The Role of Cyclic Nucleotides in the Control of Anterior Pituitary Gland Activity

  • F. Labrie
  • P. Borgeat
  • J. Drouin
  • L. Lagace
  • V. Giguere
  • V. Raymond
  • M. Godbout
  • J. Massicotte
  • L. Ferland
  • N. Barden
  • M. Beaulieu
  • J. Cote
  • J. Lepine
  • H. Meunier
  • R. Veilleux
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 58 / 2)


The anterior pituitary gland secretes six known polypeptide hormones: ACTH (adrenocorticotropin), GH (growth hormone), PRL (prolactin), TSH (thyrotropin), LH (luteinizing hormone), and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone). The rate of secretion of these individual polypeptides is specifically controlled by neurohormones released from the hypothalamus and transported to their adenohypophyseal site of action by a short portal blood system (Schally et al. 1968). The secretion of LH, FSH, and ACTH is known to be under only positive hypothalamic control, whereas that of GH, TSH, and PRL results from the balance of action of inhibitory and stimulatory neurohormones (Fig. 1). The overall influence of the hypothalamus on GH and TSH secretion is stimulatory, whereas it is inhibitory on PRL secretion.


Luteinizing Hormone Cyclic Nucleotide Luteinizing Hormone Release Hormone Anterior Pituitary Cell Prolactin Release 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams TE, Nett TM (1979) Interaction of GnRH with anterior pituitary. III. Role of divalent cations, microtubules and microfilaments in the GnRH activated gonadotroph. Biol Reprod 21:1073–1086PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams TE, Wagner TOF, Sawyer HR, Nett TM (1979) GnRH interaction with anterior pituitary. II. Cyclic AMP as an intracellular mediator in the GnRH activated gonadotroph. Biol Reprod 21:735–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aiyer BS, Chiappa SA, Fink G, Greig FJ (1973) A priming effect of luteinizing hormone releasing factor on the anterior pituitary gland in the female rat. J Physiol (Lond) 234:81P–82PGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker HWG, Bremner WJ, Burger HG et al. (1976) Recent Prog Horm Res 32:429–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barden N, Labrie F (1973) Cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins from bovine anterior pituitary gland. Biochemistry 12:3096–3102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barden N, Bergeron L, Betteridge A (1976) Effects of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors and prostaglandin precursors on anterior pituitary cyclic AMP and hormone secretion. In: Samuelson B and Paoletti R (eds) Advances in Prostaglandin Thromboxane Res. Raven Press NY, p 341Google Scholar
  7. Barnes GD, Brown BL, Gard TG, Atkinson D, Ekins RP (1978) Effect of TRH and dopamine on cyclic AMP levels in enriched mammotroph and thyrotroph cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 12:273–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baumann R, Kuhl H (1980) Effect of LHRH and of a highly potent LHRH analog upon pituitary adenyl cyclase activity. Horm Metab Res 12:128–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beaulieu M, Labrie F, Coy DH, Coy EJ, Schally AV (1975) Parallel inhibition of LHRH-induced cyclic AMP accumulation and LH and FSH release by LHRH antagonists in vitro. J Cyclic Nucleotide Res 1:243–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bédard P, Langelier P, Villeneuve A (1977) Estrogens and the extra-pyramidal system. Lancet 1:1367Google Scholar
  11. Bédard P, Dankova J, Boucher R, Langelier P (1978) Effect of estrogens on apomorphineinduced circling behavior in the rat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 56:538–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bélanger A, Labrie F, Borgeat P et al. (1974) Inhibition of growth hormone and thyrotropin release by growth hormone-release inhibiting hormone. J Mol Cell Endocrinol 1:329–339Google Scholar
  13. Ben-Jonathan N, Oliver C, Weiner HJ, Mical RS, Porter JC (1977) Dopamine in hypophyseal portal plasma of the rat during the estrous cycle and throughout pregnancy. Endocrinology 100:452–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bergeron L, Barden N (1975) Stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation by arachidonic and 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acids in rat anterior pituitary gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2:253–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Betteridge A, Wallis M (1977) Role of prostaglandins and adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate in the control by insulin of growth hormone synthesis in vitro. Biochem Soc Trans 5:224–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Betteridge A, Wallis M (1978) Stimulation of anterior pituitary prostaglandin E content and somatotropin (growth hormone) synthesis by phospholipase A. Biochem J 176:319–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Betteridge A, Wallis M (1979) Involvement of prostaglandins in the inhibition of growth hormone production in cultured pituitary cells by insulin. J Endocrinol 80:239–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bicknell RJ, Schofield JG (1976) Mechanism of action of somatostatin: inhibition of ionophore A 23187-induced release of growth hormone from dispersed bovine pituitary cells. FEBS Lett 68:23–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boler J, Enzman F, Folkers K, Bowers CY, Schally AV (1969) The identity of chemical and hormonal properties of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone and pyroglutamyl-histidylproline amide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 37:705–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Borgeat P, Chavancy G, Dupont A, Labrie F, Arimura A, Schally AV (1972) Stimulation of adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate accumulation in anterior pituitary gland in vitro by synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone (LHRH/FSH-RH). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69:2677–2681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Borgeat P, Labrie F, Poirier G, Chavancy G, Schally AV (1973) Stimulation of adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate accumulation in anterior pituitary gland by purified growth hormone-releasing hormone. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 86:284–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Borgeat P, Labrie F, Côté J et al. (1974 a) Parallel stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation and LH and FSH release by analogs of LHRH in vitro. J Mol Cell Endocrinol 1:7–20Google Scholar
  23. Borgeat P, Labrie F, Drouin J et al. (1974 b) Inhibition of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate accumulation in anterior pituitary gland in vitro by growth hormone release-inhibiting hormone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 56:1052–1059PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Borgeat P, Garneau P, Labrie F (1975 a) Calcium requirement for stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation in anterior pituitary by LHRH. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2:117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Borgeat P, Labrie F, Garneau P (1975 b) Characteristics of action of prostaglandins on cyclic AMP accumulation in rat anterior pituitary gland. Can J Biochem 53:455–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bowers CY (1971) The role of cyclic AMP in the release of anterior pituitary hormones. Ann NY Acad Sci 185:263–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brattin WJ Jr, Portanova R (1981) Dibutyryl cyclic AMP-induced phosphorylation of specific proteins in adenohypophysial cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 23:77–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brazeau P, Vale W, Burgus R, Ling N, Butcher M, Rivier J, Guillemin R (1973) Hypothalamic polypeptide that inhibits the secretion of immunoreactive growth hormone. Science 179:77–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Brown MR, Hedge GA (1974) In vivo effects of prostaglandins on TRH-induced TSH secretion. Endocrinology 95:1392–1397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Brown GM, Seeman P, Lee T (1976) Dopamine neuroleptics receptors in basal hypothalamus and pituitary. Endocrinology 99:1407–1410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Burgus R, Dunn TF, Desiderio D, Guillemin R (1969) Structure moléculaire du facteur hypothalamique TRF d’origine ovine: mise en évidence par spectrométrie de masse de la séquence PCP-His-Pro, NH2. CR Acad Sci [D] (Paris) 269:1870–1873Google Scholar
  32. Burgus R, Butcher M, Ling N et al. (1971) Structure moléculaire du facteur hypothalamique (LRF) d’origine ovine contrôlant la sécrétion de l’hormone gonadotrope hypophysaire. CR Acad Sci [D] (Paris) 273:1611–1613Google Scholar
  33. Calabro MA, MacLeod RM (1978) Binding of dopamine to bovine anterior pituitary gland membranes. Neuroendocrinology 25:32–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Caron MG, Beaulieu M, Raymond V, Gagné B, Drouin J, Lefkowitz RJ, Labrie F (1978) Dopaminergic receptors in the anterior pituitary gland. Correlation of [3H]dihydroergocryptine binding with the dopaminergic control of prolactin release. J Biol Chem 254:2244–2253Google Scholar
  35. Castro-Vasquez A, McCann SM (1975) Cyclic variations in the increased responsiveness of the pituitary to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) indicated by LHRH. Endocrinology 97:13–19Google Scholar
  36. Cehovic G (1969) Role de l’adénosine 3′,5′-monophosphate cyclique dans la libération de TSH hypophysaire. CR Acad Sci [D] (Paris) 268:2929–2931Google Scholar
  37. Cehovic G, Lewis UJ, Vander Laan WP (1970) Etude de l’action adénosine 3′,5′-monophosphate cyclique sue la libération de l’hormone de croissance et de la prolactine in vitro. CR Acad Sci [D] (Paris) 270:3119–3122Google Scholar
  38. Chen L, Meites J (1970) Effects of estrogen and progesterone on serum and pituitary prolactin levels in ovariectomized rats. J Endocrinol 86:503–505Google Scholar
  39. Cheung WY, Lynch TJ, Wallace RW (1978) An endogenous Ca2+-dependent activator protein of brain adenylate cyclase and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res 9:233–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Chobsieng P, Naor Z, Koch Y, Zor U, Lindner HR (1975) Stimulatory effect of prostaglandin E2 on LH release in the rat: evidence for hypothalamic site of action. Neuroendocrinology 17:12–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Clayton RN, Catt KJ (1980) Receptor binding affinity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs: analysis by radioligand-receptor assay. Endocrinology 106:1154–1159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Clayton RN, Shakespear RA, Marshall JC (1978) LHRH binding to purified pituitary plasma membranes: absence of adenylate cyclase activation. Mol Cell Endocrinol 11:63–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Clayton EN, Shakespear RA, Duncan JA, Marshall JC (1979) Radioiodinated nondegradable gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs: new probes for the investigation of pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors. Endocrinology 105:1369–1381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Conn PM, Morrell DV, Dufau ML, Catt KJ (1979) Gonadotropin-releasing action in cultured pituicytes: independence of luteinizing hormone release and adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate production. Endocrinology 104:448–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Cooper RH, McPherson M, Schofield JG (1972) The effect of prostaglandins on pituitary content of adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate and the release of growth hormone. Biochem J 127:143–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. De Camilli P, Macconi D, Spada A (1979) Dopamine inhibits adenylate cyclase in human prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Nature 278:252–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. De Lange RJ, Kamp RG, Riley WD, Cooper WD, Krebs RG (1968) Activation of skeletal muscle Phosphorylase kinase by adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate. J Biol Chem 243:2200–2208Google Scholar
  48. Deery DJ, Howell SL (1973) Rat anterior pituitary adenyl cyclase activity. GTP requirement of prostaglandin E1 and E2 and synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone activation. Biochim Biophys Acta 329:17–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Deery DJ, Jones AC (1975) Effects of hypothalamic extracts, neurotransmitters and synthetic hypothalamic releasing hormones on adenylyl cyclase activity in the lobes of the pituitary of the dogfish (Scylrorhinus canicula L.). J Endocrinol 64:49–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. De Wied D, Witter A, Versteeg DHG, Mulder AH (1969) Release of ACTH by substances of central nervous system origin. Endocrinology 85:561–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Drouin J, Labrie F (1976 a) Selective effect of androgens on LH and FSH release in anterior pituitary cells in culture. Endocrinology 98:1528–1524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Drouin J, Labrie F (1976 b) Specificity of the stimulatory effect of prostaglandins on hormone release in anterior pituitary cells in culture. Prostaglandins 11:355–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Drouin J, Lagacé L, Labrie F (1976 a) Estradiol-induced increase of the LH responsiveness to LHRH in anterior pituitary cells in culture. Endocrinology 99:1477–1481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Drouin J, De Léan A, Rainville R, Lachance R, Labrie F (1976 b) Characteristics of the interaction between TRH and somatostatin for thyrotropin and prolactin release. Endocrinology 98:514–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Drouin J, Ferland L, Bernard J, Labrie F (1976 c) Site of the in vivo stimulatory effect of prostaglandins on LH release. Prostaglandins 11:367–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Drouin J, Lavoie M, Labrie F (1978) Effect of gonadal steroids on the LH and FSH response to 8-Br cyclic AMP in anterior pituitary cells in culture. Endocrinology 102:358–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Dubois P, Varques-Regairas H, Dubois MP (1973) Human foetal anterior pituitary immunofluorescent evidence for corticotropin and melanotropin activities. Z Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat 145:131–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Dufau ML, Horner KA, Yayashi K, Tsuruhara T, Conn PM, Catt KJ (1978) Actions of choleragen and gonatropin in isolated Leydig cells. Functional compartimentalization of the hormone-activated cyclic AMP response. J Biol Chem 253:3721–3729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Eto S, Fleischer N (1976) Regulation of thyrotropin (TSH) release and production in monolayer cultures of transplantable TSH-producing mouse tumors. Endocrinology 98:114–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Euvrard C, Labrie F, Boissier JR (1979) Antagonism between estrogens and dopamine in the rat striatum. In: Usdin E (ed) Catecholamines: basic and clinical frontiers. Pergamon, Oxford New York, p 1263Google Scholar
  61. Ferland L, Labrie F, Coy DH, Coy EJ, Schally AV (1975 a) Inhibitory activity of four analogs of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in vivo. Fertil Steril 26:889–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ferland L, Borgeat P, Labrie F, Bernard J, De Léan A, Raynaud JP (1975 b) Changes in pituitary sensitivity to LHRH during the estrous cycle. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2:107–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ferland L, Drouin J, Labrie F (1976) Role of sex steroids on LH and FSH secretion in the rat. In: Labrie F, Meites J, Pelletier G (eds) Hypothalamus and endocrine functions. Plenum, Oxford New York, p 191Google Scholar
  64. Ferland L, Labrie F, Euvrard C, Raynaud JP (1979) Antidopaminergic activity of estrogens on prolactin release at the pituitary level in vivo. Mol Cell Endocrinol 14:199–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Fleischer H, Donald RA, Butcher RW (1969) Involvement of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate in release of ACTH. Am J Physiol 5:1287–1291Google Scholar
  66. Franchimont P (1972) Human gonadotropin secretion. J R Coll Physicians Lond 6:283–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Franchimont P, Chari S, Demoulin A (1975) Hypothalamus-pituitary-testis interaction. J Reprod Fertil 44:335–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Franchimont P, Verstraelen-Proyard J, Hazee-Hagelstein MT, Renard CH, Demoulin A, Bourguignon JP, Hustin J (1979) Inhibin. From concept to reality. Vitam 37:243–302Google Scholar
  69. Frantz AG, Kleinberg DL, Noel GL (1972) Studies on prolactin in man, Recent Prog Horm Res 28:527–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Gautvick KM, Tashjian AH Jr (1973) Effects of cations and colchicine on the release of prolactin and growth hormone by functional pituitary cells in culture. Endocrinology 93:793–799Google Scholar
  71. Gershengorn MC, Rebecchi MJ, Geras E, Arevalo CO (1980) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) action in mouse thyrotropic tumor cells in culture: evidence against a role for adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate as a mediator of TRH-stimulated thyrotropin release. Endocrinology 107:665–670PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Giguere V, Cote J, Labrie F (1981) Characteristics of the α-adrenergic stimulation of adrenocorticotropin secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells. Endocrinology 109:757–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Godbout M, Labrie F (1982) Inhibitory effects of porcine follicular fluid “inhibin” on pituitary cyclic AMP levels. Mol Cell Endocrinol, in pressGoogle Scholar
  74. Goodyer CG, St George Hall C, Guyda H, Robert F, Giroud CJP (1977) Human fetal pituitary in culture: hormone secretion and response to somatostatin, luteinizing hormone releasing factor, thyrotropin-releasing factor and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 45:73–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Gordon JH, Reichlin S (1974) Changes in pituitary responsiveness to luteinizing hormonereleasing factor during the estrous cycle. Endocrinology 94:974–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Grant G, Vale W, Guillemin R (1972) Interaction of thyrotropin releasing factors with membrane receptors of pituitary cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 46:28–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Grant G, Vale W, Rivier J (1973) Pituitary binding sites for [3H]labelled luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (LRF). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 50:771–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Grumbach M, Roth JC, Kaplan SL, Kelch P (1974) Hypothalamic-pituitary regulation of puberty: evidence and concepts derived from clinical research, In: Grumbach G, Grave G, Mayer FE (eds) The Control of the onset of puberty. John Wiley and Sons, New York Chichester, p 115Google Scholar
  79. Harms PG, Ojeda SR, McCann SM (1973) Prostaglandin involvement in hypothalamic control of gonadotropin and prolactin release. Science 181:760–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Harms PG, Ojeda SR, McCann SM (1974) Prostaglandin-induced release of pituitary gonadotropins: central nervous system and pituitary sites of action. Endocrinology 94:1459–1464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Heber D, Odell WD (1978) Pituitary receptor binding activity of active, inactive, superactive and inhibitory analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 82:67–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hedge GA (1972) The effects of prostaglandins on ACTH secretion. Endocrinology 91:925–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hertelendy F (1971) Studies on growth hormone secretion. II. Stimulation by prostaglandins in vitro. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 68:355–362Google Scholar
  84. Hertelendy P, Peake GT, Todd H (1971) Studies on growth hormone secretion: inhibition of prostaglandin, theophylline and cyclic AMP stimulated growth hormone release by valinomycin in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 44:253–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hertelendy F, Todd H, Ehrhart K, Blute R (1972) Studies on growth hormone secretion. IV. In vivo effects of prostaglandin E1. Prostaglandins 2:79–91Google Scholar
  86. Hertelendy F, Todd H, Marconis RJ Jr (1978) Studies on growth hormone secretion. IX. Prostaglandins do not act like ionophores. Prostaglandins 15:575–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hoffman BB, De Léan A, Wood CL, Schocken DO, Lefkowitz RJ (1979) Alpha-adrenergic receptor subtypes: quantitative assessment by ligand binding. Life Sci 24:1739–1746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Jakobs KH (1979) Inhibition of adenylate cyclase by hormones and neurotransmitters. Mol Cell Endocrinol 16:147–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Jolicoeur P, Labrie F (1974) Phosphorylation of nuclear proteins from bovine anterior pituitary gland induced by adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate. Eur J Biochem 48:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Jutisz M, Paloma de la Llosa M (1970) Requirement of Ca++ and Mg++ ions for the in vitro release of follicle-stimulating hormone from rat pituitary gland and its subsequent biosynthesis. Endocrinology 86:761–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kaneko T, Saito S, Oka H, Oda T, Yanaihara N (1973) Effects of synthetic LHRH and its analogs on rat anterior pituitary cyclic AMP and LH and FSH release. Metabolism 22:77–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kato Y, Dupré J, Beck JC (1973) Plasma growth hormone in the anesthetized rat: effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, prostaglandin E, adrenergic agents, vasopressin, chlorpromazine, amphetamine and L-Dopa. Endocrinology 93:135–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Kawakami M, Kimura F (1980) Stimulation of guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate accumulation in anterior pituitary glands in vivo by synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Endocrinology 106:626–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kebabian JW (1973) Biochemical regulation and physiological significance of cyclic nucleotides in the nervous system, Cyclic Nucleotide Res 8:421Google Scholar
  95. Kebabian JW, Calne DB (1979) Multiple receptors for dopamine. Nature 277:93–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kebabian JW, Petzold GL, Greengard P (1977) Dopamine sensitive adenylate cyclase in caudate nucleus of rat brain and its similarity to the dopamine receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69:2145–2149Google Scholar
  97. Kraicer J, Milligan JV, Gosbee JL, Conrad RG, Branson CM (1969) In vitro release of ACTH: effects of potassium, calcium and corticosterone. Endocrinology 85:1144–1153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kunze H (1970) Formation of [I-14C]prostaglandin E2 and two prostaglandins metabolites from [I-14C] arachidonic acid during vascular perfusion of the frog intestine. Biochim Biophys Acta 202:180–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Labrie F, Béraud G, Gauthier M, Lemay A (1971 a) Actinomycin-insensitive stimulation of protein synthesis in rat anterior pituitary in vitro by dibutyryl adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate. J Biol Chem 246:1902–1908PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Labrie F, Lemaire S, Courte C (1971 b) Adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from bovine anterior pituitary gland. I. Properties. J Biol Chem 246:7293–7302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Labrie F, Barden N, Poirier G, De Léan A (1972) Characteristics of binding of [3H]thyrotropin-releasing hormone to plasma membranes of bovine anterior pituitary gland. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 69:283–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Labrie F, Pelletier G, Lemay A et al. (1973 a) Control of protein synthesis in anterior pituitary gland. Karolinska Symp Res Methods Reprod Endocrinol: 301Google Scholar
  103. Labrie F, Gauthier M, Pelletier G, Borgeat P, Lemay A, Gouge JJ (1973 b) Role of microtubules in basal and stimulated release of growth hormone and prolactin in rat adenohypophysis in vitro. Endocrinology 93:903–914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Labrie F, Pelletier G, Borgeat P, Drouin J, Savary M, Côté J, Ferland L (1975 a) Aspects of the mechanism of action of hypothalamic hormone (LHRH), In: Thomas JA, Singhal RL (eds) Gonadotropins and gonadal functions, vol 1. University Park Press, Baltimore, p 77Google Scholar
  105. Labrie F, Borgeat P, Lemay A et al. (1975 b) Role of cyclic AMP in the action of hypothalamic regulatory hormones. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res 5:787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Labrie F, De Léan A, Drouin J et al. (1976 a) New aspects of the mechanism of action of hypothalamic regulatory hormones. In: Labrie F, Meites J, Pelletier G (eds) Hypothalamus and endocrine functions. Raven, New York, p 147Google Scholar
  107. Labrie F, Pelletier G, Borgeat P, Drouin J, Ferland L, Bélanger A (1976 b) Mode of action of hypothalamic regulatory hormones. Neuroendocrinol 4:63Google Scholar
  108. Labrie F, Savary M, Coy DH, Coy EJ, Schally AV (1976 c) Inhibition of LH release by analogs of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) in vitro. Endocrinology 98:289–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Labrie F, Beaulieu M, Caron MG, Raymond V (1978 a) The adenohypophyseal dopamine receptor: specificity and modulation of its activity by estradiol. In: Robyn C, Harter M (eds) Progress in prolactin physiology and pathology. Elsevier North-Holland Biomedical, Amsterdam Oxford New York, p 121Google Scholar
  110. Labrie F, Lagacé L, Ferland et al. (1978 b) Interactions between LHRH, sex steroids and “inhibin” in the control of LH and FSH secretion. Int J Andrology [Suppl] 2:81Google Scholar
  111. Lagacé L, Labrie F, Lorenzen J, Schwartz NB, Channing CP (1979 a) Selective inhibitory effect of porcine follicular fluid on FSH secretion in anterior pituitary cells in culture. Clin Endocrinol 10:401–406Google Scholar
  112. Lagacé L, Massicotte J, Drouin J, Giguère V, Dupont A, Labrie F (1979 b) Interactions between LHRH, sex steroids and “inhibin” at the pituitary level in the control of LH and FSH secretion in the rat. In: Talwar GP (ed) Recent advances in reproduction and regulation of fertility. Elsevier North-Holland Biochemical, Amsterdam Oxford New York, p 73Google Scholar
  113. Lefkowitz RJ, Williams LT (1976) Alpha-adrenergic receptor identification by [3H]dihydroergocryptine. Science 192:791–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Lefkowitz RJ, Roth J, Pastan I (1970) Effects of calcium on ACTH stimulation of the adrenal separation of hormone binding from adenyl cyclase activation. Nature 228:864–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lemaire S, Pelletier G, Labrie F (1971) Adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from bovine anterior pituitary gland. II. Subcellular distribution. J Biol Chem 246:7303–7310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Lemaire S, Labrie F, Gauthier M (1974) Adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from bovine anterior pituitary gland. III. Structural specificity of the ATP site of the catalytic subunit. Can J Biochem 52:137–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Lemay A, Labrie F (1972) Calcium-dependent stimulation of prolactin release in rat anterior pituitary in vitro by N6-monobutyryl adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate. FEBS Lett 20:7–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Lemay A, Deschenes M, Lemaire S, Poirier G, Poulin L, Labrie F (1974) Phosphorylation of adenohypophyseal plasma membranes and properties of associated protein kinase. J Biol Chem 248:323–328Google Scholar
  119. Levitzki A, Atlas D, Steer ML (1974) The binding characteristics and number of β-adrenergic receptors on the turkey erythrocyte. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71:2773–2776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Lippmann W, Sestanj K, Nelson VR, Immer HV (1976) Antagonism of prostaglandin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in the rat anterior pituitary in vitro by somatostatin analogues. Experientia 32:1034–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. MacLeod RM, Lehmeyer JE (1970) Release of pituitary growth hormone by prostaglandins and dibutyryl adenosine cyclic 3′,5′-monophosphate in the absence of protein synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 67:1172–1179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. MacLeod RM, Leymeyer JE (1974) Restoration of prolactin synthesis and release by the administration of monoaminergic blocking agents to pituitary tumor-bearing rats. Cancer Res 34:345–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Mains RE, Eipper BA, Ling N (1977) Common precursor to corticotropins and endorphins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:3014–3018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Makino T (1973) Study of the intracellular mechanism of LH release in the anterior pituitary. Am J Obstet Gynecol 115:606–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Marshall JC, Odell WD (1975) Preparation of biologically active 125I-LHRH suitable for membrane binding studies. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 149:351–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Marshall JC, Shakespear RA, Odell WD (1976) LHRH-pituitary membrane binding: the presence of specific binding sites in other tissues. Clin Endocrinol 5:671–677Google Scholar
  127. Massicotte J, Veilleux R, Lavoie M, Labrie F (1980) An LHRH agonist inhibits FSH-induced cyclic AMP accumulation and steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells in culture. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 94:1362–1366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Matsuo H, Baba Y, Nair RMG, Arimura A, Schally AV (1971) Structure of the porcine LH-and FSH-releasing hormone. I. The proposed amino acid sequence. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 43:1334–1339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. McCullagh DR (1932) Dual endocrine activity of the testis. Science 76:19–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Menon KMJ, Guanaja KP, Azhar S (1977) GnRH action in rat anterior pituitary gland: regulation of protein glycoprotein and LH synthesis. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 86:473–481Google Scholar
  131. Milligan JV, Kraicer J, Fawcett CP, Illner P (1972) Purified growth hormone releasing factor increases 45Ca uptake into pituitary cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 50:613–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Mira-Moser F, Schofield JG, Orci L (1976) Modification in the release of rat growth hormone in vitro and the morphology of rat anterior pituitaries incubated in various ionophores. Eur J Clin Invest 6:103–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Moriarty G (1973) Adenohypophysis: ultrastructural cytochemistry. A review. J Histochem 21:855–894Google Scholar
  134. Moriarty CM (1977) Involvement of intracellular calcium in hormone secretion from rat pituitary cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 6:349–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Mukherjee C, Caron MG, Coverstone M, Lefkowitz RJ (1975) Identification of adenylate cyclase-coupled beta-adrenergic receptors in frog erythrocytes with (minus)-[3H]alprenolol. J Biol Chem 250:5849–4876Google Scholar
  136. Nakano H, Fawcett CP, Kimura F, McCann SM (1978) Evidence for the involvement of guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate in the regulation of gonadotropin release. Endocrinology 103:1527–1533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Naor Z, Koch Y, Chobsieng P, Zor U (1975 a) Pituitary cyclic AMP production and mechanism of luteinizing hormone release. FEBS Lett 58:318–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Naor F, Koch Y, Bauminger S, Zor U (1975 b) Action of luteinizing hormone and synthesis of prostaglandins in the pituitary gland. Prostaglandins in the pituitary gland. Prostaglandins 9:211–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Naor Z, Snyder G, Fawcett CP, McCann SM (1978) A possible role for cyclic GMP in mediating the effect of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone on gonadotropin release in dispersed pituitary cells of the female rat. J Cyclic Nucleotide Res 4:475–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Naor Z, Fawcett CP, McCann SM (1979) Differential effects of castration and testosterone replacement on basal and LHRH-stimulated cAMP and cGMP accumulation and on gonadotropin release from the pituitary of the male rat. Mol Cell Endocrinol 14:191–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Nillius SJ, Wide L (1971) Induction of a midcycle-like peak of luteinizing hormone in young women by exogenous estradiol-17β. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 78:822–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Ojeda SR, Harms PG, McCann SM (1974) Central effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on prolactin release. Endocrinology 95:613–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Ojeda SR, Naor Z, McCann S (1978) Prostaglandin E levels in hypothalamus, median eminence and anterior pituitary of rats of both sexes. Brain Res 149:274–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Orczyk GP, Behrman HR (1972) Ovulation blockade by aspirin or indomethacin. In vivo evidence for a role of prostaglandin in gonadotropin secretion. Prostaglandins 1:3–20Google Scholar
  145. Pace-Asciak C, Wolfe LS (1970) Biosynthesis of prostaglandins E2 and F from tritiumlabelled arachidonic acid by rat stomach homogenates. Biochim Biophys Acta 218:539–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Parsons JA (1969) Calcium ion requirement for prolactin secretion by rat adenohypophyses in vitro. Am J Physiol 217:1599–1603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Pedroza E, Vilchez-Martinez JA, Fishback J, Arimura A, Schally AV (1977) Binding capacity of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and its analogues for pituitary receptor sites. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 79:234–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Pelletier G, Lemay A, Béraud G, Labrie F (1972) Ultrastructural changes accompanying the stimulatory effect of N6-monobutyryl adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate on the release of growth hormone, prolactin, and adrenocorticotropic hormone in rat anterior pituitary gland in vitro. Endocrinology 91:1355–1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Pelletier G, Leclerc R, Labrie F, Côté J, Chretien M, Lis M (1977) Immunohistochemical localization of β-lipotropic hormone in the pituitary gland. Endocrinology 100:770–776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Peng TS, Six KM, Munson PK (1970) Effects of prostaglandin E1 on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenocortical axis in rats. Endocrinology 86:202–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Phifer RF, Orth DN, Spicer S (1974) Specific demonstration of the human hypophyseal adrenocortico-melanotropic (ACTH-MSH) cell. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 39:684–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Poirier G, Labrie F, Barden N, Lemaire S (1972) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor: its partial purification from bovine anterior pituitary gland and its close association with adenyl cyclase. FEBS Lett 20:283–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Ratner A (1970) Stimulation of luteinizing hormone release in vitro by dibutyryl cyclic AMP and theophylline. Life Sci 9:1221–1226Google Scholar
  154. Ratner A, Wilson MC, Srivastava L, Peake GT (1974) Stimulatory effects of prostaglandin E1 on rat anterior pituitary cyclic AMP and luteinizing hormone release. Prostaglandins 5:165–167Google Scholar
  155. Raymond V, Beaulieu M, Labrie F (1978) Potent antidopaminergic activity of estradiol at the pituitary level on prolactin release. Science 200:1173–1175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Raymond V, Lépine J, Lissitzky JC, Côté J, Labrie F (1979) Parallel release of ACTH, β-endorphin, α-MSH and β-MSH-like immunoreactivities in rat anterior pituitary cells in culture. Mol Cell Endocrinol 16:113–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Reeves JR, Séguin C, Lefebvre FA, Kelly PA, Labrie F (1980) Similar LHRH binding sites in the rat anterior pituitary and ovary. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:5567–5571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Rigler GL, Peake GT, Ratner A (1978) Effect of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone on accumulation of pituitary cyclic AMP and GMP in vitro. J Endocrinol 76:367–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Roberts JL, Herbert E (1977) Characterization of a common precursor to corticotropin and beta-lipotropin: cell-free synthesis of the precursor and identification of corticotropin peptides in the molecule. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:4826–4830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Rose JC, Conklin PM (1978) TSH and ACTH secretion and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate content following stimulation with TRH or lysine vasopressin in vitro: suppression by thyroxine and dexamethasone (40239). Proc Soc Exp Biol 158:524–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Samli MH, Geschwind LL (1968) Some effects of energy-transfer inhibitors and of Ca++-free and K+-enhanced media on the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the rat pituitary gland in vitro. Endocrinology 82:225–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Sato T, Hirono M, Juyjo T, Iseka T, Taya K, Igarashi M (1975) Direct action of prostaglandins on rat pituitary. Endocrinology 96:45–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Scarpa A, Baldassare J, Inesi G (1972) The effect of calcium ionophores on fragmented sacroplasmic reticulum. J Gen Physiol 60:735–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Schally AV, Arimura A, Bowers CY, Kastin AJ, Sawano AS, Redding TW (1968) Hypothalamic neurohormones regulating anterior pituitary function. Recent Prog Horm Res 24:497–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Schally AV, Dupont A, Arimura A, Redding TW, Linthicum GL (1975) Isolation of porcine GH-release inhibiting hormone. Fed Proc Fed Am Soc Exp Biol 34:584–586Google Scholar
  166. Schally AV, Coy DH, Meyers CA (1978) Hypothalamic regulatory hormones. Ann Rev Biochem 47:89–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Schlender KK, Wei SH, Villar-Palassi C (1969) VDP-glucose: glycogen alpha-4-glucosyl-transferase I kinase activity of purified muscle protein kinase. Cyclic nucleotide specificity. Biochim Biophys Acta 191:272–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Schofield JG (1967) Measurement of growth hormone released by ox anterior pituitary slices in vitro. Biochem J 103:331–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Schofield JG (1970) Prostaglandin E1 and the release of growth hormone in vitro. Nature 228:179–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Shaar CJ, Clemens JA (1974) The role of catecholamines in the release of anterior pituitary prolactin in vitro. Endocrinology 95:1202–1212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Sheterline P, Schofield JG (1975) Endogenous phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins isolated from bovine anterior pituitary. FEBS Lett 56:297–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Spence JW, Sheppard MS, Kraicer J (1980) Release of growth hormone from purified somatotrophs: interrelation between CA2+ and adenosine 3′5′-monophosphate. Endocrinology 106:764–769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Spona J (1973) LHRH interaction with the pituitary plasma membrane. FEBS Lett 34:24–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Spona J (1975) LHRH sensitive adenylate cyclase in isolated plasma membranes of rat adenohypophyses. Endocrinol Exp (Bratisl) 9:27–33Google Scholar
  175. Steiner AL, Peake GJ, Utiger RD, Karl IE, Kipnis DM (1970) Hypothalamic stimulation of growth hormone and thyrotropin release in vitro and pituitary 3′,5′-adenosine cyclic monophosphate. Endocrinology 86:1354–1360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Strittmatter WJ, Davies JN, Lefkowitz RJ (1977 a) Alpha-adrenergic receptor in rat parotid cells 1. Correlation of L-tritiated dehydroergocryptine binding and catecholamine stimulated potassium efflux. J Biol Chem 252:5472–5477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Strittmatter WJ, Davies WJ, Lefkowtiz RJ (1977 b) Alpha-adrenergic receptor in rat parotid cells. II. Desensitization of receptor binding sites and potassium release. J Biol Chem 252:5478–5482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Sundberg DK, Fawcett CP, McCann SM (1976) The involvement of cyclic 3′,5′-cyclic AMP in the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary in vitro. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 151:149–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Swerdloff RS, Odell WD (1968) Feedback control of male gonadotropin secretion. Lancet 2:683–687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Swerdloff RW, Walsh PC, Odell WD (1970) Control of LH and FSH secretion in the male: evidence that aromatization of androgens to estradiol is not required for inhibition of gonadotropin secretion. Steroids 20:13–22Google Scholar
  181. Takahara J, Arimura A, Schally AV (1974) Suppression of prolactin release by a purified porcine PIF preparation and catecholamines infused into a rat hypophyseal portal vessel. Endocrinology 95:462–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Tal E, Friedman S (1978) Correlation between 3′,5′-cyclic AMP levels and thyrotropin in separated rat pituitary thyrotropin cells. Experientia 34:1286–1288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Tal E, Szabo M, Burke G (1974) TRH and prostaglandin action on rat anterior pituitary: dissociation between cyclic AMP levels and TSH release. Prostaglandins 5:175–182Google Scholar
  184. Theoleyre M, Berault A, Gamier J, Jutisz M (1976) Binding of LHRH to pituitary plasma membranes and the problem of adenylate cyclase stimulation. Mol Cell Endocrinol 5:365–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Titeler M, List S, Seeman P (1980) High affinity dopamine receptors (D3) in rat brain. Commun Psychopharmacol 3:411–420Google Scholar
  186. Tsafriri A, Koch Y, Lindner HR (1973) Ovulation rate and serum LH levels in rats treated with indomethacin or prostaglandin E2. Prostaglandins 3:461–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Vale W, Guillemin R (1967) Potassium-induced stimulation of thyrotropin release in vitro. Requirement for presence of calcium and inhibition by thyroxine. Experientia 23:855–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Vale W, Rivier C (1976) Regulation of ACTH secretion by anterior pituitary cells in culture. Fed Proc 35:2209–2214Google Scholar
  189. Vale W, Rivier J (1977) Substances modulating the secretion of ACTH by cultured anterior pituitary cells. Fed Proc 36:2094–2099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Vale W, Burgus R, Guillemin R (1967) Presence of calcium ions as a requisite for the in vitro stimulation of TSH release by hypothalamic TRF. Experientia 23:853–855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Vale W, Grant G, Amoss M, Blackwell R, Guillemin R (1972) Culture of enzymatically dispersed pituitary cells: functional validation of a method. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:562–572Google Scholar
  192. Vale W, Rivier C, Yang L, Minick S, Gillemin R (1978) Effects of purified hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor and other substances on the secretion of adrenocorticotropin and β-endorphin like immunoactivities in vitro. Endocrinology 103:1910–1915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Vale W, Spiess C, Rivier C, Rivier J (1981) Characterization of a 41-residue ovine hypothalamic peptide that stimulates secretion of corticotropin and β-endorphin. Science 2213:1394Google Scholar
  194. Wagner TO, Adams TE, Nett TM (1979) GnRH interactions with anterior pituitary. I. Determination of the affinity and number of receptors for GnRH in ovine anterior pituitary. Biol Reprod 20:140–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Waisman DM, Singh TJ, Wang JH (1978) The modulator-dependent protein kinase. A multi-functional protein kinase activable by the Ca2+-dependent modulator protein of the cyclic nucleotide system. J Biol Chem 253:3387–3390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Wakabayashi K, Kamberi IA, McCann SM (1969) In vitro response of the rat pituitary to gonadotrophin-releasing factors and to ions. Endocrinology 85:1046–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Wakabayashi K, Date Y, Tamaoki B (1973) On the mechanism of action of luteinizing hormone-releasing factor and prolactin release inhibiting factor. Endocrinology 92:698–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Wilber JF, Seibel MJ (1973) Thyrotropin releasing hormone interactions with an anterior pituitary membrane receptor. Endocrinology 92:888–893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Wilber JF, Peake GT, Mariz I, Utiger RD, Daughaday WH (1968) Theophylline and epinephrine effect upon the secretion of growth hormone (GH) and thyrotropin (TSH) in vitro. Clin Res 16:277–280Google Scholar
  200. Wilber JF, Peake GT, Utiger RD (1969) Thyrotropin release in vitro: stimulation by cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate. Endocrinology 84:758–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Williams LT, Mullikin D, Lefkowitz RJ (1978) Magnesium-dependence of agonist binding to adenylate cyclase-coupled hormone receptors. J Biol Chem 253:2984–2989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Wolfe DJ, Brostrom CO (1979) Properties and functions of the calcium-dependent regulator. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res 11:27–88Google Scholar
  203. Yates FE, Maran JW (1974) In: Knobil E, Sawyer WH (eds) The pituitary gland and its neuroendocrine control, part 2. American Physiological Society, Washington, DC (Handbook of physiology, sect 1, vol IV, chap 36, pp 367–404)Google Scholar
  204. Yen SSC, Tsai CC, Vandenberg G, Rebar R (1972) Gonadotropin dynamics in patients with gonadal dysgenesis: a model for the study of gonadotropin regulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 35:897–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Zimmerman G, Gleischer N (1970) Role of calcium ions in the release of ACTH from rat pituitary tissue in vitro. Endocrinology 87:426–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Zor U, Kaneko T, Schneider HPG, McCann SM, Field JB (1969) Stimulation of anterior pituitary adenyl cyclase activity and adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic phosphate by hypothalamic extract and prostaglandin E1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 63:918–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Zor U, Kaneko T, Schneider HPG, McCann SM, Field JB (1970) Further studies of stimulation of anterior pituitary cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate formation by hypothalamic extract and prostaglandins. J Biol Chem 245:2883–2888PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Labrie
  • P. Borgeat
  • J. Drouin
  • L. Lagace
  • V. Giguere
  • V. Raymond
  • M. Godbout
  • J. Massicotte
  • L. Ferland
  • N. Barden
  • M. Beaulieu
  • J. Cote
  • J. Lepine
  • H. Meunier
  • R. Veilleux

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations