Electrophysiological Studies of the Magnocellular Neurons

Conference paper
Part of the Current Topics in Neuroendocrinology book series (CT NEUROENDOCRI, volume 4)


The magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus which synthesize and release the peptide hormones vasopressin and oxytocin present a fascinating and attractive target for the electrophysiologist. These neurons are relatively large and are clustered together in dense aggregates, mostly in the paraventricular nuclei (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON), which can be easily located. They have relatively simple neuronal profiles and send the vast majority of their axons to the neural lobe of the pituitary, which itself is remote from the rest of the brain and consists predominantly of the terminals of the magnocellular neurons. These features allow the neurons to be recorded and identified electrophysiologically. The ultra- structural and biochemical characteristics of these neurons also allow them to be readily visualized histologically. The neurosecretory product of the magnocellular neurons can be detected and measured in the plasma, and several physiological reflexes cause a selective activation of the neurons, resulting in the release of detectable quantities of hormone. During the past 25 years considerable insight has been gained into the functions of these neurons and the significance of their electrical activity; yet, though information regarding them continues to accumulate, there are many fundamental aspects which remain unclear. Our understanding of their organization and regulation, rather than being enhanced, has actually become more uncertain.


Opioid Peptide Vasopressin Release Magnocellular Neuron Milk Ejection Subfornical Organ 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahn MS, Feldman SC, Makman MH (1979) Posterior pituitary adenylate cyclase: stimulation by dopamine and other agents. Brain Res 166: 422–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Akaishi T, Negoro H, Kobayasi S (1980) Responses of paraventricular and supraoptic units to angiotensin II, sar1-ile3-angiotensin II, and hypertonic NaCl administered into the cerebral ventricle. Brain Res 188: 499–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alper RH, Moore KE (1982) Injection of hypertonic saline or mannitol accelerates the dehydration-induced activation of dopamine synthesis in the neurointermediate lobe of the rat hypophysis. Neuroendocrinology 35: 469–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ambach G, Palkovits M (1979) The blood supply of the hypothalamus of the rat. Morgane PJ, Panksepp J (eds) In: Anatomy of the hypothalamus. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Andersson B (1978) Regulation of water intake. Physiol Rev 58: 582–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Armstrong WE, Sladek CD, Sladek JR (1982) Characterization of noradrenergic control of vasopressin release by the organ-cultured rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. Endocrinology 111: 273–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnauld E, Cirino M, Layton BS, Renaud LP (1983) Contrasting actions of amino acids, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and leucine enkephalin on the excitability of supraoptic vasopressin-secreting neurones. Neuroendocrinology 36: 187–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Aziz LA, Forsling ML, Woolf CJ (1981) The effect of intracerebroventricular injections of morphine on vasopressin release in the rat. J Physiol (Lond) 311: 401–409Google Scholar
  9. Balment RJ, Brimble MJ, Forsling ML (1980) Release of oxytocin induced by salt loading and its influence on renal excretion in the male rat. J Physiol (Lond) 308: 439–449Google Scholar
  10. Barden N, Chevillard C, Saavedra JM (1982) Diurnal variations in rat posterior pituitary catecholamine levels. Neuroendocrinology 34: 148–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barker JL, Crayton JW, Nicoll RA (1971) Noradrenaline and acetylcholine responses of supraoptic neurosecretory cells. J Physiol (Lond) 218: 19–32Google Scholar
  12. Barnard RR, Morris M (1982) Cerebrospinal fluid vasopressin and oxytocin: evidence for an osmotic response. Neurosci Lett 29: 275–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bennett CT, Pert A (1974) Antidiuresis produced by injections of histamine into the cat supraoptic nucleus. Brain Res 78: 151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bicknell RJ, Leng G (1982) Endogenous opiates regulate oxytocin but not vasopressin secretion from the neurohypophysis. Nature 298: 161–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bie P (1980) Osmoreceptors, vasopressin and control of renal water excretion. Physiol Rev 60: 961–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bioulac B, Gaffori O, Harris M, Vincent J-D (1978) Effects of acetylcholine, sodium glutamate and GABA on the discharge of supraoptic neurons in the rat. Brain Res 154: 159–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bisset GW, Chowdrey HS (1981) A central cholinergic link in the neural control of the release of vasopressin. Br J Pharmacol 74: 239Google Scholar
  18. Bisset GW, Feldberg W, Guertzenstein PG, Rocha E, Silva M Jr (1975) Vasopressin release by nicotine: the site of action. Br J Pharmacol 54: 463–474Google Scholar
  19. Blume HW, Pittman QJ, Renaud LP (1978) Electrophysiological indications of a “vasopressinergic” innervation of the median eminence. Brain Res 155: 153–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bridges TE, Hillhouse EW, Jones MT (1976) The effect of dopamine on neurohypophysial hormone release in vivo and from the rat neural lobe and hypothalamus in vitro. J Physiol (Lond) 260: 647–666Google Scholar
  21. Bridges TE, Thorn NA (1970) The effect of autonomic blocking agents on vasopressin release in vivo induced by osmoreceptor stimulation. J Endocrinol 48: 265–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brimble MJ, Dyball REJ (1977) Characterization of the responses of oxytocin- and vasopressin-secreting neurones in the supraoptic nucleus to osmotic stimulation. J Physiol 271: 253–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brimble MJ, Dyball REJ, Forsling ML (1978) Oxytocin release following osmotic activation of oxytocin neurones in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. J Physiol 278: 69–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Buggy J, Hoffman WE, Phillips MI, Fisher AE, Johnson AK (1979) Osmosensitivity of rat third ventricle and interactions with angiotensin. Am Physiol Soc 236: R75–82Google Scholar
  25. Buijs RM, Swaab DF, Dogterom J, van Leeuwen FW (1978) Intra- and extrahypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin pathways in the rat. Cell Tissue Res 186: 423–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Buijs RM, van Heerikhuize JJ (1982) Vasopressin and oxytocin release in the brain–a synaptic event. Brain Res 252: 71–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Buranarugsa P, Hubbard JI (1979) The neuronal organization of the rat subfornical organ in vitro and a test of the osmo- and morphine-receptor hypotheses. J Physiol 291: 101–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chapman DB, Way EL (1980) Metal ion interactions with opiates. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 20: 553–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Christensen JD, Fjalland B (1982) Lack of effect of opiates on release of vasopressin from isolated rat neurohypophysis. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 50: 113–116Google Scholar
  30. Ciriello J, Calaresu FR (1980) Monosynaptic pathway from cardiovascular neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii to the paraventricular nucleus in the cat. Brain Res 193: 529–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Clarke G, Merrick LP (1982) Stimulation of vasopressin and oxytocin neurones by hypertonic sodium chloride injected into the cerebral ventricles. J Physiol (Lond) 327: 24–25Google Scholar
  32. Clarke G, Patrick G (1983) Differential inhibitory action by morphine on the release of oxytocin and vasopressin from isolated neural lobe. Neurosci Lett 39: 175–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Clarke G, Fall CHD, Lincoln DW, Merrick LP (1978) Effects of cholinoceptor antagonists on the suckling-induced and experimentally evoked release of oxytocin. Br J Pharmacol 63: 519–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Clarke G, Lincoln DW, Merrick LP (1979a) Dopaminergic control of oxytocin release in lactating rats. J Endocrinol 83: 409–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Clarke G, Wood P, Merrick L, Lincoln DW (1979b) Opiate inhibition of peptide release from the neurohumoral terminals of hypothalamic neurones. Nature 282: 746–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Clarke G, Kirby PJC, Thomson AM (1980) Effects on vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurones of intraventricular substance P. J Physiol (Lond) 307: 59Google Scholar
  37. Cowley AW (1982) Vasopressin and cardiovascular regulation. Int Rev Physiol 26:189–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cox BM (1982) Mini review: endogenous opioid peptides: a guide to structures and terminology. Life Sci 31: 1645–1658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Dellman HD, Simpson JB (1979) The subfornical organ. Int Rev Cytol 58: 333–421Google Scholar
  40. Douglas WW (1974) Mechanism of release of neurohypophysial hormones: stimulus-secretion coupling. In: Handbook of physiology-endocrinology. American Physiological Society, Washington D. C. Vol IV, Part 1, pp 191–224Google Scholar
  41. Douglas WW, Poisner AM (1964) Stimulus-secretion coupling in a neurosecretory organ and the role of calcium in the release of vasopressin from the neurohypophysis. J Physiol (Lond) 172: 1–18Google Scholar
  42. Dreifuss JJ, Kelly JS (1972a) The activity of identified supraoptic neurones and their response to acetylcholine applied by iontophoresis. J Physiol (Lond) 220: 105–118Google Scholar
  43. Dreifuss J J, Kelly JS (1972b) Recurrent inhibition of antidromically identified rat supraoptic neurones. J Physiol (Lond) 220: 87–103Google Scholar
  44. Dreifuss J J, Kalnins I, Kelly JS, Ruf KB (1971) Action potentials and release of neurohypophysial hormones in vitro. J Physiol 215: 805–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dreifuss J J, Harris MC, Tribollet E (1976) Excitation of phasically firing hypothalamic su-praoptic neurones by carotid occlusion in rats. J Physiol (Lond) 257: 337–354Google Scholar
  46. Dreifuss J J, Tribollet E, Baertschi A J (1976) Excitation of supraoptic neurones by vaginal distention in lactating rats; correlation with neurohypophysial hormone release. Brain Res 113: 600–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Dreifuss JJ, Tribollet E, Muhlethaler (1981) Temporal patterns of neural activity and their relation to the secretion of posterior pituitary hormones. Biol Reprod 24: 51–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Duke HN, Pickford M, Watt JA (1951) The antidiuretic action of morphine, its site and mode of action in the hypothalamus of the dog. Q J Exp Physiol 36:149–158Google Scholar
  49. Dutton A, Dyball RE J (1979) Phasic firing enhances vasopressin release from the rat neurohypophysis. J Physiol 290: 433–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Dyball RE J (1971) Oxytocin and ADH secretion in relation to eletrical activity in antidromically identified supraoptic and paraventricular units. J Physiol 214: 245–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dyball RE J, McPhaill CI (1974) Unit activity in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei — the effects of anaesthetics. Brain Res 67: 43 — 50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Dyball REJ, Prilusky J (1981) Responses of supraoptic neurones in the intact and deafferented rat hypothalamus to injections of hypertonic sodium chloride. J Physiol (Lond) 311: 443–452Google Scholar
  53. Fisher AWF, Price PG, Burford GD, Lederis K (1979) A 3-dimensional reconstruction of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system of the rat. Cell Tissue Res 204: 343–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Freund-Mercier MJ, Richard Ph (1981) Excitatory effects of intraventricular injections of oxytocin on the milk-ejection reflex in the rat. Neurosci Lett 23: 193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gahwiler BH, Dreifuss J J (1979) Phasically firing neurons in long-term cultures of the rat hypothalamic supraoptic area: pacemaker and follower cells. Brain Res 177: 95–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gahwiler BH, Dreifuss J J (1980) Transition from random to phasic firing induced in neurons cultured from the hypothalamic supraoptic area. Brain Res 193: 415–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ganten D, Lang RE, Lehmann E, Unger Th (1984) Brain angiotensin: On the way to becoming a well-studied neuropeptide system. Biochem Pharmacol 33: 3523–3528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gauer OH, Henry JP, Behn C (1970) The regulation of extracellular fluid volume. Annu Rev Physiol 32: 547–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gilbey MP, Coote JH, Fleetwood-Walker S, Peterson DF (1982) The influence of the paraventriculo-spinal pathway and oxytocin and vasopressin on sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Brain Res 251: 283–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Haas HL, Wolf P, Nussbaumer J-C (1975) Histamine action on supraoptic and other hy-pothalamic neurones of the cat. Brain Res 88: 166–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Harris GW, Manabe Y, Ruf KB (1969) A study of the parameters of electrical stimulation of unmyelinated fibres in the pituitary stalk. J Physiol (Lond) 203: 67–81Google Scholar
  62. Harris MC (1979) Effects of chemoreceptor and baroreceptor stimulation on the discharge of hypothalamic supraoptic neurones in rats. J Endocrinol 82: 115–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Harris MC, Banks D, Zerihun L (1982) Inputs from hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to dorsal medullary nuclei in the rat. Baertschi AJ, Dreifuss JJ (eds) In: Neuroendocrinology of vasopressin corticoliberin and opiomelanocortin. Academic, London, pp 153–165Google Scholar
  64. Harris MC, Dreifuss J J, Legross JJ (1975) Excitation of phasically firing supraoptic neurones during vasopressin release. Nature 258: 80–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hatton GI (1982) Phasic bursting activity of rat paraventricular neurones in the absence of synaptic transmission. J Physiol (Lond) 327: 273–284Google Scholar
  66. Hatton GI, Armstrong WE, Gregory WA (1978) Spontaneous and osmotically stimulated activity in slices of rat hypothalamus. Brain Res Bull 3: 497–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hayward JN, Jennings DP (1973) Activity of magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamus of unanaesthetised monkeys. 1. Functional cell types and their anatomical distribution in the supraoptiv nucleus and internuclear zone. J Physiol 232: 515–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hoffman PK, Share L, Crofton JT, Shade RE (1982) The effect of intracerebroventricular indomethacin on osmotically stimulated vasopressin release. Neuroendocrinology 34: 132–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hoffman WE, Schmid PG (1979) Cardiovascular and antidiuretic effects of central prostaglandin E2. J Physiol (Lond) 288: 159–169Google Scholar
  70. Hoffman WE, Phillips MI, Schmid P (1977) The role of catecholamines in central antidiuretic and pressor mechanisms. Neuropharmacology 16: 563–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Holzbauer M, Sharman DF, Godden U (1978) Observations on the function of the dopaminergic nerves innervating the pituitary gland. Neuroscience 3: 1251–1262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ingram CD, Bicknell RJ, Brown D, Leng G (1982) Rapid fatigue of neuropeptide secretion during continual electrical stimulation. Neuroendocrinology 35: 424–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Iversen LL, Iversen SD, Bloom FE (1980) Opiate receptors control vasopressin release from nerve terminals in rat neurohypophysis. Nature 284: 350–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Jennings DP, Haskins JT, Rogers JM (1978) Comparison of firing patterns and sensory responsiveness between supraoptic and other hypothalamic neurons in the unanesthe- tized sheep. Brain Res 149: 347–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Joels M, Urban IJA (1982) The effect of microiontophoretically applied vasopressin and oxytocin on single neurones in the septum and dorsal hippocampus of the rat. Neurosci Lett 33: 79–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Karasek M, Traczyk WZ, Orlowska-Majdak M, Rubacha G (1980) Quantitative changes of the neurosecretory granules in the rat neurohypophysis after preganglionic stimulation of the superior cervical ganglion. Acta Med Pol 21: 351–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kasting NW, Cooper KE, Veale WL (1979) Antipyresis following perfusion of brain site with vasopressin. Experientia 35: 208–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Keil LC, Summy-Long J, Severs WB (1975) Release of vasopressin by angiotensin II. Endocrinology 96: 1063–1065PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kimura T, Share L, Wang BC, Crofton JT (1981) Central effects of dopamine and bromocriptine on vasopressin release and blood pressure. Neuroendocrinology 33: 347–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Koizumi K, Yamashita H (1978) Influence of atrial stretch receptors on hypothalamic neurosecretory neurones. J Physiol (Lond) 285: 341–358Google Scholar
  81. Kuhn ER (1974) Cholinergic and adrenergic release mechanism for vasopressin in the male rat: a study with injections of neurotransmitters and blocking agents into the third ventricle. Neuroendocrinology 16: 255–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kuhn ER, McCann SM (1971) Release of oxytocin and vasopressin in lactating rats after injection of carbachol into the third ventricle. Neuroendocrinology 8: 48–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Leng G (1980) Rat supraoptic neurones: the effects of locally applied hypertonic saline. J Physiol (Lond) 304: 405–414Google Scholar
  84. Leng G (1981) The effects of neural-stalk stimulation upon firing patterns in rat supraoptic neurones. Exp Brain Res 41: 135–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Leng G, Mason WT, Dyer RG (1982) The supraoptic nucleus as an osmoreceptor. Neuroendocrinology 34: 75–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Leng G, Wiersma J (1981) Effects of neural-stalk stimulation on phasic discharge of supraoptic neurones in Brattleboro rats devoid of vasopressin. J Endocrinol 90: 211–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lightman SL, Iversen LI, Forsling MI (1982) Dopamine and (D-Ala, D-Leu) enkephalin inhibit the electrically stimulated neurohypophyseal release of vasopressin in vitro: evidence for calcium-dependent opiate action. J Neurosci 2: 78–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lincoln DW (1969) Correlation of unit activity in the hypothalamus with EEG patterns associated with the sleep cycle. Exp Neurol 24: 1–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lincoln DW (1974) Dynamics of oxytocin secretion. In: Knowls F, Vollrath L (eds) Neurosecretion - the final neuroendocrine pathway. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  90. Lincoln DW, Wakerley JB (1974) Electrophysiological evidence for the activation of supraoptic neurones during the release of oxytocin. J Physiol 242: 533–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lincoln DW, Wakerley JB (1975) Factors governing the periodic activation of supraoptic and paraventricular neurosecretory cells during suckling in the rat. J Physiol 250:443–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lincoln DW, Hill A, Wakerley JB (1973) The milk-ejection reflex of the rat: an intermittent function not abolished by surgical levels of anaesthesia. J Endocrinol 57: 459–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Lincoln DW, Clarke G, Mason CA, Dreifuss J J (1976) Physiological mechanisms determining the release of oxytocin in milk ejection and labour. In: Moses AH, Shave L (eds) neurohypophysis. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  94. Lincoln DW, Hentzen K, Hin T, Shoot P, Clarke G, Summerlee AJS (1980) Sleep: a prerequisite for reflex milk ejection in the rat. Exp Brain Res 38: 151–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Lind RW, Swanson LW, Ganten D (1985) Organization of angiotensin II immunoreactive cells and fibers in the rat central nervous system. Neuroendocrinology 40: 2–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lindvall O, Bjorklund A (1974) The organization of the ascending catecholamine neuron systems in the rat brain. Acta Physiol Scand [Suppl] 314Google Scholar
  97. Martin R, Voigt KH (1981) Enkephalins co-exist with oxytocin and vasopressin in nerve terminals of rat neurohypophysis. Nature 289: 502–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Mason WT (1980) Supraoptic neurones of rat hypothalamus are osmosensitive. Nature 287: 154–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. McNeill TH, Sladek JR Jr (1980) Simultaneous monoamine histofluorescence and neuropeptide immunocytochemistry. II. Correlative distribution of catecholamine varicosities and magnocellular neurosecretory neurons in the rat supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. J Comp Neurol 193: 1023–1033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Menninger RP (1979) Effects of carotid occlusion and left atrial stretch on supraoptic neurosecretory cells. Am J Physiol 237: R63–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Meyer DK, Phillips MI, Eiden L (1982) Studies on the presence of angiotensin II in rat brain. J Neurochem 38: 816–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Mills E, Wang SC (1964) Liberation of ADH: Pharmacologic blockade of ascending pathways. Am J Physiol 207: 1405–1410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Milton AS, Paterson AT (1974) A microinjection study of the control of antidiuretic hormone release by the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus in the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 241: 607–628Google Scholar
  104. Miselis RR (1981) The efferent projections of the subfornical organ of the rat: a circumventricular organ within a neural network subserving water balance. Brain Res 230: 1–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Moos F, Richard PH (1979) Effects of dopaminergic antagonist and agonist on oxytocin release induced by various stimuli. Neuroendocrinology 28: 138–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Moos F, Richard P (1982) Excitatory effect of dopamine on oxytocin and vasopressin reflex releases in the rat. Brain Res 241: 249–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Moos F, Richard P (1983) Serotonergic control of oxytocin release during suckling in the rat: opposite effects in conscious and anaesthetized rats. Neuroendocrinology 36: 300–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Morris JF, Nordmann JJ, Shaw FP (1981) Granules, microvesicles, and vacuoles - their roles in the functional compartments of the neural lobe. In: Farner DS, Lederis K (eds) Neurosecretion. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  109. Morris R, Salt TE, Sofroniew MV, Hill RG (1980) Actions of microiontophoretically applied oxytocin and immunohistochemical localisation of oxytocin vasopressin and neurophysin in the rat caudal medulla. Neurosci Lett 18: 163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Moss RL, Dyball REJ, Cross BA (1972a) Excitation of antidromically identified neurosecretory cells of the paraventricular nucleus by oxytocin applied iontophoretically. Exp Neurol 34: 95–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Moss RL, Urban I, Cross BA (1972b) Microelectrophoresis of cholinergic and aminergic drugs on paraventricular neurons. Am J Physiol 223: 310–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Muehlethaler M, Dreifuss JJ (1982) A neuronal action of posterior pituitary peptides in the rat hippocampus. In: Neuroendocrinology of vasopressin, corticoliberin and opiomelanocortins. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  113. Muehlethaler M, Gaehwiler BH, Dreifuss JJ (1980) Enkephalin-induced inhibition of hypothalamic paraventricular neurones. Brain Res 197: 264–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Neve HA, Paisley AC, Summerlee A J (1982) Arousal a pre-requisite for suckling in the conscious rabbit? Physiol Behav 28: 213–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Nicoll RA, Barker JL (1971) The pharmacology of recurrent inhibition in the supraoptic neurosecretory system. Brain Res 35: 501–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Nilaver G, Zimmerman EA, Wilkins J, Michaels J, Hoffman D, Silverman AJ (1980) Magnocellular hypothalamic projections to the lower brain stem and spinal cord of the rat. Neuroendocrinology 30: 150–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Nordmann JJ, Chevallier J (1980) The role of microvesicles in buffering [Ca2+]: in the neurohypophysis. Nature 287: 54–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Nordmann JJ, Dreifuss JJ (1972) Hormone release evoked by electrical stimulation of rat neurohypophyses in the absence of action potentials. Brain Res 45: 604–607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. O’Donohue TL, Dorsa DM (1982) The opiomelanotropinergic neuronal and endocrine systems. Peptides 3: 353–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Oertel WH, Muenaini E, Tappaz ML, Weise VK, Dahl AL, Schmechel DE, Kopin IJ (1982) Central GABAergic innervation of neurointermediate pituitary lobe: biochemical and immunocytochemical study in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 675–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Pickford M (1939) The inhibitory effect of acetylcholine on water diuresis in the dog and its pituitary transmission. J Physiol 95: 226–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Pickford M (1947) The action of acetylcholine in the supraoptic nucleus of the chloralosed dog. J Physiol (London) 106: 264–270Google Scholar
  123. Pittman QJ, Hatton JD, Bloom FE (1980) Morphine and opioid peptides reduce paraventricular neuronal activity: studies on the rat hypothalamic slice preparation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77: 5527–5531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Pittman QJ, Veale WL, Lederis K (1982) Central neurohypophyseal peptide pathways: interactions with endocrine and other autonomic functions. Peptides 3: 515–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Poulain DA, Wakerley JB (1982) Electrophysiology of hypothalamic magnocellular neurones secreting oxytocin and vasopressin. Neuroscience 7: 773–808PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Poulain DA, Wakerley JB, Dyball REJ (1977) Electrophysiological differentiation of oxytocin- and vasopressin-secreting neurones. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 196: 367–384Google Scholar
  127. Poulain DA, Ellendorff F, Vincent JD (1980) Septal connections with identified oxytocin and vasopressin neurones in the supraoptic nucleus of the rat. An electrophysiological investigation. Neuroscience 5: 379–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Poulain DA, Rodriguez F, Ellendorff F (1981a) Sleep is not a prerequisite for the milk- ejection reflex in the pig. Exp Brain Res 43: 107–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Poulain DA, Lebrun CJ, Vincent JD (1981b) Electrophysiological evidence for connections between septal neurones and the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus of the rat. Exp Brain Res 42: 260–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Racké K, Ritzel H, Trapp B, Muschell E (1982a) Dopaminergic modulation evoked vasopressin release from the isolated neurohypophysis of the rat. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 319: 56–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Racké K, Rothländer M, Muscholl E (1982b) Isoprenaline and forskolin increase evoked vasopressin release from rat pituitary. Eur J Pharmacol 82: 97–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Reid IA (1979) The brain renin-angiotensin system: a critical analysis. Fed Proc 38:2255–2259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Reid IA, Brooks VL, Rudolph CD, Keil LC (1982) Analysis of the actions of angiotensin on the central nervous system of conscious dogs. Am J Physiol 243: R82–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Rhodes CH, Morrell JI, Pfaff DW (1981a) Immunohistochemical analysis of magnocellular elements in rat hypothalamus: distribution and numbers of cells containing neurophysin, oxytocin and vasopressin. J Comp Neurol 198: 45–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rhodes CH, Morrell JI, Pfaff DW (1981b) Distribution of estrogen-concentrating, neurophysin-containing magnocellular neurones in the rat hypothalamus as demonstrated by a technique combining steroid autoradiography and immunohistology in the same tissue. Neuroendocrinology 33: 18–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Robinson ICAF, Jones PM (1982) Oxytocin and neurophysin in plasma and CSF during suckling in the guinea-pig. Neuroendocrinology 34: 59–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Rossier J, Battenberg E, Pittman Q, Bayon A, Koda L, Miller R, Guillemin R, Bloom F (1979) Hypothalamic enkephalin neurones may regulate the neurohypophysis. Nature 277: 653–655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Roth KA, Weber E, Barchas JD, Chang D, Chang J-W (1982) Immunoreactive dynorphin- (1–8) and corticotropin releasing factor in subpopulation of hypothalamic neurones. Science 219: 189–191Google Scholar
  139. Saavedra JM, Palkovitz M, Kizer JS, Brownstein M, Zivin JA (1975) Distribution of biogenic amines and related enzymes in the rat pituitary gland. J Neurochem 25: 257–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Sawchenko PE, Swanson LW, Joseph SA (1982) The distribution and cells of origin of ACTH (l–39)-stained varicosities in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Brain Res 232: 365–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Seybold VS, Miller JW, Lewis PR (1978) Investigation of a dopaminergic mechanism for regulating oxytocin release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 207: 605–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Share L (1979) Interrelations between vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin system. Fed Proc 38: 2267–2271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Share L, Levy MN (1966) Carotid sinus pulse pressure, a determinant of plasma and antidiuretic hormone concentration. Am J Physiol 211: 721–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Sharman DC, Holzer P, Holzbauer M (1982) In vitro release of endogenous catecholamines from the neural and intermediate lobe of the hypophysis. Neuroendocrinology 34: 175–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Shaw FD, Morris JF (1980) Calcium localization in the rat neurophypophysis. Nature 287: 56–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Silverman AJ, Hoffman DL, Zimmerman EA (1981) The descending afferent connections of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Brain Res Bull 6: 47–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Simantov R, Snyder SH (1977) Opiate receptor binding in the pituitary gland. Brain Res 124: 178–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Simonnet G, Bioulac B, Rodriguez F, Vincent JD 1980 ) Evidence of a direct action of angiotensin II on neurones in the septum and in the medial preoptic area. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 13: 359–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Simpson JB (1981) The circumventricular organs and the central actions of angiotensin. Neuroendocrinology 32: 248–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Simpson JB, Routtenberg A (1975) Subfornical organ lesions reduce intravenous angioten-sin-induced drinking. Brain Res 88: 154–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Sladek CD, Joynt RJ (1979) Cholinergic involvement in osmotic control of vasopressin release by the organ-cultured rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. Endocrinology 105: 367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Sladek CD, Knigge KM (1977) Cholinericg stimulation of vasopressin release from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system in organ culture. Endocrinology 101: 411–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Sofroniew MV, Glasmann W (1981) Golgi-like immunoperoxidase staining of hypothalamic magnocellular neurons that contain vasopressin, oxytocin or neurophysin in the rat. Neuroscience 6: 619–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Sofroniew MV, Weindl A (1978) Extrahypothalamic neurophysin-containing perkarya, fiber pathways and fiber clusters in the rat brain. Endocrinology 102: 334–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Stamler JF, Phillips MI (1981) Attenuation of the central hypertonic NaCl pressor response by angiotensin II inhibition. Brain Res 213: 427–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Stefanini E, Devoto P, Marachisio AM, Vernaleone F, Collu R (1980) [3H] Spiroperidol binding to a putative dopaminergic receptor in rat pituitary gland. Life Sci 26:583–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Summerlee AJS (1981) Extracellular recordings from oxytocin neurones during the expulsive phase of birth in unanaesthetized rats. J Physiol (Lond) 321: 1–9Google Scholar
  158. Summerlee AJS (1983) Hypothalamic neurone activity: hormone release and behaviour in freely moving rats. Q J Exp Physiol 68 (in press)Google Scholar
  159. Summerlee AJS, Lincoln DW (1981) Electrophysiological recordings from oxytocinergic neurones during suckling in the unanaesthetized lactating rat. J Endocrinol 90:255–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Summerlee AJS, Paisley AC (1982) The effect of behavioural arousal on the activity of hypothalamic neurons in unanaesthetized, freely moving rats and rabbits. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 214: 263–272Google Scholar
  161. Summy-Long JY, Keil LC, Deen K, Severs WB (1981a) Opiate regulation of angiotensin-induced drinking and vasopressin release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 217: 630–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Summy-Long JY, Rosella LM, Keil LC (1981b) Effects of centrally administered endogenous opioid peptides on drinking behaviour, increased plasma vasopressin concentration and pressor response to hypertonic sodium chloride. Brain Res 221: 343–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Summy-Long JY, Severs WB (1979) Macromolecular changes in the subfornical organ area after dehydration and renin. Am J Physiol 237: R26–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Swanson LW, Kuypers HGJM (1980) The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus: cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and organization of projections to the pituitary, dorsal vagal complex and spinal cord as demonstrated by retrograde fluorescence double-labeling methods. J Comp Neurol 194: 555–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Swanson LW, Sawchenko PE, Rivier J, Vale WW (1983) Organization of ovine corticotro-pin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells and fibers in the rat brain: an immuno-histo- chemical study. Neuroendocrinology 36: 165–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Theodosis DT (1982) Secretion-related accumulation of horseradish peroxidase in magnocellular cell bodies of the rat supraoptic nucleus. Brain Res 233: 3–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Theodosis DT, Poulain DA, Vincent JD (1981) Possible morphological bases for synchronisation of neuronal firing in the rat supraoptic nucleus during lactation. Neuroscience 6: 919–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Tribollet E, Clarke G, Dreifuss J J, Lincoln DW (1978) The role of central adrenergic receptors in the reflex release of oxytocin. Brain Res 142: 69–84PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Tweedle CD, Hatton GI (1977) Ultrastructural changes in rat hypothalamic neurosecretory cells and their associated glia during minimal dehydration and rehydration. Cell Tissue Res 181: 59–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Unger T, Rascher W, Schuster C, Pavlovitch R, Schomig A, Dietz R, Ganten D (1981) Central blood pressure effects of substance P and antiotensin II: role of the sympathetic nervous system and vasopressin. Eur J Pharmacol 71: 33–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Urban IJA (1981) Intraseptal administration of vasopressin and oxytocin affects hippocampal electroencephalogram in rats. Exp Neurol 74: 131–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Vale MR, Hope DB (1982) Cyclic nucleotides and the release of vasopressin from the rat posterior pituitary gland. J Neurochem 39: 569–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Vandesande F, Dierickx K (1975) Identification of the vasopressin-producing and of the oxytocin-producing neurons in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system of the rat. Cell Tissue Res 164: 153–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Vandesande F, Dierickx K, De May J (1977) The origin of the vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic fibres of the external region of the median eminence of the rat hypophysis. Cell Tissue Res 180: 443–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Van Leeuwen F (1980) Immunocytochemical specificity for peptides with special reference to arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin. J Histochem Cytochem 28: 479–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Van Ree JM, Bohus B, Versteeg DHG, De Wied D (1978) Neurohypophysial principles and memory processes. Biochem Pharmacol 27: 1793–1800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Verney EB (1947) The antidiuretic hormone and the factors which determine its release. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 135-25-105Google Scholar
  178. Vincent SR, Hokfelt T, Wu J-Y (1982) GABA neuron systems in hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. Neuroendocrinology 34: 117–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Vizi ES, Volbekas V (1980) Inhibition by dopamine of oxytocin release from isolated posterior lobe of the hypophysis of the rat; disinhibitory effect of ß-endorphin/enkephalin. Neuroendocrinology 31: 46–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Voloschin LM, Tramezzani JH (1979) Milk-ejection reflex linked to slow-wave sleep in nursing rats. Endocrinology 105: 1202–1207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Wakerley JB, Lincoln DW (1971) Phasic discharge of antidromically identified units in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Brain Res 25: 192–194Google Scholar
  182. Wakerley JB, Lincoln DW (1973) The milk-ejection reflex of the rat: a 20- to 40-fold acceleration in the firing of paraventricular neurones during oxytocin release. J Endocrinol 57: 477–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Wakerley JB, Noble R (1982) Electrophysiological behaviour of putative vasopressin neurones in intact brains and hypothalamic slices. In: Baertschi AJ, Dreifuss J J (eds) Neuroendocrinology of vasopressin, corticoliberin and opiomelanocortins. Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  184. Wakerley JB, Dyball RE J, Lincoln DW (1973) Milk ejection in the rat: the result of a selective release of oxytocin. J Endocrinol 57: 557–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Wakerly JB, Poulain DA, Dyball RE J, Cross BA (1975) Activity of phasic neurosecretory cells during haemorrhage. Nature 258: 82–84Google Scholar
  186. Wakerley JB, Poulain DA, Brown D (1978) Comparison of firing patterns in oxytocin- and vasopressin-releasing neurones during progressive dehydration. Brain Res 148:425–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Wakerley JB, Noble R, Clarke G ( 1983a) In vitro studies of the control of phasic discharge in neurosecretory cells of the supraoptiv nucleus. In: Cross BA, Leng G (eds) The neurohypophysis - structure, function and control. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  188. Wakerley BJ, Noble R, Clarke G (1983b) Effects of morphine and D-Ala, D-Leu enkephalin on the electrical activity of supraoptic neurosecretory cells in vitro. Neuroscience 10: 73–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Wang BC, Share L, Crofton JT, Kimura T (1982) Effect of intravenous and intracere- broventricular infusion of hypertonic solutions on plasma and cerebrospinal fluid vasopressin concentrations. Neuroendocrinology 34: 215–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Watson SJ, Akil H, Fischli W, Goldstin A, Zimmerman E, Nilaver G, van Wimersma Greidanus TB (1982) Dynorphin and vasopressin: common localization in magnocellular neurons. Science 216: 85–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Weindl A, Sofroniew MV (1981) Relation of neuropeptides to mammalian circumventricular organs. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 28: 303–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Yagi K, Azuma T, Matsuda K (1966) Neurosecretory cell: capable of conducting impulse in rats. Science 154: 778–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Zerihun L, Harris M (1981) Electrophysiological identification of neurones of paraventricular nucleus sending axons to both the neurohypophysis and the medulla in the rat. Neurosci Lett 23: 157–160PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnatomyUniversity of BristolBristolGreat Britain

Personalised recommendations