakokinetik des Digitoxins. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 99: 2381–2386Google Scholar
  528. Peters U, Grabensee B, Hausamen TU, Fritsch WP, Grosse-Brockhoff F (1977) Pharmakokinetik von Digitoxin bei chronischer Niereninsuffizienz. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 102:109–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  529. Peters U, Risler T, Grabensee B, Hausamen TU, Grosse-Brockhoff F (1980) Interaktion von Chinidin und Digitoxin beim Menschen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 105:438–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  530. Pick A (1957) Digitalis and the electrocardiogram. Circulation 15:603–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  531. Pick A, Dominguez P (1957) Nonparoxysmal junctional tachycardia. Circulation 16:1022–1032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  532. Pick A, Igarashi M (1969) Mechanisms, differential diagnosis and clinical significance of digitalis-induced arrhythmias. In: Fisch C, Surawicz B (eds) Digitalis. Grune & Stratton, New York, p 148Google Scholar
  533. Powell JR, Fenster PE, Hager WD, Graves P, Wandell M, Kenneth C (1980) Quinidine-digoxin interaction. N Engl J Med 302:176–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  534. Prichard S, Chirito E, Chang T, Sniderman AD (1976) Microencapsulated charcoal hemo-perfusion: a possible therapeutic adjunct in digoxin toxicity. Clin Res 24: 409 AGoogle Scholar
  535. Prindle KH, Skelton CL, Epstein SE, Marcus FI (1969) Influence of extracellular potassium concentration on myocardial uptake and inotropic effect of tritiated digoxin. Circulation [Suppl III] 39/40:165Google Scholar
  536. Proper MC, Ditchek NT, Purcell AD, Smith MH (1971) Non-paroxysmal bidirectional rhythm. Chest 59:333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  537. Przybyla AC, Pavlay KL, Stein E, Damato AN (1974) Effects of digoxin on atrioventricular conduction patterns in man. Am J Cardiol 33:344–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  538. Puech P (1977) Estudios electrofisiológicos de los antiarrítmicos en el hombre. Arch Inst Nal Cardiol 47:233–247Google Scholar
  539. Puech P, Grolleau R (1972) L’activité du faisceau de His normale et pathologique. Sandoz, Paris, p 192Google Scholar
  540. Quest JA, Gillis RA (1971) Carotid sinus reflex changes produced by digitalis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 177:650–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  541. Quest JA, Gillis RA (1974) Effect of digitalis on carotid sinus baroreceptor activity. Circ Res 35:247–255Google Scholar
  542. Rabinowitz SH, Verrier RL, Lown B (1976) Muscarinic effects of vagosympathetic trunk stimulation on the repetitive extrasystole (RE) threshold. Circulation 53:622–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  543. Rahimtoola SH, Gunnar RM (1975) Digitalis in acute myocardial infarction. Help or hazard? Ann Intern Med 82:234–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  544. Rand M, Stafford A (1957) The influence of ouabain on the response of the guinea pig heart to acetylcholine, adenosine and vagal stimulation. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 109:425–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  545. Rane A, Wilson JT (1976) Clinical pharmacokinetics in infants and children. Clin Pharmacokinetics 1:2–24Google Scholar
  546. Rasmussen K, Jervell J, Storstein O (1971) Clinical use of a bio-assay of serum digitoxin activity. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 3:236–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  547. Rasmussen K, Jervell J, Storstein L, Gjerdrum K (1972) Digitoxin kinetics in patients with impaired renal function. Clin Pharmacol Ther 13:6–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  548. Rawson MD, Pincus JH (1968) The effect of diphenylhydantoin on sodium, potassium, magnesium-activated adenosine triphosphatase in microsomal fractions of rat and guinea pig brain and on whole homogenates of human brain. Biochem Pharmacol 17:573–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  549. Reicansky I, Conradson TB, Holmberg S, Ryden L, Waldenström A, Wennerblom B (1976) The effect of intravenous digoxin on the occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in acute myocardial infarction in man. Am Heart J 91:705–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  550. Reiffei JA, Bigger JT, Giardina EG Jr (1974) The effect of digoxin on sinus node automaticity and sinoatrial conduction (SAC) in man. J Clin Invest 53: 64 aGoogle Scholar
  551. Reiffei JA, Leahey EB, Drusin RE, Heissenbuttel RH, Lovejoy W, Bigger JT (1979) A previously unrecognized drug interaction between quinidine and digoxin. Clin Cardiol 2:40–42Google Scholar
  552. Repke K (1963) Metabolism of cardiac glycosides. In: Wilbrandt W (ed) Proceedings of the First International Pharmacological Meeting, vol 3. New aspects of cardiac glycosides. Pergamon Press, New York, pp 47–73Google Scholar
  553. Resnekov L (1970) Prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of digitalis-induced dysrhythmias. In: Sandoe E (ed) Symposium on Cardiac Arrhythmias. Elsinore, Astra, Södertälje, p 573Google Scholar
  554. Reza M J, Kovick RB, Shine KI, Pearce ML (1974) Massive intravenous digoxin overdosage. N Engl J Med 291:777–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  555. Rhee HM, Dutta S, Marks BH (1976) Cardiac NaK-ATPase activity during positive inotropic and toxic actions of ouabain. Eur J Pharmacol 37:141–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  556. Rios JC, Dziok CA, Ali NA (1970) Digitalis-induced arrhythmias. Recognition and management. Cardiovasc Clin 2:263Google Scholar
  557. Risler T, Grabensee B, Grosse-Brockhoff F (1974) Eliminationskinetik und Dosierung von Digoxin bei Patienten mit Niereninsuffizienz. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 99:2130–2131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  558. Risler T, Grabensee B, Grosse-Brockhoff F (1975) EKG-Veränderungen und Digoxin-Serumkonzentration bei Digitalisintoxikationen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 100:821–825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  559. Risler T, Peters U, Grabensee B, Seipel L (1979) Untersuchungen zur Interaktion von Chinidin und Digoxin. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 104:1523–1526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  560. Risler T, Peters U, Grabensee B, Seipel L (1980) Quinidine-digoxin interaction. N Engl J Med 302:175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  561. Ritzmann LW, Bangs CC, Coiner D, Custis JM, Walsh JR (1973) Serum glycoside levels by rubidium assay. Arch Intern Med 132:823–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  562. Roberts J (1970) The action of ouabain on the chronotropic effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation and isoproterenol. Eur J Pharmacol 12:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  563. Roberts J, Ehrreich S, Levitt B (1965) Some aspects of the cardiac action of reserpine and pronethalol. Fed Proc Symposium 24:1421–1427Google Scholar
  564. Roberts J, Kelliher GJ, Lathers CM (1976) Role of adrenergic influences in digitalis-induced ventricular arrhythmia. Life Sci 18:665–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  565. Rodensky PL, Wassermann F (1968) The possible role of sex in digitalis tolerance. Am Heart J 68:325–335Google Scholar
  566. Rodensky PL, Wassermann F, Gables C (1961) Observations on digitalis intoxication. Arch Intern Med 108:171–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  567. Rodrigues-Pereira E, Viana AP (1968) The actions of verapamil on experimental arrhythmias. Arzneim Forsch 18:175–179Google Scholar
  568. Rosen KM (1973) Junctional tachycardia. Mechanisms, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and management. Circulation 47:654–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  569. Rosen M, Lisak R, Rubin L (1967) Diphenylhydantoin in cardiac arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 20:674–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  570. Rosen MR, Gelband H, Hoffman BF (1973) Correlation between effects of ouabain on the canine electrocardiogram and transmembrane potentials of isolated Purkinje fibers. Circulation 47:65–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  571. Rosen MR, Ilvento JP, Gelband H, Merker Ch (1974) Effecs of verapamil on electrophysiologic properties of canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 189:414–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  572. Rosen MR, Wit AL, Hoffman BF (1975) Electrophysiology and pharmacology of cardiac arrhythmias. IV. Cardiac antiarrhythmic and toxic effects of digitalis. Am Heart J 89:391–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  573. Rosen MR, Danilo P, Alonso MB, Pippenger ChE (1976) Effects of therapeutic concentrations of diphenylhydantoin on transmembrane potentials of normal and depressed Purkinje fibers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 197:594–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  574. Rosenbaum MB, Elizari MV, Lazzari JO (1969) The mechanism of bidirectional tachycardia. Am Heart J 78:4–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  575. Ross G (1976) Adrenergic responses of the coronary vessels. Circ Res 39:461–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  576. Rothaus KO, Powell WJ Jr (1975) The role of alpha adrenergic receptors in digitoxic tachyarrhythmias. Fed Proc 34:2976Google Scholar
  577. Rotherberger CJ, Winterberg H (1913) Über den Einfluß von Strophanthin auf die Reizbildungsfähigkeit der automatischen Zentren des Herzens. Pfluegers Arch 150:217–261Google Scholar
  578. Rumack BH, Wolfe R, Gilfrich H (1974) Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin) treatment of massive digoxin overdose. Br Heart J 36:405–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  579. Sampson JJ, Albertson EC, Kondo B (1943) The effect on man of potassium administration in relation to digitalis glycosides with special reference to blood serum potassium, the electrocardiogram and ectopic beats. Am Heart J 26:164–179Google Scholar
  580. Sarangi A, Tripathy N, Lal D, Patnik BC, Swam AK (1980) Study of digoxin status in digitoxicity by radioimmunoassay. Am Heart J 99:289–293Google Scholar
  581. Sasyniuk BJ, Mendez C (1971) A mechanism for re-entry in canine ventricular tissue. Circ Res 28:3–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  582. Saunders JH, Ferrier GR, Moe GK (1973) Conduction block associated with transient depolarizations induced by acetylstrophanthidin in isolated Purkinje fibers. Circ Res 32:610–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  583. Saxena PR, Bhargava KP (1974) Central beta-adrenoceptor sites and ouabain action. Pharmacol Res Commun 6:347–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  584. Sayena PR, Bhargava KP (1975) The importance of a central adrenergic mechanism in the cardiovascular responses to ouabain. Eur J Pharmacol 31:332–346Google Scholar
  585. Schaal SF, Sugimoto T, Wallace AG, Sealy WC (1969) Effects of digitalis on the functional refractory period of the AV node: Studies in awake dogs with and without cardiac denervation. Cardiovasc Res 4:356–359Google Scholar
  586. Schafer HH, Witham AC, Burns JH (1960) Digitalis tolerance and effect of acetylstrophanthidin upon serum potassium of dogs with acidosis and uremia. Am Heart J 60:388–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  587. Schamroth L (1966) Immediate effects of intravenous propranolol on various cardiac arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 18:438–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  588. Schatzmann HJ (1953) Herzglycoside als Hemmstoffe für den aktiven Kalium- und Natriumtransport durch die Erythrocytenmembran. Helv Physiol Pharmacol Acta 11:346–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  589. Scheinman MM, Sullivan RW, Hyatt KH (1969) Magnesium metabolism in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Circulation [Suppl I] 39:235–241Google Scholar
  590. Schenk-Gustafsson K, Jogestrand T, Nordlander R (1981) Effect of quinidine on digoxin concentration in skeletal muscle and serum in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 305:209–211Google Scholar
  591. Scherlag BJ, Abelleira JL, Narula OS (1971) Differential effects of ouabain on sinus, A-V nodal, His bundle and idioventricular rhythms. Am Heart J 81:227–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  592. Scherrmann JM, Bourdon R (1976) Dosage de la digoxine par méthode radioimmunologique. Eur J Toxicol 9:133–154Google Scholar
  593. Schick D, Scheuer J (1974) Current concepts of therapy with digitalis glycosides. Am Heart J 87:391–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  594. Schmid JR, Hanna C (1967) A comparison of the antiarrhythmic actions of two new synthetic compounds, iproveratril and M J 1999, with quinidine and pronethalol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 156:331–338Google Scholar
  595. Schmidt DH, Butler VP (1971a) Reversal of digoxin toxicity with specific antibodies. J Clin Invest 50:1738–1744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  596. Schmidt DH, Butler VP (1971b) Immunological protection against digoxin toxicity. J Clin Invest 50:866–871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  597. Schmitt G, Guth V, Müller-Limmroth W (1958) Über die Wirkung von Digitalis und Strophanthin auf die Aktionspotentiale der Chemorezeptoren im Glomus caroticum der Katze. Z Biol 110:316–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  598. Schneider KW (1974) Digitalis oder Strophanthin? Med Klin 69:2006–2008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  599. Schneider J, Ruitz-Torres A (1977) Bedeutung des Körpergewichtes für die Therapie mit Digoxin und Digoxinderivaten. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 102:116–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  600. Schölmerich P, Pabst K, Jahrreis O, Lange RP (1964) Nebenwirkungen der Therapie mit Herzglykosiden. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 89:12–18Google Scholar
  601. Schoener EP, Dutta S, Kohn K, Marks BH (1976) Ouabain distribution in central nervous system after intracerebroventricular or intravenous administration. Pharmacologist 18:305Google Scholar
  602. Schrör K, Sadat-Khonsari S, Krebs R (1979) Different intracellular cation — content present in right and left ventricle dependent on varying extracellular Ca2+-concentrations. J Mol Cell Cardiol 11:45–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  603. Schwartz A (1976) Is the cell membrane Na+, K +-ATPase enzyme system the pharmacological receptor for digitalis? Circ Res 39:2–7Google Scholar
  604. Schwartz A, Matsui H, Laughter AH (1968) Tritiated digoxin binding to (Na++K+) ATPase: possible allosteric site. Science 160:323–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  605. Schwartz A, Lindenmayer GE, Allen JC (1975) The sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase: Pharmacological, physiological and biochemical aspects. Pharmacol Rev 27:3–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  606. Schwiegk H, Jahrmärker H (1960) Handbuch der inneren Medizin, Bd IX/1. Springer, Berlin Göttingen HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  607. Seevers MH, Meek WJ (1935) The cardiac irregularities produced by ephedrine after digitalis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 53:295–303Google Scholar
  608. Segawa T, Murakami H, Inouye A, Tanaka Y (1978) Effect of reserpine, ouabain and p-chloromercuribenzoate on the release of 5-hydroxy-tryptamine from rat brain synaptosomes. Jpn J Pharmacol 28:158–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  609. Seifen E (1974) Evidence for participation of catecholamines in cardiac action of ouabain. Positive chronotropic effect. Br J Pharmacol 51:481–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  610. Seifen E, Seifen A (1967) Die chronotrope Wirkung von Acetylcholin und Vagusreiz am isolierten Meerschweinchenherzen in Gegenwart von Ouabain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmakol Exp Pathol 257:334–335Google Scholar
  611. Seller RH, Cangiano J, Kim KE, Mendelsohn S, Brest AN, Dwartz C (1970) Digitalis toxicity and hypomagnesiemia. Am Heart J 79:57–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  612. Shapiro W (1978) Correlative studies of serum digitalis levels and the arrhythmias of digitalis intoxication. Am J Cardiol 41:852–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  613. Shapiro S, Slone D, Lewis GP, Jick H (1969) The epidemiology of digoxin. J Chronic Dis 22:261–371Google Scholar
  614. Shapiro W, Taubert K, Narahara K (1972) Non-radioactive serum digoxin and digitoxin levels. Arch Intern Med 130:31–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  615. Sharma VK, Banerjee SP (1978) Specific (3H) ouabain binding to rat heart and skeletal muscle: effects of thyroidectomy. Mol Pharmacol 14:122–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  616. Shenfield GM, Thompson J, Horn DB (1977) Plasma and urinary digoxin in thyroid dysfunction. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 12:437–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  617. Shim C, Williams MH Jr (1975) Cardiac response to repeated doses of isoproterenol aerosol. Ann Intern Med 83:208–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  618. Shim C, Scher SM, Williams MH Jr (1976) Effect of bronchodilator agents on arrhythmia. NY State J Med 76:1973–1976Google Scholar
  619. Shock NW (1958) The role of the kidney in electrolyte and water regulation in the ageing. In: Wolstenholme GEW, O’Connor M (eds) Colloquia on ageing. Churchill, London, p 229Google Scholar
  620. Singer DH, Lazzara R, Hoffman BF (1967) Interrelationships between automaticity and conduction in Purkinje fibers. Circ Res 21:537–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  621. Singh RB, Rai AN, Srivastav DK, Somani PN, Katiyab C (1975) Radioimmunoassay of serum digoxin in relation to digoxin in cation. Br Heart J 37:519–623Google Scholar
  622. Skou JC (1957) The influence of some cations on an adenosine triphosphatase from peripheral nerves. Biochim Biophys Acta 23:394–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  623. Sloman G, Stannard M (1967) Beta-adrenergic blockade and cardiac arrhythmias. Br Med J 4:508–512Google Scholar
  624. Sloman G, Robinson JS, McLean K (1965) Propranolol (Inderal) in persistent ventricular fibrillation. Br Med J 1:895–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  625. Smith TW (1970) Radioimmunoassay for serum digoxin concentration: methodology and clinical experience. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 175:352–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  626. Smith TW (1972 a) Contribution of quantitative assay technics to the understanding of the clinical pharmacology of digitalis. Circulation 46: 188–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  627. Smith TW (1972b) Ouabain-specific antibodies: Immunochemical properties and reversal of Na+, K +-activated adenosine triphosphatase inhibition. J Clin Invest 51:1583–1593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  628. Smith TW (1975) Digitalis toxicity: epidemiology and clinical use of serum concentration measurements. Am J Med 58:470–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  629. Smith TW, Haber E (1970) Digoxin intoxication: the relationship of clinical presentation to serum digoxin concentration. J Clin Invest 49:2377–2386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  630. Smith TW, Willerson JT (1971) Suicidal and accidental digoxin ingestion: Report of five cases with serum digoxin level correlations. Circulation 44:29–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  631. Smith TW, Butler VP, Haber E (1969) Determination of therapeutic and toxic serum digoxin concentrations by radioimmunoassay. N Engl J Med 281:1212–1216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  632. Smith TW, Abelmann WH, Haber E, Hood WB (1971) Digitalis intoxication. A prospective study with serum level correlations. N Engl J Med 284:989–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  633. Smith TW, Haber E, Yeatman L, Butler VP Jr (1976) Reversal of advanced digoxin intoxication with Fab fragments of digoxin-specific antibodies. N Engl J Med 294:797–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  634. Smith TW, Butler VP Jr, Haber E (1977) Cardiac glycoside-specific antibodies in the treatment of digitalis intoxication. In: Haber E, Krause RM (eds) Antibodies in human diagnosis and therapy. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  635. Sodeman WA (1965) Diagnosis and treatment of digitalis toxicity. N Engl J Med 273:35–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  636. Soffer A (1961) The changing clinical picture of digitalis intoxication. Arch Intern Med 107:681–688Google Scholar
  637. Solomon HM, Abrams WB (1972) Interactions between digitoxin and other drugs in man. Am Heart J 83:277–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  638. Solomon HM, Reich S, Spirt N, Abrams WD (1971) Interactions between digitoxin and other drugs in vitro and in vivo. Ann NY Acad Sci 179:362–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  639. Solti F, Iskum M, Nagy J (1965 a) Studies on the acute cardiac action of strophanthin in the dog by means of cardiac denervation. Acta Physiol Acad Sci Hung 26: 377–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  640. Solti F, Marton I, Papp M (1965 b) Effect exerted by strophanthin through the central nervous system on ECG and heart action. Acta Med Hung 21: 107–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  641. Somani P, Lum BK (1965) The antiarrhythmic actions of beta adrenergic blocking agents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 147:194–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  642. Somberg JC, Smith TW (1979) Localization of the neurally mediated arrhythmogenic properties of digitalis. Science 204:321–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  643. Somberg JC, Mudge GH Jr, Smith TW (1978) Therapeutic and toxic effects of charged digitalis derivatives. Circulation [Suppl II] 58:72Google Scholar
  644. Somberg JC, Knox S, Miura DS, Bent P (1980) Quinidine-digitalis interaction: Effect on cardiac Purkinje fibers and myocardium. Circulation [Suppl III] 62:257Google Scholar
  645. Somlyo AP (1960) The toxicology of digitalis. Am J Cardiol 5:523–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  646. Somoggi G, Kaldor A, Jankovics A (1972) Plasma concentrations of cardiac glycosides in digitalis intoxication. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 4:158–161Google Scholar
  647. Sowton E (1974) Beta-blockers. Internat Symposium, Juan-les-Pins, Schweizer, Huber Berne, p 230Google Scholar
  648. Spain RC, Chidsey CA (1971) Myocardial Na/K adenosine triphosphatase activity during reversal of ouabain toxicity with diphenylhydantoin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 179:594–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  649. Spurrell RAJ, Krikler DM, Sowton E (1974) Effects of verapamil on electrophysiological properties of anomalous atrioventricular connexion in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Br Heart J 36:256–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  650. Standaert F, Levitt B, Roberts J, Raines A (1969) Antagonism of ventricular arrhythmias induced by digitalis. — A neural phenomenon? Eur J Pharmacol 6:209–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  651. Steinbeck G, Lüderitz B (1977) Sinoatrial pacemaker shift following atrial stimulation in man. Circulation 56:402–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  652. Steinbeck G, Erdmann E, Lüderitz B, Boite HD (1973) Einfluß herzaktiver Glykoside auf die intrazelluläre Kalium- und Natriumkonzentration des Myokards bei chronischem Kaliummangel. Verh Dtsch Ges Kreislaufforsch 39:170–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  653. Steinbeck G, Allessie MA, Bonke FIM, Lammers WJEP (1978 a) Sinus node response to premature atrial Stimulation in the rabbit studies with multiple microelectrode impalements. Circ Res 43: 695–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  654. Steinbeck G, Rosenberger W, Naumann d’Alnoncourt C, Lüderitz B (1978 b) Sinus node function and digitalis. Electrophysiological studies in man. In: Troubles du rythme et électrostimulation. Société de la Nouvelle Imprimerie Fournié, Toulouse, France, p 79Google Scholar
  655. Steiness E (1974) Renal tubular secretion of digoxin. Circulation 50:103–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  656. Steiness E (1981) Diuretics, digitalis and arrhythmias. Acta Med Scand [Suppl] 647:75–85Google Scholar
  657. Steiness E (1978 a) Digoxin toxicity compared with myocardial digoxin and potassium concentration. Br J Pharmacol 63: 233–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  658. Steiness E (1978 b) Suppression of renal excretion of digoxin in hypokalemic patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 23: 511–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  659. Steiness E, Olesen KH (1976) Cardiac arrhythmias induced by potassium loss during maintenance digoxin therapy. Br Heart J 38:167–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  660. Stephen SA (1966) Unwanted effects of propranolol. Am J Cardiol 18:463–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  661. Stickney JL, Lucchesi BR (1969) The effect of sympatholytic agents on the cardiovascular responses produced by the injection of acetylstrophanthidin into the cerebral ventricles. Eur J Pharmacol 6:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  662. Stock JPP (1966) Beta adrenergic blocking drugs in the clinical management of cardiac arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 18:444–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  663. Stock JPP (1972) Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Butterworths, London, p 226Google Scholar
  664. Stone N, Klein MD, Lown B (1971) Diphenylhydantoin in the ventricular tachycardia. Circulation 43:420–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  665. Storstein L (1974 a) Studies on digitalis. II. The influence of impaired renal function on the renal excretion of digitoxin and its cardioactive metabolites. Clin Pharmacol Ther 16: 25–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  666. Storstein L (1974b) Studies on digitalis. I. Renal excretion of digitoxin and its cardioactive metabolites. Clin Pharmacol Ther 16:14–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  667. Storstein L (1981) Digitoxinintoxikation. In: Kochsiek K, Rietbrock R (Hrsg) Digitalistherapie bei Herzinsuffizienz. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München Wien Baltimore, S 112–117Google Scholar
  668. Storstein L, Janssen H (1976) Studies on digitalis. VI. The effect of heparin on serum protein binding of digitoxin and digoxin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 20:15–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  669. Storstein L, Lippe A, Amlie J, Storstein O (1979) Is there an interaction between digitoxin and quinidine? Circulation [Suppl II] 59/60:230Google Scholar
  670. Storstein O, Landmark KH (1975) Verapamil in the treatment of atrial tachycardia with block. Acta Med Scand 198:483–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  671. Storstein O, Hansteen V, Hatle L, Hillestad L, Storstein L (1977) Studies on digitalis. XIII. A prospective study of 649 patients on maintenance treatment with digitoxin. Am Heart J 93:434–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  672. Straub K (1980) Quinidine-digoxin interaction. N Engl J Med 302:176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  673. Straub K, Bissett JK, Doherty JE, Kane JJ, Murphy ML (1979) Differential effects of quinidine and procainamide on ouabain binding to myocardial membranes. Clin Res 27: 206 aGoogle Scholar
  674. Strauss HC (1966) Role of electrolytes in etiology and management of cardiac arrhythmias. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 8:364Google Scholar
  675. Strauss HC, Bigger JT Jr, Basset AI, Hoffman BF (1968) Actions of diphenylhydantoin on the electrical properties of isolated rabbit and canine atria. Circ Res 23:463–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  676. Surawicz B (1959) Use of the chelating agents, EDTA, in digitalis intoxication and cardiac arrhythmias. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2:432–443Google Scholar
  677. Surawicz B (1966) Role of electrolytes in etiology and management of cardiac arrhythmias. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 8:364–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  678. Surawicz B, Mortelmans S (1969) Factors affecting individual tolerance to digitalis. In: Fisch C, Surawicz B (eds) Digitalis. Grune & Stratton, New York, pp 127–147Google Scholar
  679. Suzuki M, Ogawa K (1980) Clinical studies on digoxin intoxication. I. Serum concentration of digoxin in the elderly and the effect of diuretics. Jpn Heart J 21:341–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  680. Swanson M, Cacace L, Chun G, Itano M (1973) Saliva calcium and potassium concentrations in the detection of digitalis toxicity. Circulation 47:736–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  681. Szefler SJ, Jusko WJ (1973) Decreased volume of distribution of digoxin in a patient with renal failure. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 6:1095–1098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  682. Szekely P, Jackson F, Wynne NA, Vohra JK, Batson GA, Dow WIM (1966) Clinical observations on the use of propranolol in disorders of cardiac rhythm. Am J Cardiol 18:426–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  683. Tadei A, Geslin Ph, Victor J, Jallet P, Galland F, Gallois Y (1976) Intérêt clinique du dosage sanguin de la digoxine. Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) 25:13–22Google Scholar
  684. Takahashi M, Sada T, Taneichi Y, Okabe F, Ito Y, Morishima A (1979) Some observations on serum concentrations of digitoxin and digoxin. Jpn Heart J 20:623–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  685. Tanabe T (1968) A comment on the interaction between digitalis and other drugs. Jpn Heart J 9:225–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  686. Taylor RR, Johnston CI, Jose AD (1964) Reversal of digitalis intoxication by betaadrenergic blockade with pronethalol. N Engl J Med 271:877–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  687. Ten Eick RE, Hoffman BF (1969 a) The effect of digitalis on the excitability of autonomic nerves. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 169: 95–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  688. Ten Eick RE, Hoffman BF (1969 b) Chronotropic effect of cardiac glycosides in cats, dogs, and rabbits. Circ Res 25: 365–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  689. Ten Eick RE, Wyte SE, Ross SM, Hoffman BF (1967) Post-countershock arrhythmias in untreated and digitalized dogs. Circ Res 21:375–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  690. Ten Eick RE, Basset AL, Okita GT (1973) Dissociation of electrophysiological and inotropic actions of strophanthidin-3-bromoacetate: possible role of adenosine triphosphatase in the maintenance of the myocardial transmembrane Na+ and K + gradients. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 185:12–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  691. Thames MD (1979) Acetylstrophanthidin-induced reflex inhibition of canine renal sympathetic nerve activity mediated by cardiac receptors with vagal afferents. Circ Res 44:8–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  692. Theisen K (1978) Medikamentöse Therapie tachykarder Herzrhythmusstörungen. Klin Wochenschr 56:153–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  693. Theisen K, Jahrmärker H (1975) Re-entry Mechanismus ventrikulärer Tachykardien bei inhomogener Repolarisation. Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Jervell- und Lange-Nielsen-Syndroms sowie ähnlicher Zustände und ihrer Therapie. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 100:1141–1147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  694. Theisen K, Jahrmärker H (1980) Medikamentöse Behandlung von Extrasystolen und Tachykardien. Münch Med Wochenschr 122:87–94Google Scholar
  695. Theisen K, Haider M, Jahrmärker H (1975) Untersuchungen ventrikulärer Tachykardien durch Re-entry bei inhomogener Repolarisation. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 100:1099–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  696. Thoa NB, Eccleston D, Axelrod J (1969) The accumulation of C14-serotonin in the guinea pig vas deferens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 169:68–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  697. Thompson AJ, Hargis J, Murphy ML, Doherty JE (1974) Tritiated digoxin. XX. Tissue distribution in experimental myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 88:319–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  698. Ticzon AR, Damato AN, Paulay KL, Ruskin JN, Seides F, Caracta AR (1976) Digitalis on the initiation and perpetuation of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in man. Circulation [Suppl II] 54:189Google Scholar
  699. Titus EO, Matussek N, Spiegel, Brodie BB (1966) The effect of desmethylimipramine on uptake of dinorepinephrine-7-H3 in the heart. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 152:469–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  700. Tiwari NM, Namaji KJ, Sadre NL (1967) Effect of pretreatment by digoxin, reserpine, bretylium tosylate and guanethidine on response of rat auricles to noradrenaline. Indian J Med Sci 21:388–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  701. Toda N, West TC (1966) Influence of ouabain on cholinergic responses in the sinoatrial node. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 153:104–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  702. Toda N, West TC (1969) The action of ouabain on the function of the atrioventricular node in rabbits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 169:287–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  703. Trautwein W, Whalen WJ, Grosse-Schulte E (1960) Elektrophysiologischer Nachweis spontaner Freisetzung von Acetylcholin im Vorhof des Herzens. Pfluegers Arch Physiol 270:560–570Google Scholar
  704. Travell J, Gold H, Modell W (1938) Effect of experimental cardiac infarction on response to digitalis. Arch Intern Med 61:184Google Scholar
  705. Tse W, Han J (1978) Interaction of epinephrine and oubain on automaticity of canine Purkinje fibers. Circ Res 34:777–782Google Scholar
  706. Turner JRB (1966) Propranolol in the treatment of digitalis-induced and digitalis resistant tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 18:450–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  707. Tuttle RR, Innes FR (1966) Interaction of pronethalol and ouabain on cardiac rhythm and automaticity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 153:211Google Scholar
  708. Vassalle M, Karis J, Hoffman BF (1962) Toxic effects of ouabain on Purkinje fibers and ventricular muscle fibers. Am J Physiol 203:433–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  709. Vassalle M, Greenspan K, Hoffman BF (1963) Analysis of arrhythmias induced by ouabain in intact dogs. Circ Res 13:132–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  710. Vaughan Williams EM (1972) New perspectives in beta-blockade. CIBA, p 73Google Scholar
  711. Veselova EA (1959) The effect of ganglioblocking agents (mekamine on the development of the effect of cardiac glycosides. F Toksikol 22:406–409Google Scholar
  712. Vijgh WJF, Oe PI van der (1977) Pharmacokinetic aspects of digoxin in patients with terminal renal failure. Int I Clin Pharmacol 15:255Google Scholar
  713. Vitale JJ, Velez H, Guzman C, Correa P (1963) Magnesium deficiency in cebus monkey. Circ Res 9:387Google Scholar
  714. Vöhringer HF, Kuhlmann J, Rietbrock N (1976) Der Einfluß von Antazida auf die Plasmakonzentration von Digitalis beim Menschen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 101:106–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  715. Vöhringer HF, Rietbrock N (1979) Varianz der Digitoxinkonzentrationen im Plasma — eine Analyse der bestimmenden Faktoren. In: Greeff K, Rietbrock N (eds) Digitoxin als Alternative in der Therapie der Herzinsuffizienz. Schattauer, Stuttgart New York, pp 61–67Google Scholar
  716. Wagner JG (1974) Loading and maintenance doses of digoxin in patients with normal renal function and those with severely impaired renal function. J Clin Pharmacol 14:329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  717. Waldorf S, Buch J (1978) Serum digoxin and empiric methods in identification of digitoxicity. Clin Pharmacol Ther 23:19Google Scholar
  718. Wallace AG, Schaal S, Taneaki S, Rozear M, Alexander JA (1967) The electrophysiologic effects of beta adrenergic blockade and cardiac denervation. Bull NY Acad Med 43:1119–1137Google Scholar
  719. Wallick ET, Lindenmayer GE, Lane LK, Allen JG, Pitts BJR, Schwartz A (1977) Recent advances in cardiac glycoside-(Na+-K+)-ATPase interaction. Fed Proc 36:2214–2218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  720. Warren MC, Gianelly RE, Cutler SK, Harrison DC (1968) Digitalis toxicity. II. The effect of metabolic alkalosis. Am Heart J 75:358–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  721. Watanabe Y, Dreifus LS (1966) Electrophysiologic effects of digitalis on A-V transmission. Am J Physiol 211:1461–1466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  722. Watanabe Y, Dreifus LS (1970) Interactions of lanatoside C and potassium on atrioventricular conduction in rabbits. Circ Res 27:931–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  723. Watt DAL (1968) Sensitivity to propranolol after digoxin intoxication. Br Med J 2:413–414Google Scholar
  724. Weaver LC, Akera T, Brody TM (1975) Opposing responses in sympathetic nerve activity induced by central injections of ouabain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 195:114–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  725. Weaver LC, Akera T, Brody TM (1976) Digoxin toxicity: Primary sites of drug action on the sympathetic nervous system. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 197:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  726. Weaver LC, Akera T, Brody TM (1977) Digitalis toxicity: Lack of marked effect on brain Na+, K +-adenosine triphosphatase in the cat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 200:638–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  727. Weidmann S (1955) The effect of the cardiac membrane potential on the rapid availability of the sodium carrier system. J Physiol 127:213–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  728. Weingart R (1977) The actions of ouabain on intercellular coupling and conduction velocity in mammalian ventricular muscle. J Physiol 264:341–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  729. Weintraub M, An WYW, Lasagna L (1973) Compliance as a determinant of serum digoxin concentration. JAMA 224:481–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  730. Weissei M, Fritzsche H, Fuchs G (1976) Salivary electrolytes and serum digoxin in the assessment of digitalis intoxication. Wien Klin Wochenschr 88:455–458Google Scholar
  731. Wellens HJ (1975) Effect of drugs on Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. In: Narula OS (ed) His bundle electrocardiography and clinical electrophysiology. Davis, Philadelphia, pp 367 – 385Google Scholar
  732. Wellens HJJ, Durrer D (1974) Relation between refractory period of the accessory pathway and ventricular frequency during atrial fibrillation in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Am J Cardiol 33:178Google Scholar
  733. West TC, Falk F, Cervoin P (1958) Drug alterations of transmembrane potentials in atrial pacemaker cels. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 117:245–252Google Scholar
  734. Whiting B, Sumner DJ, Goldbert A (1973) An assessment of direct radioimmunoassay. Scott Med J 18:69–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  735. Wilkinson PR, Hesp R, Issler H, Raftery ED (1975) Total body and serum potassium during prolonged thiazide therapy for essential hypertension. Lancet 1:759–765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  736. Williams JF, Klocke FJ, Braunwald E (1966) Studies on digitalis. 13. Comparison of the effects of potassium on the inotropic and arrhythmia-producing actions of ouabain. J Clin Invest 45:346–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  737. Williams JF Jr, Boyd DL, Border JF (1968) Effect of acute hypoxia and hypercapnic acidosis on the development of acetylstrophanthidin-induced arrhythmias. J Clin Invest 47:1885–1894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  738. Williams P, Aronson JK, Sleight P (1978) Is a slow pulse rate a reliable sign of digitalis toxicity? Lancet II: 1340–1342Google Scholar
  739. Wirth KE, Fröhlich JC, Hollifield JW, Falkner FC, Sweetman BS, Oates JA (1976) Metabolism of digitoxin in man and its modification by spironolactone. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 9: 345–354Google Scholar
  740. Wit AL, Steiner C, Damato AN (1970) Electrophysiological effects of bretylium tosylate on single fibers of the canine specialized conduction system and ventricle. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 173:344–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  741. Withering W (1937) An account of the foxglove and some of its medicinal uses: with practical remarks on dropsy and other diseases. Robinson, London, 1785. Reprinted in Med Class 2:305–443Google Scholar
  742. Wittenberg SM, Streuli F, Klocke FJ (1970) Acceleration of ventricular pacemakers by transient increase in heart rate in dogs during ouabain administration. Circ Res 26:705–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  743. Wittenberg SM, Gandel P, Hogan PM, Kreuzer W, Klocke FJ (1972) Relationship of heart rate to ventricular automaticity in dogs during ouabain administration. Circ Res 30:167–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  744. Wolfson S, Robbins SI, Krasnow N (1966) Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias with betaadrenergic blocking agents. Clinical and experimental studies. Am Heart J 72:177–187Google Scholar
  745. Wollenberger A, Halle W (1963) Action of cardiac glycosides on automaticity and contractile activity in single cardiac muscle cells grown in vitro. In: Proc First Int Pharmacol Meeting, vol 3. Pergamon, Oxford, p 87Google Scholar
  746. Wollheim E (1959) Begriff und Formen der Herzinsuffizienz. In: Lochner W, Witzleb E (Hrsg) Herzinsuffizienz und Digitaliswirkung. Oeynhausener Gespräche III. Springer, Berlin Göttingen HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  747. Wotman S, Bigger JT Jr, Mandel ID, Bartelstone HJ (1971) Salivary electrolytes in the detection of digitalis toxicity. N Engl J Med 285:871–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  748. Zavecz JH, Dutta S (1977) The relationship between Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition and cardiac glycoside-induced arrhythmia in dogs. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 297:91–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  749. Zeegers JJW, Mass AHJ, Willebrands AF, Kruyswijik P, Jabroes G (1973) The radioimmunoassay of plasma-digoxin. Clin Chim Acta 44:109–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  750. Zelis R, Mason DT, Spann JF, Braunwald E (1970) Effects of ventricular stimulation and potassium administration on digitalis-induced arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol 25:428–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  751. Zimmermann S, Kratzsch KH, Schirmer K, Witting D, Qietzsch D, Kaltofen G (1980) Zur Häufigkeit von Arzneimittelnebenwirkungen bei Patienten einer Medizinischen Klinik. Dtsch Gesundh-Wesen 35:661–664Google Scholar
  752. Zipes DP, Arbel E, Knope RF, Moe GK (1974) Accelerated ventricular escape rhythms caused by ouabain intoxication. Am J Cardiol 33:248–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  753. Zoneraich S, Zoneraich O, Siegel J (1976) Sudden death following intravenous sodium diphenylhydantoin. Am Heart J 91:375–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  754. Zwillinger L (1935) Über die Magnesiumwirkung auf das Herz. Klin Wochenschr 14:1429Google Scholar
  755. Zwillinger L, Rothberger CJ (1936) Über die Wirkung von Magnesium auf die Strophanthin- und die Barium-Tachykardie. Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 181:301–306Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Theisen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations