Abstract

In his publication of 1908, Ewart [88] divided seeds into three categories on the basis of their life-span under optimum conditions. These categories were (1) micro-biotic — seeds whose life-span does not exceed 3 years; (2) mesobiotic — those whose life-span ranges from 3–15 years; and (3) macrobiotic — whose life span ranges from 15 to more than 100 years. This classification of longevity is not particularly satisfactory, however, and it has not been widely adopted. For many seeds the most favourable storage environment has not been determined, and until we possess this information (for different cultivars and harvests also) the categories have little meaning. As storage conditions are improved for any given seed, it may change from micro- to mesobiotic, or even to the macrobiotic class. For a comprehensive list of seeds whose known viability range (not necessarily under optimal conditions) extends up to a hundred or more years, see the review by Harrington [11]. A few examples are presented in Table 1.1. A fuller discussion of factors affecting longevity in storage is to be found in Section 1.2. Here we will first answer the intriguing question: how old are the oldest viable Seeds? We will then consider the longevity of seeds buried in soil.

Keywords

Fermentation Hull Macromolecule Charcoal Cane 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Some Works of General Interest

  1. 1.
    Adbul-Baki, A.A., Anderson, J.D.: Physiological and biochemical deterioration of seeds. In: Seed Biology. Kozlowski, T.T. (ed.) London, New York: Academic Press, 1972, Vol II, pp. 283–315Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, J.D.: Metabolic changes associated with senescence. Seed Sci. Technol. 1, 401–416 (1973)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Austin, R.B.: Effects of environment before harvesting on viability. In: Viability of Seeds. Roberts, E.H. (ed.), London: Chapman and Hall, 1972, pp. 114–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barton, L.V.: Seed preservation and longevity. London: Leonard Hill (Books ), 1961Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bass, L.N.: Controlled atmosphere and seed storage. Seed Sci. Technol. 1, 463–492 (1973)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chin, H.F., Roberts, E.H. (eds.): Recalcitrant crop seeds. Malaysia: Tropical Press, 1980Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Christensen, C.M.: Microflora and seed deterioration. In: Viability of Seeds. Roberts, E.H. (ed.). London: Chapman and Hall, 1972, pp. 59–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Christensen, C.M.: Moisture and seed decay. In: Water Deficits and Plant. Growth. Kozlowski, T.T. (ed.). London, New York: Academic Press, 1978, Vol. V, pp. 199–219Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Christensen, C.M., Kaufmann, H.H.: Grain storage. The role of fungi in quality loss. Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press, 1969Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Crocker, W.: Life-span of seeds. Botan. Rev. 4, 235–274 (1938)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harrington, J.F.: Seed storage and longevity. In: Seed Biology. Kozlowski, T.T. (ed.). London, New York: Academic Press, 1972, Vol. III, pp. 145–245Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Harrington, J.F.: Problems of seed storage. In: Seed Ecology. Heydecker, W. (ed.). London: Butterworths, 1973, pp. 251–263Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harrington, J.F.: Biochemical basis of seed longevity. Seed Sci. Technol. 1, 453–461 (1973)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Heydecker, W.: The “vigour” of seeds — a review. Proc. Int. Seed Test. Assoc. 34, 201–219 (1969)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Heydecker, W.: Vigour. In: Viability of Seeds. Roberts, E.H. (ed.). London: Chapman and Hall, 1972, pp. 209–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Howe, R.W.: Insects attacking seeds during storage. In: Seed Biology. Kozlowski, T.T. (ed.). London, New York: Academic Press, 1972, Vol. III, pp. 247–300Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    James, E.: Preservation of seed stocks. Adv. Agron. 19, 87–106 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    King, M.W., Roberts, E.H.: The storage of recalcitrant seeds. Report for the International Board for Plant Genetic Resources Secretariat, Rome, 1979, pp. 96Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maguire, J.D.: Seed quality and germination. In: The Physiology and Biochemistry of Seed Dormancy and Germination. Khan, A.A. (ed.). Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Co., 1977, pp. 219–235Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moore, R.P.: Effects of mechanical injuries on viability. In: Viability of Seeds. Roberts, E.H. (ed.). London: Chapman and Hall, 1972, pp. 94–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nakamura, S.: The most appropriate moisture content of seeds for their long life span. Seed Sci. Technol. 3, 747–759 (1975)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Roberts, E.H. (ed.): Viability of seeds. London: Chapman and Hall, 1972Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Roberts, E.H.: Storage environment and the control of viability. In: Viability of Seeds. Roberts, E.H. (ed.). London: Chapman and Hall, 1972, pp. 1458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Roberts, E.H.: Cytological, genetical, and metabolic changes associated with loss of viability. In: Viability of Seeds. Roberts, E.H. (ed.). London: Chapman and Hall, 1972, pp. 253–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Roberts, E.H.: Loss of viability and crop yield. In: Viability of Seeds. Roberts, E.H. (ed.). London: Chapman and Hall, 1972, pp. 307–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roberts, E.H.: Predicting the storage life of seeds. Seed Sci. Technol. 1, 499–514 (1973)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Roberts, E.H.: Loss of seed viability: chromosomal and genetical aspects. Seed Sci. Technol. 1, 515–527 (1973)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Roberts, E.H.: Loss of viability. Ultra-structural and physiological aspects. Seed Sci. Technol. 1, 529–545 (1973)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roberts, E.H.: Problems of long-term storage of seed and pollen for genetic resources conservation. In: Crop Genetic Resources for Today and Tomorrow. Frankel, O.H., Hawkes, J.G. (eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1975, I.B.P., Vol. 2, pp. 269–296Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Roberts, E.H.: Seed deterioration and loss of viability. In: Advances in Research and Technology of Seeds, Part 4. Thomson, J.R. (ed.). Wageningen: Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, 1979, pp. 25–42Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Roberts, E.H., Abdalla, F.H., Owen, R.J.: Nuclear damage and the ageing of seeds, with a model for seed survival curves. In: Aspects of the Biology of Ageing. Woolhouse, H.W. (ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1967, Soc. Exp. Biol. Symp. 21, 65–99Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Toole, V.K., Woodstock, L.W. (eds.).: Seed quality research symposium. Seed science and technology Vol. I. Norway: Internat. Seed Test. Assoc. 1973Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Villiers, T.A.: Ageing and the longevity of seeds in field conditions. In: Seed Ecology. Heydecker, W. (ed.). London: Butterworths, 1973, pp. 265–288Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Woodstock, L.W.: Physiological and biochemical tests for seed vigor. Seed Sci. Technol. 1, 127–157 (1973)Google Scholar

References

  1. 35.
    Abdalla, F.H., Roberts, E.H.: Ann. Bot. (London) 32, 119–136 (1968)Google Scholar
  2. 36.
    Abdalla, F.H., Roberts, E.H.: Ann. Bot. (London) 33, 153–167 (1969)Google Scholar
  3. 37.
    Abdul-Baki, A.A.: Crop Sci. 9, 732–737 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 38.
    Abdul-Baki, A.A.: J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 96, 266–270 (1971)Google Scholar
  5. 39.
    Abdul-Baki, A.A., Anderson, J.D.: Crop Sci. 10, 31–34 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 40.
    Abu-Shakra, S.S., Ching, T.M.: Crop Sci. 7, 115–118 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 41.
    Anderson, J.D.: Crop Sci. 10, 36–39 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 42.
    Anderson, J.D.: Plant Physiol. 46, 605–608 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 43.
    Anderson, J.D.: Plant Physiol. 59, 610–614 (1977)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 44.
    Anderson, J.D., Abdul-Baki, A.A.: Plant Physiol. 48, 270–272 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 45.
    Anderson, J.D., Baker, J.E., Worthington, E.K.: Plant Physiol. 46, 857–859 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 46.
    Anonymous: Nature (London) 149, 658 (1942)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 47.
    Arnott, R.A.: Ann. Bot. (London) 39, 757–765 (1975)Google Scholar
  14. 48.
    Aspinall, D., Paleg, L.G.: J. Exp. Bot. 22, 925–935 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 49.
    Aufhammer, G., Simon, U.: Z. Acker-u. Pflanzenbau 103: 454–472 (1957)Google Scholar
  16. 50.
    Baddeley, M.S., Hanson, J.B.: Plant Physiol. 42, 1702–1710 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 51.
    Banerjee, S.K., Roberts, E.H.: Seed Res. 2, 67–70 (1974)Google Scholar
  18. 52.
    Bartholomew, D.P., Loomis, W.E.: Plant Physiol. 42, 120–124 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 53.
    Barton, L.V.: Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 13, 47–55 (1943)Google Scholar
  20. 54.
    Barton-Wright, E.C., Booth, R.G., Pringle, W.J.S.: Nature (London) 153, 288 (1944)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 55.
    Baskin, J.M., Baskin, C.C.: Am. J. Bot. 64, 11741176 (1977)Google Scholar
  22. 56.
    Becquerel, M.P.: C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 199, 1662–1664 (1934)Google Scholar
  23. 57.
    Berjak, P.: S. Afr. J. Sci. 74, 365–368 (1978)Google Scholar
  24. 58.
    Berjak, P., Villiers, T.A.: New Phytol. 71, 135–144 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 59.
    Berjak, P., Villiers, T.A.: New Phytol. 71, 513–518 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 60.
    Berjak, P., Villiers, T.A.: New Phytol. 71, 1069–1074 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 61.
    Berjak, P., Villiers, T.A.: New Phytol. 71, 1075–1079 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 62.
    Berrie, A.M.M., Don, R., Buller, D.C., Alam, M., Parker, W.: Plant Sci. Lett. 6, 163–173 (1975)Google Scholar
  29. 63.
    Bray, C.M., Chow, T.-Y.: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 442, 1–13 (1976)Google Scholar
  30. 64.
    Bray, C.M., Chow, T.-Y.: Biochim. Biophys. Acta 442, 14–23 (1976)Google Scholar
  31. 65.
    Bray, C.M., Dasgupta, J.: Planta 132, 103–108 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 66.
    Brocklehurst, P.A., Fraser, R.S.S.: Planta 148, 417–421 (1980)Google Scholar
  33. 67.
    Bryant, T.R.: Science 178, 634–636 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 68.
    Bulat, H. In: Hundert Jahre Saatgutprüfung, 1869–1969. Ader, F. (ed.). Frankfurt am Main: Sauerländer, 1970, pp. 95–103Google Scholar
  35. 69.
    Buller, D.C., Parker, W., Reid, J.S.G.: Nature (London) 260: 169–170 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 70.
    Cheah, K.S.E., Osborne, D.J.: Nature (London) 272, 593–599 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 71.
    Chen, S.C.C.: Naturwissenschaften 59, 123–124 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 72.
    Ching, T.M.: Plant Physiol. 51, 400–402 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 73.
    Ching, T.M., Danielson, R.: Proc. Assoc. Off. Seed Anal. 62, 116–124 (1972)Google Scholar
  40. 74.
    Ching, T.M., Schoolcraft, I.: Crop Sci. 8, 407–409 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 75.
    Conger, A.D., Randolph, M.L.: Radiat. Bot. 8, 193–196 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 76.
    Corsi, G., Avanzi, S.: Mutat. Res. 7, 349–355 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 77.
    D’Amato, F., Hoffmann-Ostenhoff, O.: Adv. Genet. 8, 1–28 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 78.
    Dell’Aquila, A., Zocchi, G., Lanzani, G.A., De Leo, P.: Phytochemistry 15, 1607–1610 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 79.
    Derbyshire, E., Harris, N., Boulter, D., Jope, E.M.: New Phytol. 78, 499–504 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 80.
    Dickson, M.H., Boettger, M.A.: J. Am. Soc. Hortic Sci. 101, 541–544 (1976)Google Scholar
  47. 81.
    Durzan, D.J., Mia, A.J., Ramaiah, P.K.: Can. J. Bot. 49: 927–938 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 82.
    Earnshaw, M.J., Truelove, B., Butler, R.H.: Plant Physiol. 45, 318–321 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 83.
    Edwards, M.: Plant Physiol. 58, 237–239 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 84.
    Egley, G.H., Chandler, J.M.: Weed Sci. 26, 230–239 (1978)Google Scholar
  51. 85.
    Ellis, R.H.: Ph. D. thesis., Univ. Reading (1976)Google Scholar
  52. 86.
    Ellis, R.H., Roberts, E.H.: Ann. Bot. (London) 45, 13–30 (1980)Google Scholar
  53. 87.
    Ellis, R.H., Roberts, E.H.: Ann. Bot. (London) 45, 31–37 (1980)Google Scholar
  54. 88.
    Ewart, A.J.: Proc. R. Soc. Victoria 21, 1–210 (1908)Google Scholar
  55. 89.
    Floris, C.: J. Exp. Bot. 21, 462–468 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 90.
    French, R.C.: Plant Physiol. 34, 500–505 (1959)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 91.
    Fridovich, I.: Ann. Rev. Biochem. 44, 147–159 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 92.
    Fridovich, I.: In: Free Radicals in Biology. Pryor, W.A. (ed.). London, New York, Academic Press, 1976, Vol. 1, pp. 239–277Google Scholar
  59. 93.
    Glass, R.L., Geddes, W.F.: Cereal Chem. 36, 186–190 (1959)Google Scholar
  60. 94.
    Godwin, H., Willis, E.H.: New Phytol. 63, 410–412 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 95.
    Godwin, H., Willis, E.H.: Radiocarbon 6, 116–137 (1964)Google Scholar
  62. 95a.
    Haber, A.H., Foard, D.E.: Am. J. Bot. 51, 151–159 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 96.
    Haferkamp, M.E., Smith, L., Nilan, R.A.: Agron. J. 45, 434–437 (1953)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 97.
    Hallam, N.D.: In: Seed Ecology. Hey-decker, W. (ed.). London: Butter-worths, 1973, pp. 115–144Google Scholar
  65. 98.
    Hallam, N.D., Roberts, B.E., Osborne, D.J.: Planta 110, 279–290 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 99.
    Harman, G.E., Mattick, L.R.: Nature (London) 260, 323–324 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 100.
    Harrington, J.F.: Proc. 1959 Mississippi Short Course for Seedsmen, 1960, pp. 89–107Google Scholar
  68. 101.
    Harrington, J.F.: Seed World 108, 2–5 (1971)Google Scholar
  69. 102.
    Harrison, B.J.: J. Nat. Inst. Agric. Bot. (GB) 10, 644–663 (1966)Google Scholar
  70. 103.
    Harrison, J.G., Perry, D.A.: Ann. Appl. Biol. 84, 57–62 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 104.
    Hecker, M.: Biol. Rundsch. 12, 277–279 (1974)Google Scholar
  72. 105.
    Hibbard, R.P., Miller, E.V.: Plant Physiol. 3, 335–352 (1928)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 106.
    Hoffpauir, C.I., Petty, D.H., Guthrie, J.D.: Science 106, 334–345 (1947)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 107.
    James, E.: Crop Sci. 8, 403–404 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 108.
    James, E., Bass, L.N., Clark, D.C.: Proc. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 91, 521–528 (1967)Google Scholar
  76. 109.
    King, M.W., Roberts, E.H.: Ann. Bot. (London) 45, 489–492 (1980)Google Scholar
  77. 110.
    Kittock, D.L., Law, A.G.: Agron. J. 60, 286–288 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 111.
    Kivilaan, A., Bandurski, R.S.: Am. J. Bot. 60, 140–145 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 112.
    Koostra, P.T., Harrington, J.F.: Proc. Int. Seed Test. Assoc. 34, 329–340 (1969)Google Scholar
  80. 113.
    Krasnook, N.P., Morgunova, E.A., Vishnyakova, I.A., Povarova, R. I.: Sov. Plant Physiol. 23, 130–134 (1976)Google Scholar
  81. 114.
    Lerman, J.C., Cigliano, E.M.: Nature (London) 232, 568–570 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 115.
    Levengood, W.C., Bondie, J., Chen, C.-L.: J. Exp. Bot. 26, 911–919 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 116.
    Libby, W.F.: Radiocarbon dating. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1955Google Scholar
  84. 117.
    Lindstrom, E.W.: Genetics 27, 154 (1942)Google Scholar
  85. 118.
    Linko, P., Milner, M.: Plant Physiol. 34, 392–396 (1959)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 119.
    Luthra, J.C.: Curr. Sci. 4, 489–490 (1936)Google Scholar
  87. 120.
    Mackay, D.B.: In: Viability of Seeds. Roberts, E.H. (ed.). London: Chapman and Hall, 1972, pp. 172–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 121.
    Mackay, D.B., Tonkin, J.H.B.: J. Nat. Inst. Agric. Bot. (GB) 11, 209–225Google Scholar
  89. 122.
    Macleod, A.M.: Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 36, 18–33 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 123.
    Marcus, A., Feeley, J.: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 51, 1075–1079 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 124.
    Matthews, S., Bradnock, W.T.: Hortic. Res. 8, 89–93 (1968)Google Scholar
  92. 125.
    McDaniel, R.G.: Crop Sci. 9, 823–827 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 126.
    McDaniel, R.G.: Seed Sci. Technol. 1, 25–50 (1973)Google Scholar
  94. 127.
    McDaniel, R.G., Sarkissiani, V.: Genetics 59, 465–475 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 128.
    Mead, J.F.: In: Free Radicals in Biology. Pryor, W.A. (ed.). London, New York: Academic Press, 1976, Vol. 1, pp. 51–68Google Scholar
  96. 129.
    Mierzwinska, T.: Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 46, 69–78 (1977)Google Scholar
  97. 130.
    Moore, R.P.: Proc. Int. Seed Test. Assoc. 34, 233–242 (1969)Google Scholar
  98. 131.
    Mumford, P.M., Grout, B.W.W.: Seed Sci. Technol. 7, 407–410 (1978)Google Scholar
  99. 132.
    Narasimhareddy, S.B., Swamy, P.M.: J. Exp. Bot. 28, 215–218 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 133.
    Nowak, J., Mierzwinska, T.: Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 86, 15–22 (1978)Google Scholar
  101. 134.
    Odum, S.: Dan. Bot. Ark. 24, 2–70 (1965)Google Scholar
  102. 135.
    Osborne, D.J., Dobrzanska, M., Sen, S.: In: Integration of Activity in the Higher Plant. Jennings, D.H. (ed.). Soc. Exp. Biol. Symp. 31, 177–194 (1977)Google Scholar
  103. 136.
    Osborne, D.J., Roberts, B.E., Payne, P.I., Sen, S.: In: Mechanisms of Regulation of Plant Growth. Bieleski, R.L., Ferguson, A.R., Cresswell, M.M. (eds.). R. Soc. N.Z., 1974, Bull. 12 805–812Google Scholar
  104. 137.
    Pammenter, N.W., Adamson, J.H. Berjak, P.: Science 186, 1123–1124 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 138.
    Parrish, D.J., Leopold, A.C.: Plant Physiol. 61, 365–368 (1978)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 139.
    Paul, A.K., Mukherji, S.: Biol. Plant. 14, 414–419 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 140.
    Perl, M., Luria, I., Gelmond, H.: J. Exp. Bot. 29, 497–509 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 141.
    Porsild, A.E., Harrington, C.R., Mulligan, G.A.: Science 158, 113–114 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 142.
    Priestley, D.A., Leopold, A.C.: Plant Physiol. 63, 726–729 (1979)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 143.
    Rampton, H.H., Lee, W.O.: Agron. J. 61, 483–484 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 144.
    Rees, A.R.: J. Hortic. Sci. 45, 33–40 (1970)Google Scholar
  112. 145.
    Rincker, C.M.: Crop Sci. 14, 749–750 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 146.
    Roberts, B.E., Osborne, D.J.: In: Seed Ecology. Heydecker, W. (ed.). London: Butterworths, 1973, pp. 99–114Google Scholar
  114. 147.
    Roberts, B.E., Osborne, D.J.: Biochem. J. 135, 405–410 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 148.
    Roberts, B.E., Payne, P.I., Osborne, D.J.: Biochem. J. 131, 275–286 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 149.
    Roberts, E.H.: Ann. Bot. (London) 25, 373–380 (1961)Google Scholar
  117. 150.
    Roberts, E.H.: Ann. Bot. (London) 25, 381–390 (1961)Google Scholar
  118. 151.
    Roberts, E.H., Abdalla, F.H.: Ann. Bot. (London) 32, 97–117 (1968)Google Scholar
  119. 152.
    Roberts, E.H., Ellis, R.H.: Nature (London) 268, 431–433 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 153.
    Roberts, E.H., Roberts D.L.: In: Viability of Seeds. Roberts, E.H. (ed.). London: Chapman and Hall, 1972, pp. 417–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 154.
    Roberts, E.H., Roberts D.L.: In: Viability of Seeds. Roberts, E.H. (ed.). London: Chapman and Hall, 1972, pp. 424–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 155.
    Sasaki, S.: In: Seed Technology in the Tropics. Chin, H.F., Enoch, I.C., Raja Harun, R.M. (eds.). Malaysia: Univ. Pertanian Malaysia, 1976, pp. 11–115Google Scholar
  123. 156.
    Sen, S., Osborne, D.J.: Biochem. J. 166, 33–38 (1977)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 157.
    Simola, L.K.: Stud. For. Suec. 119, 122 (1974)Google Scholar
  125. 158.
    Simola, L.K.: Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 78, 41–51 (1976)Google Scholar
  126. 159.
    Simola, L.K.: Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 78, 245–252 (1976)Google Scholar
  127. 160.
    Sivori, E., Nakayana, F., Cigliani, E.: Nature (London) 219, 1269–1270 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 161.
    Spencer, G.F., Earle, F.R., Wolff, I.A., Tallent, W.H.: Chem. Phys. Lipids 10, 191–202 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 162.
    Stevens, E., Stevens, L.: J. Exp. Bot. 28, 292–303 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 163.
    Stewart, R.R.C., Bewley, J.D.: Plant Physiol. 65, 245–248 (1980)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 164.
    Styer, R.C., Cantliffe, D.J., Hall, C.B.: J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 105, 278–303 (1980)Google Scholar
  132. 165.
    Szczotka, Z.: Arbor. Kornickie 18, 171–181 (1973)Google Scholar
  133. 166.
    Szczotka, Z.: Arbor. Kornickie 19, 129–134 (1974)Google Scholar
  134. 167.
    Szczotka, Z.: Arbor. Kornickie 20, 291–297 (1975)Google Scholar
  135. 168.
    Takayanagi, K., Harrington, J.F.: Plant Physiol. 47, 521–524 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 169.
    Takayanagi, K., Murakami, K.: Nature (London) 218, 493–494 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 170.
    Throneberry, G.O., Smith, F.G.: Plant Physiol. 30, 337–343 (1955)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 171.
    Van Onckelen, H.A., Verbeek, R., Khan, A.A.: Plant Physiol. 53, 562–568 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 172.
    Van Staden, J., Gilliland, M.G., Brown, N.A.C.: Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 76, 28–35 (1975)Google Scholar
  140. 173.
    Villiers, T.A.: New Phytol. 71, 145–152 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 174.
    Villiers, T.A.: Plant Physiol. 53, 875–878 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 175.
    Villiers, T.A., Edgecumbe, D.J.: Seed Sci. Technol. 3, 761–774 (1975)Google Scholar
  143. 176.
    Vishnyakova, I.A., Krasnook, N.P., Povarova, R.I., Morgunova, E.A., Bukhtoyarova, Z. T.: Soy. Plant Physiol. 23, 307–311 (1976)Google Scholar
  144. 177.
    Webster, L.V., Dexter, S.T.: Agron. J. 53, 297–299 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 178.
    Woodstock, L.W.: Bioscience 15, 783–784 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 179.
    Woodstock, L.W., Grabe, D.F.: Plant Physiol. 42, 1071–1076 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 180.
    Woodstock, L.W., Simkin, J., Schroeder, E.: Seed Sci. Technol. 4, 301–311 (1976)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Derek Bewley
    • 1
  • Michael Black
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of CalgaryN.W. CalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Queen Elizabeth CollegeUniversity of LondonLondonGreat Britain

Personalised recommendations