Newer Diagnostic Procedures in Chronic Toxicity Studies in Rats
A large number of diagnostic procedures which are either adapted from clinical laboratory tests or are based on pharmacological and biochemical concepts are available for introduction into routine animal toxicology. In order to illustrate the variety of possible experimental approaches several examples are given, ranging from simple determinations of bleeding time and fibrinolysis to cardiovascular function studies including serial electrocardiography, measurement of the cardiac output and the catecholamine-arrhythmia threshold. Moreover, the use of serial fine needle aspiration biopsy for early diagnosis of various liver lesions is described. It is stressed that these diagnostic procedures should not be included indiscriminately into the classical toxicological programs, but should be used judiciously to test a clearly stated scientific hypothesis.
Key wordsDiagnostic procedures Bleeding time Fibrinolysis Electrocardiography Liver biopsy
Fine needle aspiration biopsy
- AV block
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Farnley GR, Balmforth G, Fearnley E (1957) Evidence of a diurnal fibrinolytic rhythm with a simple method of measuring natural fibrinolysis. Clin Sci 16: 645Google Scholar
- Grauwiler J (1965) Herz and Kreislauf der Säugetiere. Birkhäuser, BaselGoogle Scholar
- Nagel J, de Graaf S (1978) Extraction and fractionation of B. pertussis antigens in order to reduce the reactogenic properties of pertussis vaccines. In: Manclark CR, Hill JC (eds) International Symposium on Pertussis. Bethesda U.S. Dep. of Health, Education, and Welfare No. (NIH) 79–1830, pp 327–329Google Scholar
- Romagna F, Zbinden G (to be published) Distribution of nuclear size and DNA content in serial liver biopsies of rats treated with N-nitrosomorpholine, phenobarbital and butylated hydroxytolene. Exp Cell BiolGoogle Scholar
- Ström J (1970) Reactions of a cerebral nature in conjunction with triple vaccination in Sweden. International Symp. on Pertussis, Symp. Series Immunbiol. Standard., vol 13. Karger, Basel München New York, pp 157–160Google Scholar
- Zbinden G (ed) (1980) Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the rat liver. Cytological, cytochemical and biochemical methods. Pergamon Press, Oxford New York Sydney Paris FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
- Zbinden G (1981) Assessment of cardiotoxic effects in subacute and chronic rat toxicity studies. In: Balazs T (ed) Cardiac toxicity. CRC Press, Boca Raton FLGoogle Scholar
- Zbinden G, Gross F (1979) Pharmacological methods in toxicology. Pergamon Press, Oxford New York Sidney Paris FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
- Zbinden G, Ettlin R, Bachmann E (1980a) Electrocardiographic changes in rats during chronic treatment with antidepressant and neuroleptic drugs. Arzneim Forsch 10: 1709–1715Google Scholar