The Production and Fate of Reduced C, N, and S Gases from Oxygen-deficient Environments
The oxygen-deficient environments comprise the subsurface parts of soils, lake sediments, and the sea bed, and they penetrate into the bottom layers of some stratified water bodies. Organic matter is here decomposed mainly by microorganisms which release metabolic products containing carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Among the gaseous products considered here are CH4, NH3, N2O, NO, H2S, (CH3) SH, (CH3)2S, CS2, OCS, and H2. As most of these trace gases are very useful as nutrients for the biosphere, their emission into the atmosphere is regulated both by biological and by physical mechanisms. The actual emission rates are discussed in view of quantitative flux data as well as regulating factors.
KeywordsBiomass Methane Phosphorus Sulfide Ozone
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- (3).Bremner, J.M., and Steele, C.G. 1978. Role of microorganisms in the atmospheric sulfur cycle. In Advances in Microbial Ecology, ed. M. Alexander, vol. 2, pp. 155–201. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
- (4).Crutzen, P.J. 1982. Atmospheric interactions — homogeneous gas reactions of C, N, and S containing compounds. In Interactions of the Biogeochemical Cycles, eds. B. Bolin and R. Cook. Stockholm: SCOPE, in press.Google Scholar
- (6).Granat, L.; Rodhe, H.; and Hallberg, R.O. 1976. The global sulphur cycle. In Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulphur Global Cycles. SCOPE Report 7, Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 22: 89–134.Google Scholar
- (7).Hahn, J., and Junge, C. 1977. Atmospheric nitrous oxide A critical review. Z. Naturf. 32: 190–214.Google Scholar
- (8).Hitchcock, D.R.; Spiller, L.L.; and Wilson, W.E. 1978. Biogenic sulfur compounds in coastal atmospheres of North Carolina. Research Triangle Park, NC: EPA.Google Scholar
- (11).Jørgensen, B.B. 1982. Processes at the sediment-water interface. In. Interactions of the Biogeochemical Cycles, eds. B. Bolin and R. Cook. Stockholm: SCOPE, in press.Google Scholar
- (14).Liss, P.S. 1982. The exchange of biogeochemically important gases across the air-sea interface. In Interactions of the Biogeochemical Cycles, eds. B. Bolin and R. Cook. Stockholm: SCOPE, in press.Google Scholar
- (20).Schmidt, U.; Kulessa, G.; and Roth, E.P. 1980. The atmospheric H2 cycle. In Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atmospheric Ozone: Its Variation and Human Influences, ed. A.C. Aikin, Algarve, Portugal, October 1–13, 1979.Google Scholar
- (21).Seiler, W., and Conrad, R. 1981. Field measurements of natural and fertilizer-induced N20 release rates from soils. APCA J. 31: 767–772.Google Scholar
- (22).Söderlund, R., and Svensson, B.H. 1976. The global nitrogen cycle. In Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulphur — Global Cycles. SCOPE Report 7. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 22: 23–73.Google Scholar
- (23).Sørensen, J. 1978. Occurrence of nitric and nitrous oxides in a coastal marine sediment. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 36: 809–813.Google Scholar
- (25).Zinder, S.H., and Brock, T.D. 1978. Methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide production from the terminal methiol group of methionine by anaerobic lake sediments. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 35: 344–352.Google Scholar