Advertisement

Cognitive Knowledge and Executive Control: Metacognition

  • R. H. Kluwe
Part of the Life Sciences Research Reports book series (DAHLEM, volume 21)

Abstract

The domain of psychological research with regard to metacognition is discussed on the basis of a distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge in information processing systems. According to these types of knowledge, one can distinguish between a person’s cognitive knowledge and executive processes. Cognitive knowledge refers to a person’s stored information about human thinking, especially about the features of his own thinking. Executive processes refer to cognitive activity directed at the monitoring of the application and the effects of solution strategies and at the regulation of the course of one’s own thinking. The subject of psychological research of metacognition is considered to be the control of activity in information processing systems.

Keywords

Information Processing System Cognitive State Cognitive Activity Executive Control Procedural Knowledge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    Bandura, A. 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a theory of behavioral change. Psychol. Rev. 84, 2: 191–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. (2).
    Brown, A. 1978. Knowing when, where, and how to remember: a problem of metacognition. In Advances in Instructional Psychology, ed. R. Glaser. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    Butterfield, E.C., and Belmont, J.M. 1975. Assessing and improving the executive functions of mentally retarded people. In Psychological Issues in Mental Retardation, eds. J. Bailer and M. Sternlicht. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    Dorner, D. 1974. Die kognitive Organisation bei Problemlosen. Bern: Huber.Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    Dorner, D. 1978. Self-reflection and problem solving. In Human and Artificial Intelligence, ed. F. Klix. Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften.Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    Dorner, D.; Kreuzig, H.W.; and Staudel, T. 1978. Loh-hausen. DFG-Projekt “Systemdenken.” Report 2. University of Giessen, F.R. Germany.Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    Flavell, J.H. 1971. First discussant’s comments: what is memory development the development of? Human Dev. 14: 272–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. (8).
    Flavell, J.H. 1979. Metacognition and cognitive monitoring. A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. Am. Psychol. 34: 906–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. (9).
    Flavell, J.H. 1981. Annahmen zum Begriff Metakognition sowie zur Entwicklung von Metakognition. In Meta-kognition, Motivation und Problemlosen, eds. F.E. Weinert and R.H. Kluwe. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, in pressGoogle Scholar
  10. (10).
    Flavell, J.H. 1981. Monitoring social-cognitive enterprises: something else that may develop in the area of social cognition. In New Directions in the Study of Social-cognitive Development, eds. J.H. Flavell and L. Ross, in press.Google Scholar
  11. (11).
    Flavell, J.H.; Friedrichs, A.G.; and Hoyt, J.D. 1970. Developmental changes in memorization processes. Cog. Psychol. 1: 324–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. (12).
    Flavell, J.H., and Wellman, H. 1977. Metamemory. In Perspectives on the Development of Memory and Cognition eds. R.V. Kail and J.W. Hagen. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    Hesse, F.W. 1979. Trainingsinduzierte Veranderungen in der heuristischen Struktur und ihr EinfluB auf das Problemlosen. Unpublished dissertation, Technical University of Aachen, F.R. Germany.Google Scholar
  14. (14).
    Hodos, W., and Campbell, C.B.G. 1969. Scala naturae: Why there is no theory in comparative psychology. Psychol. Rev. 76, 4: 337–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. (15).
    Kluwe, R. 1979. Wissen und Denken. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer.Google Scholar
  16. (16).
    Kluwe, R.H. 1980. Metakognition: Komponenten einer Theorie zur Kontrolle und Steuerung eigenen Denkens. Munich: University of Munich.Google Scholar
  17. (17).
    Kluwe, R.H. 1980. The development of metacognitive processes and performance. Paper presented at the Conference on “The Development of Metacognition, Attribution Styles, and Self-Instruction.” University of Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  18. (18).
    Kreutzer, M.A.; Leonard, C.; and Flavell, J.H. 1975. An interview study of children’s knowledge about memory Mon. Soc. Res. Child Devel. 40 (1, Serial No. 159).Google Scholar
  19. (19).
    Liier, G. 1973. GesetzmaBige Denkablaufe beim Problemlosen. Weinheim: Beltz.Google Scholar
  20. (20).
    Masur, E.F.; Mclntyre, C.W.; and Flavell, J.H. 1973. Developmental changes in apportionment of study time among items in a multitrial free recall task. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 15: 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. (21).
    Neisser, U. 1967. Cognitive Psychology. New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
  22. (22).
    Newall, A., and Simon, H.A. 1972. Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  23. (23).
    Premack, D., and Woodruff, G. 1978. Chimpanzee problem- solving: a test for comprehension. Science 202, 3: 532–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. (24).
    Premack, D., and Woodruff, G. 1978. Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behav. Brain Sci. 4: 515–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. (25).
    Pylyshyn, Z.W. 1979. Complexity and the study of artificial and human intelligence. In Philosophical Aspects in Artificial Intelligence, ed. M. Ringle. New York: The Humanities Press.Google Scholar
  26. (26).
    Reither, F. 1979. liber die Selbstreflexion beim Problem losen. Unpublished dissertation, University of Giessen, F.R. Germany.Google Scholar
  27. (27).
    Reitman, W. 1973. Problem solving, comprehension, and memory. In Process Models for Psychology, ed. J.G. Dalenoort. Rotterdam: University Press.Google Scholar
  28. (28).
    Ryle, G. 1949. The Concept of Mind. London: HutchinsonGoogle Scholar
  29. (29).
    Selz, 0. 1913. Uber die Gesetze des geordneten Denkver-laufs. Part 1. Stuttgart: Spemann.Google Scholar
  30. (30).
    Simon, D.P., and Simon, H.A. 1978. Individual differences in solving physics problems. In Children’s Thinking What Develops?, ed. R.S. Siegler. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. (31).
    Sternberg, R. 1979. The nature of mental abilities. Am. Psychol. 34: .214–230.Google Scholar
  32. (32).
    Thorndyke, P., and Stasz, C. 1980. Individual differences for knowledge acquisition from maps. Cog. Psychol. 12: 137–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. (33).
    Ueckert, H. 1980. The cognitive executive: From artificial intelligence toward a phychological theory of consciousness. Paper prepared for the International Congress of Psychology, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  34. (34).
    Woodruff, G., and Premack, D. 1978. Intentional communication in the chimpanzee: the development of deception. Cognition 7: 333–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr. S. Bernhard, Dahlem Konferenzen, Berlin 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. H. Kluwe
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachbereich PädagogikHochschule der BundeswehrHamburg 70F. R. Germany

Personalised recommendations