Role of Central Neurotransmitters in Fever

  • B. Cox
  • T. F. Lee
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 60)

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to review the published evidence which suggests that central neurotransmitters play a role in fever. As such it relies heavily on two basic assumptions. Firstly that thermoregulation involves central neurotransmitter pathways and secondly that fever is a disturbance of thermoregulation. The second assumption will be discussed in full in other chapters of this book; the first has been the subject of a number of recent reviews and symposia (Cox and Lomax 1977; Milton 1978; Lomax and Schönbaum 1979; Cox et al. 1980).

Keywords

Attenuation Dopamine Serotonin Histamine PGE1 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Almeida e Silva TC, Pela IR (1978) Changes in rectal temperature of the rabbit by intracere- broventricular injection of bradykinin and related kinins. Agents Actions 8:102–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Artunkal AA, Marley E, Stephenson JD (1977) Some effects of prostaglandin E1 and E2 and of endotoxin injected into the hypothalamus of young chicks: Dissociation between endotoxin fever and the effects of prostaglandins. Br J Pharmac 61:39–46Google Scholar
  3. Björklund A, Baumgarten H-G, Nobin A (1974) Chemical lesioning of central monoamine axons by means of 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. Adv Bio- chem Psychopharmac 10:13–33Google Scholar
  4. Björklund A, Baumgarten H-G, Rensch A (1975) 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine: improvement of its selectivity for serotonin neurons in the CNS by pretreatment with desipramine. J Neurochem 24:833–835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Blatteis CM (1976) Effect of propranolol on endotoxin-induced pyrogenesis in newborn and adult guinea pigs. J Appl Physiol 40:35–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bligh J (1980) Central neurology of homeothermy and fever. In: Lipton JM (ed) Fever. Raven Press, New York, pp 81–89Google Scholar
  7. Bligh J, Maskrey M (1971) The interaction between the effects on thermoregulation of TAB vaccine injected intravenously and monoamines injected into a lateral cerebral ventricle of the Welsh mountain sheep. J Physiol (Lond) 213:60–62pGoogle Scholar
  8. Bligh J, Silver A, Bacon MJ, Smith CA (1978) The central role of a cholinergic synapse in thermoregulation in the sheep. J Thermal Biol 3:147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bodzenta A, Wisniewski K (1977) The effect of prostaglandin E1 on central cholinergic mechanisms. Pharmacol 15:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borsook D, Laburn HP, Rosendorff C, Willies GH, Woolf CJ (1977) A dissociation be-tween temperature regulation and fever in the rabbit. J Physiol (Lond) 266:423–433Google Scholar
  11. Boschi G, Rips R (1981) Effects of thyrotropin releasing hormone injections into different areas of rat brain on core temperature. Neurosci Lett 23:93–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bruinvels J (1979) Norepinephrine. In: Lomax P, Schönbaum E (eds) Body temperature regulation, drug effects, and therapeutic implications. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 257–288Google Scholar
  13. Brus R, Herman ZS, Szkilnik R, Zabawska J (1979) Mediation of central prostaglandin effect by serotoninergic neurons. Psychopharmacol 64:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burks TF (1976) Antiadrenergic actions of metiamide in cat thermoregulatory mechanisms. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 19:75–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Burks TF, van Inwegen RG (1975) Phentolamine inhibition of morphine induced hyperthermia in cats. Proc West Pharmacol Soc 18:199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Canal N, Ornesi A (1961) Serotonina encefalica e ipertermia da vaccino. Atti Accad Med Lomb 16:69–73Google Scholar
  17. Carruba MO, Bachtold HP (1976) Pyrogen fever in rabbits pretreated with p-chlorophenyl- alanine or 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine. Experientia 32:729–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clark WG (1979) Changes in body temperature after administration of amino acids, peptides, dopamine, neuroleptics, and related agents. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 3:179–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clark WG, Clark YL (1980) Changes in body temperature after administration of acetylcholine, histamine, morphine, prostaglandins, and related agents. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 4:175–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark WG, Cumby HR (1978) Hyperthermia responses to central and peripheral injections of morphine sulphate in the cat. Br J Pharmac 63:65–71Google Scholar
  21. Cohn ML, Cohn M, Taube D (1980) Thyrotropin releasing hormone induced hyperthermia in the rat inhibited by lysine acetyl-salicylate and indomethacin. In: Cox B, Lomax P, Milton AS, Schönbaum E (eds) Thermoregulatory mechanisms and their therapeutic implications. Karger, Basel, pp 198–201Google Scholar
  22. Cooper KE, Cranston WI (1966) Pyrogens and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Nature 210:203–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cooper KE, Cranston WI, Honour AJ (1967) Observations on the site and mode of action of pyrogens in the rabbit brain. J Physiol (Lond) 191:325–337Google Scholar
  24. Cooper KE, Preston E, Veale WL (1976) Effects of atropine, injected into a lateral cerebral ventricle of the rabbit, on fever due to intravenous leucocyte pyrogen and hypothalamic and intraventricular injections of prostaglandin E1. J Physiol (Lond) 254:729–741Google Scholar
  25. Cox B, Lomax P (1977) Pharmacologic control of temperature regulation. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 17:341–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cox B, Lomax P, Milton AS, Schönbaum E (1980) Thermoregulatory mechanisms and their therapeutic implications. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  27. Cranston WI, Luff RH (1972) The role of noradrenaline in the rabbit brain during pyrogen- induced fever. J Physiol (Lond) 225:66–67pGoogle Scholar
  28. Crawshaw LI (1979) Acetylcholine. In: Lomax P, Schönbaum E (eds) Body temperature regulation, drug effects, and therapeutic implications. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 305–335Google Scholar
  29. Crawford IL, Kennedy JI, Lipton JM, Ojeda SR (1979) Effects of central administration of probenecid on fever produced by leukocytic pyrogen and PGE2 in the rabbit. J Physiol (Lond) 287:519–533Google Scholar
  30. Des Prez RM, Helman R, Oates J A (1966) Inhibition of endotoxin fever by reserpine. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 122:746–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dhumal VR, Gulati OD, Raghunath PR, Sivaramakrishna N (1974) Analysis of the effects on body temperature of intracerebroventricular injection in anaesthetized dogs of gam- ma-aminobutyric acid. Br J Pharmac 50:513–524Google Scholar
  32. Dhumal VR, Gulati OD, Shan NS (1976) Effects on rectal temperature in rats of γ-amino- butyric acid; possible mediation through putative transmitters. Eur J Pharmac 35:341–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Feldberg W, Myers RD (1963) A new concept of temperature regulation by amines in the hypothalamus. Nature 200:1325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ford DM, Klugman KP (1980) Constrasting roles of 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline in fever in rats. J Physiol (Lond) 304:51–57Google Scholar
  35. Frens J (1975) Thermoregulation set-point changes during lipopolysaccharide fever. In: Lomax P, Schönbaum E (eds) Temperature regulation and drug action. Karger, Basel, pp 59–64Google Scholar
  36. Gardey-Levassort C (1977) Brain amine metabolism during pyrogen fever: the role of stress. In: Cooper KE, Lomax P, Schönbaum E (eds) Drugs, biogenic amines and body temperature. Karger, Basel, pp 153–159Google Scholar
  37. Gardey-Levassort C, Olive G, Fontagne J, Szafranowa H, Lechat P (1970 a) Résponse febrile du Lapin aux pyrogènes bactériens et teneur de l’hypothalamus en sérotonine et noradrénaline après un pré-treatment aux I.M.A.O. J Pharmac (Paris) 1:57–64Google Scholar
  38. Gardey-Levassort C, Olive G, Szafranowa H, Sadeghi D, Lechat P (1970 b) Détermination simultaneé des taux de 5-hydroxytryptamine et d’acide 5-hydroxyindolacétique dans le liquide céphalorachidien, l’hypothalamus et la tronc cérébral du Lapin au cours de la fièvre induite par un pyrogène bacterien. CR Soc Biol (Paris) 164:1946–1951Google Scholar
  39. Gardey-Levassort C, Tanguy O, Lechat P (1977) Brain concentrations of biogenic amines and their metabolites in two types of pyrogen-induced fever in rabbits. J Neurochem 28:177–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giarman NJ, Tanaka C, Mooney J, Atkins E (1964) Serotonin, norepinephrine, and fever. Adv Pharmacol 6 A:307–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Göing H (1959) Beeinflussung der Fieber-erzeugenden Wirkung bakterieller Pyrogene durch Iproniacid, Reserpine, und Dibenamin. Arzneim Forsch 9:793–794Google Scholar
  42. Gurin VN, Tsaryuk VV, Tret’yakovich AG (1979) Weakening of the hyperthermic effect of prostaglandin E2 by cholinomimetics, monoamines, and calcium ions. Bull Exp Biol Med 87:151–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hahn Z, Szekely M (1979) Hypothalamic monoamine contents in endotoxin fever of newborn guinea pigs and kittens. Neurosci Lett 11:279–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harris WS, Lipton JM (1977) Intracerebroventricular taurine in rabbits: Effects on normal body temperature, endotoxin fever, and hyperthermia produced by PGE1 and amphetamine. J Physiol (Lond) 266:397–410Google Scholar
  45. Harvey CA, Milton AS (1974a) The effect of parachlorophenylalanine on the response of the conscious cat to intravenous and intraventricular bacterial pyrogen and to intraventricular prostaglandin E1. J Physiol (Lond) 236:14–15pGoogle Scholar
  46. Harvey CA, Milton AS (1974b) The effect of intraventricular 6-hydroxydopamine on the response of the conscious cat to pyrogen. Br J Pharmac 52:134–135pGoogle Scholar
  47. Kadlecová O, Másek K, Petrovický P (1977) A possible site of action of bacterial pepti- doglycan in the CNS. Neuropharmacol 16:699–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kandasamy SB (1977) Central effect of 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) on the temperature in the conscious rabbits. Experientia 33:1626–1627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kandasamy B, Girault J-M, Jacob J (1975) Central effects of a purified bacterial pyrogen, prostaglandin E1 and biogenic amines on the temperature in the awake rabbit. In: Lomax P, Schönbaum E (eds) Temperature regulation and drug action. Karger, Basel, pp 124–132Google Scholar
  50. Koe BK, Weissman A (1966) p-Chlorophenylalanine: a specific depletor of brain serotonin. J Pharmac exp Ther 154:499–516Google Scholar
  51. Kostrzewa RN, Jacobowitz DM (1974) Pharmacological action of 6-hydroxydopamine. Pharmac Rev 26:199–288Google Scholar
  52. Kroneberg G, Kurbjuweit HG (1959) Die Beeinflussung von experimentellem Fieber durch Reserpin und Sympathicolytica am Kaninchen. Arzneim Forsch 9:556–558Google Scholar
  53. Kuruma D, Takagi H, Yamada H (1964) Changes in serotonin and catecholamine contents in the brains of febrile rabbits I. The fever induced by pyrexal and changes in serotonin and catecholamine contents in the brain stem (in Japanese). Folia Pharmacol 60:563–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Laburn HP, Rosendorff C, Willies G, Woolf C (1974) A role for noradrenaline and cyclic AMP in prostaglandin E1 fever. J Physiol (Lond) 240:49–50pGoogle Scholar
  55. Laburn H, Woolf CJ, Willies GH, Rosendorff C (1975) Pyrogen and prostaglandin fever in the rabbit-II: Effects of noradrenaline depletion and adrenergic receptor blockade. Neuropharmacol 14:405–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lin MT (1978) Prostaglandin E1-induced fever in rabbits pretreated with p-chlorophenyl- alanine. Experientia 34:59–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lin MT (1980) Effects of brain monoamine depletions on thermoregulation in rabbits. Am J Physiol 238:R 364–371Google Scholar
  58. Lin MT, Pang IH, Chern SI, Chern YF (1979) Effects of increasing serotonergic receptor activity in brain on prostaglandin E1 -induced fever in rabbits. Pharmacol 18:188–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lipton JM, Ticknor CB (1979) Central effect of taurine and its analogues on fever caused by intravenous leukocytic pyrogen in rabbits. J Physiol (Lond) 287:535–543Google Scholar
  60. Lomax P, Schönbaum E (1979) Body temperature regulation, drug effects, and therapeutic implications. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Lorden JF, Ottmas GA, Dawson R Jr, Callaham H (1979) Evaluation of the non-specific effects of catecholamine and serotonin neurotoxins by injection into the median fore- brain bundle of the rat. Pharmac Biochem Behav 10:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mašek K, Kadlecová O, Petrovicý P (1980) A possible site of action and mechanism involved in peptidoglycan fever in rats. In: Lipton JM (ed) Fever. Raven Press, New York, pp 123–130Google Scholar
  63. Mašek K, Kadlecová O, Rašková H (1973) Brain amines in fever and sleep cycle changes caused by streptococcal mucopeptide. Neuropharmacol 12:1039–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mašek K, Rašková H, Rotta J (1968) The mechanism of the pyrogenic effect of streptococcus cell wall mucopeptide. J Physiol (Lond) 198:345–353Google Scholar
  65. Mašek K, Rašková H, Rotta J (1972) On the mechanism of fever caused by the mucopeptide of group A streptococcus. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmac 274:138–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Metcalf G, Thompson JW (1975) The effect of various aminedepleting drugs on the fever response exhibited by rabbits to bacterial or leucocyte pyrogen. Br J Pharmac 53:21–27Google Scholar
  67. Milton AS (1975) Morphine hyperthermia, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors and naloxone. J Physiol (Lond) 251:27–28pGoogle Scholar
  68. Milton AS (1978) The hypothalamus and the pharmacology of thermoregulation. In: Cox B, Morris ID, Weston AH (eds) Pharmacology of the hypothalamus. Macmillan, London, pp 105–134Google Scholar
  69. Milton AS, Harvey CA (1975) Prostaglandins and monoamines in fever. In: Lomax P, Schönbaum E (eds) Temperature regulation and drug action. Karger, Basel, pp 133–142Google Scholar
  70. Moore KE, Dominic J A (1971) Tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitors. Fed Proc Fed Am Soc Exp Biol 30:859–870Google Scholar
  71. Myers RD (1977) New aspects of the role of hypothalamic calcium ions, 5-HT and PGE during normal thermoregulation and pyrogen fever. In: Cooper KE, Lomax P, Schönbaum E (eds) Drugs, biogenic amines, and body temperature. Karger, Basel, pp 51–53Google Scholar
  72. Myers RD, Ruwe WD (1980) Fever: Intermediary neurohumoral factors serving the hypothalamic mechanism underlying hyperthermia. In: Lipton JM (ed) Fever. Raven Press, New York, pp 99–110Google Scholar
  73. Myers RD, Waller MB (1976) Is prostaglandin fever mediated by the presynaptic release of hypothalamic 5-HT or norepinephrine? Brain Res Bull 1:47–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Myers RD, Metcalf G, Rice JC (1977) Identification by microinjection of TRH-sensitive sites in the cat’s brainstem that mediate respiratory, temperature, and other autonomic changes. Brain Res 126:105–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nickerson M, Collier C (1975) Drugs inhibiting adrenergic nerves and structures innervated by them. In: Goodman LS, Gilman A (eds) The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 5 th edn. Macmillan, New York, p 536Google Scholar
  76. Nistico G, Marmo E (1979) Antagonism of prostaglandin E1 and E2 fever by catecholamines. Res Comm Chem Pathol Pharmacol 23:89–95Google Scholar
  77. Oken MM, Loch J (1979) Corticosteroid and antihistamine modification of bleomycin-in- duced fever. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 161:594–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Olive G, Gardey-Levassort C, Lechat P (1971) Détermination du turnover de la sérotonin dans l’hypothalamus et le tronc cérébral du Lapin à l’acmé de la fièvre provoquée par un pyrogène bactérien. J Pharmacol (Paris) 2:61–70Google Scholar
  79. Olive G, Gardey-Levassort C, Szafranowa H, Leehat P (1969) Teneur de l’hypothalamus en sérotonin et noradrenaline à l’acme de la fièvre provoquée chez le Lapin par des pyrogènes bacteriens. CR Soc Biol (Paris) 163:1062–1065Google Scholar
  80. Pela IR, Gardey-Levassort C, Lechat P (1977) Pimozide and pyrogen induced fever in rabbits. Experientia 33:63–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pela IR, Gardey-Levassort C, Lechat P, Rocha e Silva M (1975) Brain kinins and fever induced by bacterial pyrogens in rabbits. J Pharm Pharmac 27:793–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Peindaries R, Jacob J (1971) Interactions between 5-hydroxytryptamine and a purified bacterial pyrogen when injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle of the wake rabbit. Eur J Pharmacol 13:347–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Preston E, Cooper KE (1976) Absence of fever in the rabbit following intrahypothalamic injections of noradrenaline into PGE1-sensitive sites. Neuropharmacol 15:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rudy TA, Viswanathan CT (1975) Effect of central cholinergic blockade on the hyperthermia evoked by prostaglandin E1 into the rostral hypothalamus of the rat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 53:321–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schlievert PM, Watson DW (1979) Biogenic amine involvement in pyrogenicity and en-hancement of lethal endotoxin shock by group A streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 162:269–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Simpson CW, Ruwe WD, Myers RD (1977) Characterization of prostaglandin sensitive sites in the monkey hypothalamus mediating hyperthermia. In: Cooper KE, Lomax P, Schönbaum E (eds) Drugs, biogenic amines, and body temperature. Karger, Basel, pp 142–144Google Scholar
  87. Sinclair JG, Chaplin MF (1974) Effects of p-chlorophenylalanine, α-methyl-p-tyrosine, morphine, and chlorpromazine on prostaglandin E1 hyperthermia in the rabbit. Prostaglandins 8:117–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Spector R, Lorenzo AV (1974) The effects of salicylate and probenecid on the cerebrospinal fluid transport of penicillin, aminosalicylic acid, and iodide. J Pharmac exp Ther 188:55–65Google Scholar
  89. Splawinski J A, Gorka Z, Suder E, Kaluza J (1976) The effect of 6-hydroxydopamine on pyrogen, prostaglandins (E2 and E) and arachidonic acid fever in rats. In: Samuelsson B, Paoletti R (eds) Advances in prostaglandin and thromboxane research, Vol 2. Raven Press, New York, pp 834–835Google Scholar
  90. Szekely M (1978a) Endotoxin fever in parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) treated newborn guinea pigs and kittens. Life Sci 22:1585–1588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Szekely M (1978b) Endotoxin fever in the new-born guinea-pig and the modulating effects of indomethacin and p-chlorophenylalanine. J Physiol (Lond) 281:467–476Google Scholar
  92. Szekely M (1979a) Central and peripheral adrenergic mechanisms in endotoxin fever of newborn guinea pigs. Acta Physiol Acad Sci Hung 54:257–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Szekely M (1979b) Endotoxin fever in the newborn kitten. The role of prostaglandins and monoamines. Acta Physiol Acad Sci Hung 54:265–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Takagi H, Kuruma I (1966) Effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on the content of serotonin and norepinephrine in rabbit brain. Jap J Pharmacol 16:478–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tangri KK, Bhargava AK, Bhargava KP (1975) Significance of central cholinergic mechanism in pyrexia induced by bacterial pyrogen in rabbits. In: Lomax P, Schönbaum E (eds) Temperature regulation and drug action. Karger, Basel, pp 65–74Google Scholar
  96. Teddy PJ (1969) The effects of alternations in hypothalamic monoamines content on fever in the rabbit. J Physiol (Lond) 204:140–141pGoogle Scholar
  97. Veale WL, Cooper KE (1975) Comparison of sites of action of prostaglandin E and leuco- cytic pyrogen in brain. In: Lomax P, Schönbaum E (eds) Temperature regulation and drug action. Karger, Basel, pp 218–226Google Scholar
  98. Yasuda M (1962) Effect of reserpine on febrile responses induced by pyrogenic substances. Jap J Pharmacol 11:114–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Cox
  • T. F. Lee

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations