Entwicklungsgeschichte

  • R. Herbst
Part of the Spezielle pathologische Anatomie book series (SPEZIELLE, volume 16)

Zusammenfassung

Die gemeinsame primäre Anlage von Larynx, Trachea und Lunge wird bei menschlichen Embryonen am 22. Tag post ovulationem von einer entodermalen Furche am ventralen Boden des distalen (kaudalen) Schlundes, der sog. Lungenrinne gebildet (Corner 1929; Heuser 1930; Streiter 1951). Noch in der 4. Embryonalwoche sproßt das Epithel röhrenförmig aus. Der Epithelschlauch wächst als primitive Trachea während der 5. Woche in kaudaler Richtung parallel zum primitiven Ösophagus. Gegen Ende des 1. Entwicklungsmonats ist bei Embryonen mit einer Scheitel-Steiß-Länge (SSL) von 4 mm das distale Ende der primitiven Trachea paarig knospenartig aufgetrieben (Heiss 1919). Diese epithelialen Ausbuchtungen sind die primären Bronchusknospen, im allgemeinen als Lungenknospen bezeichnet (Abb. 1). Sie weisen schon mit der Anlage eine Asymmetrie zugunsten der rechten Seite auf (His 1887; Girgis 1926; Atwell 1930; Streeter 1945; Smith 1957). Der größere rechte primäre Bronchus wachst dorso-kaudal, der linke zunächst fast quer. In der 5. Entwicklungswoche entspringen aus dem rechten Stammbronchus 2 Knospen und aus dem linken nur 1 Knospe (Heiss 1919; Streeter 1948), sodaß bei Embryonen mit einer SSL von 7 mm die Lappenbronchien angelegt sind (Abb. 2). In diesem Stadium wird von Lappenknospen oder Lappensäckchen gesprochen. Die Segmentbronchien werden in der 6. Woche (Wells u. Boyden 1954) und die Subsegmentbronchien in der 7.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

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  • R. Herbst

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