Hyperosmolar Solutions and Diuretics in the Treatment of Brain Edema

  • H. J. Klein
  • K. Schmidt


Brain edema is the most common cause of increased intracranial pressure, whether restricted to a local area or occurring more diffusely. It is the uniform pathological reaction of brain tissue to disturbances of differing type and intensity. According to Klatzo [19] one must distinguish between a cytotoxic and a vasogenic edema. The questions regarding treatment of both types of edema are, therefore, naturally different. Cytotoxic edema results from a swelling of brain cells caused by a disturbance in energy supply, electrolyte regulation and inadequacy of the osmoregulating processes. Vasogenic brain edema is characterized by an increased vascular permeability and disturbances of the blood brain barrier (BBB) which lead to permeation of proteins and other serum contents into the extracellular space.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. J. Klein
  • K. Schmidt

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