Advertisement

Coated Grains pp 599-608 | Cite as

Unusual Algal-Crystalline Carbonate Coated Grains from the Capitan Reef (Permian, Guadalupian), New Mexico, USA

  • S. J. Mazzullo
  • John M. Cys

Abstract

An unusual type of coated-grain nodule is common throughout reef and fore-reef facies of the Capitan Limestone (Guadalupian) in New Mexico (Fig. 1). These nodules, which may attain a maximum diameter of 3.5 cm, consist internally of concentric, irregularly laminated cortices, surrounding skeletal fragment nuclei, of alternating Archaeolithoporella (?red alga) and fibroradial calcite replacive of marine, acicular aragonite. The occurrence within these nodules of crustiform red algae suggests their comparison to rhodoids. However, such nodules are distinct from classic modern and ancient rhodoids in terms of the absence of characteristic algal growth forms (Bosellini and Ginsburg 1971), the interpreted dual accretionary mode of cortical laminite formation (viz algal encrustation and carbonate precipitation), and mineralogy (aragonite vs high-magnesian calcite). Alternatively, the characteristic laminated cortices and radial crystalline microfabrics of these nodules suggests a certain similarity to both vadoids and coniatoids, albeit algal encrusted and solely of sub tidal marine origin. This contribution describes the geologic occurrence, morphologies, internal structures, microfabrics, and origin of these peculiar coated grains.

Keywords

Polished Slab Crystalline Calcite Fossil Alga Sediment Petrol Nodule Cortex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adey WH, Macintyre IG (1973) Crustose coralline algae: a re-evaluation in the geological sciences. Geol Soc Am Bull 84:883 – 904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexandersson ET (1974) Carbonate cementation in coralline algal nodules in the Skagerrak, North Sea: biochemical precipitation in undersaturated waters. J. Sediment Petrol 44:7 – 26Google Scholar
  3. Alexandersson ET (1977) Carbonate cementation in Recent coralline algal constructions. In: Flügel E (ed) Fossil algae. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 261 – 269Google Scholar
  4. Assereto R, Folk RL (1976) Brick-like texture and radial rays in Triassic pisolites of Lombardy, Italy: a clue to distinguish ancient aragonitic pisolites. Sediment Geol 16:205 – 222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Babcock JA (1974) Role of algae in Capitan Limestone (Permian, Guadalupian), Guadalupe Mountains, West Texas and New Mexico. PhD dissertation Univ Wisconsin, Madison, p 241Google Scholar
  6. Babcock JA (1977) Calcareous algae, organic boundstones, and the genesis of the Upper Capitan Limestone (Permian, Guadalupian), Guadalupe Mts, West Texas & New Mexico. In: Hileman ME, Mazzullo SJ (eds) Upper Guadalupian facies, Permian reef complex, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and West Texas. Permian Basin Sect SEPM, Publ 77 – 16, Midland TX, pp 3 – 44Google Scholar
  7. Bosellini A, Ginsburg RN (1971) Form and internal structure of recent algal nodules (rhodolites) from Bermuda. J Geol 79:669 – 682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Braithwaite CJR (1979) Crystal textures of recent fluvial pisolites and laminated crystalline crusts in Dyfed, South Wales. J Sediment Pertrol 49:181 – 194Google Scholar
  9. Donahue J (1969) Genesis of oolite and pisolite grains: an energy index. J Sediment Petrol 39:1399 – 1411Google Scholar
  10. Dunham RJ (1969) Vadose pisolite in the Capitan reef (Permian), New Mexico and Texas. In: Friedman GM (ed) Depositional environments in carbonate rocks. SEPM Spec Publ 14, pp 182 – 191Google Scholar
  11. Endo R (1959) Stratigraphical and paleontological studies of the Later Paleozoic calcareous algae in Japan, XIV: fossil algae from the Hyugawa Valley in the Hida Massif. Saitama Univ Sei Rep Ser B 3:177 – 217Google Scholar
  12. Esteban M (1976) Vadose pisolite and caliche. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 60:2048 – 2057Google Scholar
  13. Focke JW, Gebelein CD (1978) Marine lithification of reef rock and rhodolites at a fore-reef slope locality (-50 m) off Bermuda. Geol Min 57:163 – 171Google Scholar
  14. Johnson JH (1963) Pennsylvanian and Permian algae. Colo Sch Mines Quat 58:211 pGoogle Scholar
  15. Jones FG, Wilkinson BH (1978) Structure and growth of lacustrine pisoliths from Recent Michigan marl lakes. J Sediment Petrol 48:1103 – 1110Google Scholar
  16. Loucks RG, Folk RL (1976) Fanlike rays of former aragonite in Permian Capitan reef pisolites. J Sediment Petrol 46:483 – 485Google Scholar
  17. Mazzullo SJ (1980) Calcite pseudospar replacive of marine acicular aragonite, and implications for aragonite cement diagenesis. J Sediment Petrol 50:409 – 422Google Scholar
  18. Mazzullo SJ, Cys JM (1977) Submarine cements in Permian boundstones and reef-associated rocks, Guadalupe Mountains, West Texas and southeastern New Mexico. In: Hileman ME, Mazzullo SJ (eds) Upper Guadalupian facies, Permian reef complex, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and West Texas. Permian Basin Sect SEPM, Publ 77 – 16, Midland TX, pp 151 – 200Google Scholar
  19. Mazzullo SJ, Cys JM (1978) Archaeolithoporella-boundstones and marine aragonite cements, Permian Capitan reef, New Mexico and Texas, USA. N Jahrb Palaeontol Mh 10:600 – 611Google Scholar
  20. Mazzullo SJ, Cys JM (1979) Marine aragonite sea-floor growths and cements in Permian phylloid algal mounds, Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico. J Sediment Petrol 49:917 – 936Google Scholar
  21. Newell ND et al. (1953) The Permian reef complex of the Guadalupe Mountains region, Texas and New Mexico. Freeman, San Francisco, p 236Google Scholar
  22. Purser BH, Loreau J-P (1973) Aragonitic, supratidal encrustations on the Trucial Coast, Persian Gulf. In: Purser BH (ed) The Persian Gulf. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 343 – 376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Riding R (1977) Problems of affinitiy in Paleozoic calcareous algae. In: Flügel E (ed) Fossil algae. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 202 – 211Google Scholar
  24. Risacher F, Eugster HP (1979) Holocene pisoliths and encrustations associated with spring-fed surface pools, Pastos Grandes, Bolivia. Sedimentology 26:253 – 270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Scholle PA, Kinsman DJJ (1974) Aragonitic and high-Mg calcite caliche from the Persian Gulf — a modern analog for the Permian of Texas and New Mexico. J Sediment Petrol 44:904 – 916Google Scholar
  26. Shinn EA (1969) Submarine lithification of Holocene carbonate sediments in the Persian Gulf. Sedimentology 12:109 – 144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shinn EA (1973) Sedimentary accretion along the leeward, SE coast of Qatar Peninsula, Persian Gulf. In: Purser BH (ed) The Persian Gulf. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 199 – 209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Toomey DF (1975) Rhodoliths from the Upper Paleozoic of Kansas and the Recent — a comparison. N Jahrb Palaeontol Mh 4:242 – 255Google Scholar
  29. Wray JL (1977) Late Paleozoic calcareous red algae. In: Flügel E (ed) Fossil algae. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 167 – 176Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. J. Mazzullo
    • 1
  • John M. Cys
    • 2
  1. 1.MidlandUSA
  2. 2.Production Division - Midland DistrictMapco Inc.MidlandUSA

Personalised recommendations