Glucocorticoids and the Developing Nervous System

  • Allison J. Doupe
  • Paul H. Patterson
Part of the Current Topics in Neuroendocrinology book series (CT NEUROENDOCRI, volume 2)

Abstract

The environment of a developing neuron is rich in signals which can influence its fate. Some striking examples of this are provided by neural crest cells whose destination and phenotype may be influenced by the environment through which they migrate (Cohen 1972; Teület et al. 1978), by possible chemotactic factors such as nerve growth factor (e.g., Gundersen and Barrett 1979), by factors produced by target tissues (Patterson and Chun 1977a; Teillet et al. 1978), and by electrica! activity (Walicke et al. 1977). Glucocorticoid hormones are another likely influence on developing neurons: they have a variety of actions on the adult brain (McEwen 1978; McEwen et al. 1979), their synthesis begins during prenatal life (Jost 1966), and they are known to have numerous effects on differentiation in many tissues (Ballard 1979). A common action of corticosteroids is the acceleration of specific developmental events. For instance, the striking Increase in serum corticoid level which occurs at term as a result of increased fetal adrenal activity (e.g., Martin et al. 1977; Mulay et al. 1973) causes a wide variety of maturational changes as a “preparation for birth” (Liggins 1976). Postnatally, glucocorticoid levels fall sharply, then rise again, assuming a diurnal rhythm, as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis matures (Allen and Kendall 1967; Ramaley 1974). This rise, which elicits further differentiation, occurs at about postnatal day 19 (P19) in the rat.

Keywords

Dopamine Glutamine Progesterone Epinephrine Choline 

Abbreviations

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic hormone

Dßtt

dopamine-ß-hydroxylase

EGF

epidermal growth factor

GPDH

glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase

HIOMT

hydroxyindole-Omethyltransferase

NGF

nerve growth factor

PNMT

phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase

TH

tyrosine hydroxylase

TrpH

tryptophan hydroxylase

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen C, Kendali JW (1967) Maturation of the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone in the rat. Endocrinology 80: 926–930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aloe L, Levi-Montalcini R (1979) Nerve growth factor-induced transformation of immature chromaffin cells in vivo into sympathetic neurons: effect of antiserum to nerve growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 1246–1250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Azmitia EC, McEwen BS (1969) Corticosterone regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase in the midbrain of the rat. Science 166: 1274–1276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker JB, Barsh GS, Carney DH, Cunningham DD (1978) Dexamethasone modulates binding and action of epidermal growth factor in serum-free cell culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 1882–1886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ballard PL (1979) Glucocorticoids and differentiation. In: Baxter JD, Rousseau GG (eds) Glucocorticoid hormone action. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 493–515Google Scholar
  6. Barnstable CJ (1980) Monoclonal antibodies which recognize different cell types in the rat retina. Nature 286: 231–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Björklund A, Cegrell L, Falck B, Ritzen M, Rosengren E (1970) Dopamine-containing cells in sympathetic ganglia. Acta physiol Scand 78: 334–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Black IB, Geen SC (1974) Inhibition of the biochemieal and morphological maturation of adrenergic neurons by nicotinic receptor blockade. J Neurochem 22: 301–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Black IB, Hendry IA, Iversen LL (1971) Trans-synaptic regulation of growth and development of adrenergic neurones in a mouse sympathetic ganglion. Brain Res 34: 229–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Black IB, Joh TH, Reis DJ (1974) Accumulation of tyrosine hydroxylase molecules during growth and development of the superior cervical ganglion. Brain Res 75: 133–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Black IB, Bohn MC, Bloom EM, Goldstein M (1980) Glucocorticoids induce expression of the adrenergic phenotype in a rat sympathetic ganglion. Soc Neurosci Abstracts 6: 408 (138.1)Google Scholar
  12. Bohn MC, Goldstein M, Black IB (1980) The role of glucocorticoid steroids in the expression of the adrenergic phenotype in the rat embryonic adrenal gland. Soc Neurosci Abstr 6: 644 (218.5)Google Scholar
  13. Breen GAM, de Vellis J (1974) Regulation of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase by hydrocortisone in dissociated rat cerebral cell cultures. Dev Biol 41: 255–266Google Scholar
  14. Breen GAM, de Vellis J (1975) Regulation of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase by hydrocortisone in rat brain explants. Exp Cell Res 91: 159–169Google Scholar
  15. Brodsky M, Teitelman G, Park DH, New M, Joh TH, Reis DJ (1980) The expression of an adrenergic phenotype in fetal adrenal medullary cells is not induced by glucocorticoids. Soc Neurosci Abstr 6: 409 (138.6)Google Scholar
  16. Bunge RP, Johnson M, Ross CD (1978) Nature and nurture in development of the autonomic neuron. Science 199: 1409–1416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Burnstock G, Costa M (1975) Adrenergic neurons. Chapman amp; Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Chalazonitis A, Zigmond RE (1980) Effects of synaptic and antidromic Stimulation on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the rat superior cervical ganglion. J Physiol (Lond) 300: 525–538Google Scholar
  19. Ciaranello RD (1978) Regulation of phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase synthesis and degradation. I. Regulation by rat adrenal glucocorticoids. Mol Pharmacol 14: 478–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ciaranello RD, Jacobowitz D, Axelrod J (1973) Effect of dexamethasone on phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase in chromaffin tissue of the neonatal rat. J Neurochem 20: 799–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ciaranello RD, Wong DL, Berenbeim DM (1978) Regulation of phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase synthesis and degradation. II. Control of the thermal stability of the enzyme by an endogenous stabilizing factor. Mol Pharmacol 14: 490–501Google Scholar
  22. Cochard P, Goldstein M, Black IB (1978) Ontogenetic appearance and disappearance of tyrosine hydroxylase and catecholamines in the rat embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75: 2986–2990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cohen AM (1972) Factors directing the expression of sympathetic nerve traits in cells of neural crest origin. J Exp Zool 179: 167–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cotterrell M, Balazs R, Johnson AL (1972) Effect of corticosteroids on the biochemical maturation of rat brain: postnatal cell formation. J Neurochem 19: 2151–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Coupland RE (1965a) The natural history of the chromaffin cell. Longmans amp; Green,LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Coupland RE (1965b) Electron microscopic observations on the strueture of the rat adrenal medulla. I. The ultrastructure and Organization of chromaffin cells in the normal adrenal medulla. J Anat 99: 231–254Google Scholar
  27. Coupland RE (1975) Blood supply of the adrenal gland. In: Blaschko H, Sayes G, Smith AD (eds) Adrenal gland. Amer Physiol Soc, Washington (Handbook of physiology, vol VI, sect 7, pp 283–294 )Google Scholar
  28. Coupland RE, MacDougall JDB (1966) Adrenalin formation in noradrenaline-storing chromaffin cells in vitro induced by corticosterone. J Endocrinology 36: 317–324Google Scholar
  29. de Vellis J, Inglish D (1968) Hormonal control of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase in the rat brain. J Neurochem 15: 1061–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. de Vellis J, Inglish D (1973) Age-dependent changes in the regulation of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase in the rat brain and in a glial cell line. Prog Brain Res 40: 321–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. de Vellis J, Kukes G (1973) Regulation of glial cell functions by hormones and ions: a review. Tex Rep Biol Med 31:271 –293Google Scholar
  32. de Vellis J, Schjeide OA, demente CD (1967) Protein synthesis and enzymic patterns in the developing brain following head X irradiation of newborn rats. J Neurochem 14: 499–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. de Vellis J, Inglish D, Cole R, Molson J (1971) Effects of hormones on the differentiation of cloned lines of neurons and glial cells. In: Ford E (ed) Influence of hormones on the nervous system. Karger, Basel, pp 25–39Google Scholar
  34. de Vellis J, McEwen BS, Cole R, Inglish D (1974) Relations between glucocorticoid nuclear binding, cytosol receptor activity and enzyme induction in a rat glial cell line. J Steroid Biochem 5: 392–393Google Scholar
  35. de Vellis J, McGinnis JF, Breen GAM, Leveille P, Bennett K, McCarthy K (1977) Hormonal effects on differentiation in neural cultures. In: Federoff S, Hertz L (eds) Cell, tissue and organ culture in neurobiology. Academic Press, New York, pp 485 –511Google Scholar
  36. Doupe AJ, Patterson PH, Landis SC (1980) Dissociated cell culture of SIF cells: hormone-dependence and NGF action. Soc Neurosci Abstr. 6: 409 (138.5)Google Scholar
  37. Edgar D, Thoenen H (1978) Selective enzyme induction in a nerve growth factorresponsive pheochromocytoma cell line. Brain Res 154: 186–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Elfvin LG, Hökfelt T, Goldstein M (1975) Fluorescence microscopical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies on sympathetic ganglia of the guinea pig, with special reference to the SIF cells and their catecholamine content. J Ultrastrue Res 51: 377–396Google Scholar
  39. Eränkö L (1972) Postnatal development of histochemically demonstrable catecholamines in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat. Histochem J 4: 225–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Eränkö L, Eränkö O (1972) Effect of hydrocortisone on histochemically demonstrable catecholamines in the sympathetic ganglia and extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue of the rat. Acta Physiol Scand 84: 125–133Google Scholar
  41. Eränkö O, Lempinen M, Raisanen L (1966) Adrenaline and noradrenaline in the organ of Zuckerkandl and adrenals of newborn rats treated with hydrocortisone. Acta Physiol Scand 66: 253–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Eränkö O, Eränkö L, Hill CE, Burnstock G (1972a) Hydrocortisone-induced increase in the number of small intensely fluorescent cells and their histochemically demonstrable catecholamine content in cultures of sympathetic ganglia of the newborn rat. Histochem J 4: 49–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Eränkö O, Heath J, Eränkö L (1972b) Effect of hydrocortisone on the ultrastructure of the small, intensely fluorescent, granule-containing cells in cultures of sympathetic ganglia of newborn rat. Z Zellforsch 134: 297–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Friedrich VL, Bohn MC (1980) Glucocorticoids inhibit myelination in developing rat. Soc Neurosci Abstr 6: 380 (132.3)Google Scholar
  45. Fukada K (1980) Hormonal control of neurotransmitter choice in sympathetic neurone cultures. Nature 287: 553–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Furness JB, Costa M (1976) Some observations on extra-adrenal chromaffin cells of the lower abdomen and pelvis. In: Coupland RE, Fujita T (eds) Chromaffin, enterochromaffin and related cells. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 25–34Google Scholar
  47. Furshpan EJ, MacLeish PR, O’Lague PH, Potter DD (1976) Chemical transmission between rat sympathetic neurons and cardiac myocytes developing in microcultures: evidence for cholinergic, adrenergic and dual-function neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 73: 4225–4229Google Scholar
  48. Fuxe K, Goldstein M, Hökfelt T, Joh TH (1971) Cellular localization of dopamine-β-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase as revealed by immunohistochemistry. Prog Brain Res 34: 127–138Google Scholar
  49. Goodman R, Edgar D, Thoenen H, Wechsler W, Herschman H (1978) Glucocorticoid induction of tyrosine hydroxylase in a continuous cell line of rat pheochromocytoma. J Cell Biol 78: R1–R7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Greene LA, Tischler AS (1976) Establishment of a noradrenergic clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond to nerve growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 73: 2424–2428Google Scholar
  51. Gundersen RW, Barrett JN (1979) Neuronal Chemotaxis: chick dorsal root axons turn toward high concentrations of nerve growth factor. Science 206: 1079–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hawrot E (1980) Cultured sympathetic neurons: effects of cell-derived and synthetic substrata on survival and development. Dev Biol 74: 136–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hendry IA (1973) Trans-synaptic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in a developing mouse sympathetic ganglion: effects of nerve growth factor (NGF),NGF-antiserum, and pempidine. Brain Res 56: 313–320Google Scholar
  54. Hökfelt T, Fuxe K, Goldstein M, Johansson O (1973) Evidence for adrenaline neurons in the rat brain. Acta Physiol Scand 89: 286–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Howard E (1968) Reductions in size and total DNA of cerebrum and cerebellum in adult mice after corticosterone treatment in infancy. Exp Neurol 22: 191–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Jacobson M (1978) Developmental neurobiology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 219–224Google Scholar
  57. Joh TH, Geghman C, Reis DJ (1973) Immunochemical demonstration of increased accumulation of tyrosine hydroxylase protein in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla elicited by reserpine. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 70: 2767–2771Google Scholar
  58. Johnson LK, Baxter JD, Rousseau GG (1979) Mechanisms of glucocorticoid receptor function. In: Baxter JD, Rousseau GG (eds) Glucocorticoid hormone action. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 305–326Google Scholar
  59. Johnson M, Ross D, Meyers M, Rees R, Bunge R, Wakshull E, Burton H (1976) Synaptic vesicle cytochemistry changes when cultured sympathetic neurons develop cholinergic interactions. Nature 262: 308–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Jonakait GM, Wolf J, Cochard P, Goldstein M, Black IB (1979) Selective loss of noradrenergic phenotypic characters in neuroblasts of the rat embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76: 4683–4686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jonakait GM, Bohn MC, Black IB (1980) Maternal glucocorticoid hormones influence neurotransmitter phenotypic expression in embryos. Science 210: 551–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Jones MT, Hillhouse EW, Bürden JL (1977) Dynamics and mechanics of corticosteroid feedback at the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland. J Endocrinol 73: 405–417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jost A (1966) Problems of fetal endocrinology: the adrenal glands. Recent Prog Horm Res 22: 541–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Ko C-P, Burton H, Johnson MI, Bunge RP (1976) Synaptic transmission between rat superior cervical ganglion neurons in dissociated cell cultures. Brain Res 117: 461–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Koehler DE, Moscona AA (1975) Corticosteroid receptors in the neural retina and other tissues of the chick embryo. Areh Biochem Biophys 170: 102–113Google Scholar
  66. Korochkin LI, Korochkina LS (1970) Hormonal influence on the differentiation of nerve cells of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Z Mikrosk Anat Forsch 82: 293–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Koslow SH, Bjegovic M, Costa E (1975) Catecholamines in sympathetic ganglia of rat: Effects of dexamethasone and reserpine. J Neurochem 24: 277–281Google Scholar
  68. Landis SC (1980) Developmental changes in the neurotransmitter properties of dissociated sympathetic neurons: a cytochemical study of the effects of medium. Dev Biol 77: 349–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Landis SC (1981) Environmental influences on the postnatal development of rat sympathetic neurons. In: Garrod DR, Feldman JD (eds) Development in the nervous system. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 147–160Google Scholar
  70. Landis SC, Keefe D (1980) Development of cholinergic sympathetic innervation of ecrine sweat glands in rat footpad. Soc Neurosci Abstr 6: 379 (131.20)Google Scholar
  71. LeDouarin NM (1980) The ontogeny of the neural crest in avian embryo chimeras. Nature 286: 663–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lempinen M (1964) Extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue of the rat and the effect of cortical hormones on it. Acta Physiol Scand (Suppl 231 ) 62: 1–91Google Scholar
  73. Leveille PJ, de Vellis J, Maxwell DS (1977) Immunocytochemical localization of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in rat brain: are oligodendrocytes target cells for glucocorticoids ? Soc Neurosci Abstr 3: 333 (1066)Google Scholar
  74. Liggins GC (1976) Adrenocortical-related maturational events in the fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 126: 931–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Linser P, Moscona AA (1979) Induetion of glutamine synthetase in embryonic neural retina: localization in Müller fibres and dependence on cell interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 76: 6476–6480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lippman ME, Wiggert BO, Chader GJ, Thompson BE (1974) Glucocorticoid receptors.Characteristics, specificity, and ontogenesis in the embryonic chick neural retina. J Biol Chem 249:5916–5917Google Scholar
  77. Lu KS, Lever JD, Santer RM, Presley R (1976) Small granulated cell types in rat superior cervical and coeliac-mesenteric ganglia. Cell Tiss Res 172: 331–343Google Scholar
  78. Margolis FL, Roffi J, Jost A (1966) Norepinephrine methylation in fetal rat adrenals. Science 154: 275–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Markey KA, Towle AC, Sze PY (1980) Glucocorticoid effects on brain tyrosine hydoxylase. Soc Neurosci Abstr 6: 144 (53.27)Google Scholar
  80. Martin CE, Cake MH, Hartmann PE, Cook IR (1977) Relationship between fetal corticosteroids, maternal progesterone and parturition in the rat. Acta Endocrinol 84: 167–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Matthieu J-M, Honegger P, Trapp BD, Cohen SR, Webster HdeF (1978) Myelination in rat brain aggregating cell cultures. Neuroscience 3: 565–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. McEwen BS (1978) Influences of adrenocortical hormones on pituitary and brain function. In: Baxter JD, Rousseau GG (eds) Glucocorticoid hormone action. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 467–492Google Scholar
  83. McEwen BS, Gerlach JL, Micco DJ (1975) Putative glucocorticoid receptors in hippocampus and other regions of the rat brain. In: Isaacson R, Pribram K (eds) The hippocampus: a comprehensive treatise. Plenum Press, New York, pp 285–322Google Scholar
  84. McEwen BS, Davis PG, Parsons B, Pfaff DW (1979) The brain as a target for Steroid hormone action. Ann Rev Neurosci 2: 65–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. McGinnis JF, de Vellis J (1974) Cortisol induetion of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase in a rat brain tumor cell line. Nature 250: 422–424Google Scholar
  86. McGinnis JF, de Vellis J (1976) Glucocorticoid regulation of the concentration of glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase in a rat glioma cell üne. Fed Proc 35: 1636Google Scholar
  87. McLennan IS, Hill CE, Hendry IA (1980) Glucocorticosteroids modulate transmitter choice in developing superior cervical ganglion. Nature 283: 206–207Google Scholar
  88. Mezei C, Wainwright SD (1979) Hormone-induced increase of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activity in the embryonic chick pineal gland in organ culture. Life Sei 24: 1111–1117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Mirsky R, Winter J, Abney ER, Pruss RM, Gavrilovic J, Raff MC (1980) Myelinspeeifie proteins and glycolipids in rat Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes in culture. J Cell Biol 84: 483–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Morris JE, Moscona AA (1970) Induetion of glutamine synthetase in embryonic retina: its dependence on cell interactions. Science 167: 1736–1738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Moscona AA, Moscona MH, Saenz N (1968) Enzyme induction in embryonic retina: the role of transcription and translation. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 61: 160–167Google Scholar
  92. Moscona M, Moscona AA (1979) The development of inducibility for glutamine synthetase in embryonic neural retina: inhibition by BrdU. Differentiation 13:165 –172Google Scholar
  93. Moscona M, Frenkel N, Moscona AA (1972) Regulatory mechanisms in the induction of glutamine synthetase in the embryonic retina: immunochemical studies. Dev Biol 28: 229–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Mulay S, Giannopoulos G, Solomon S (1973) Corticosteroid levels in the mother and fetus of the rabbit during gestation. Endocrinology 93: 1342–1348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Neckers L, Sze PY (1975) Regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in mouse brain by adrenal glucocorticoids. Brain Res 93: 123–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Nurse CA, O’Lague PH (1975) Formation of cholinergic synapses between dissociated sympathetic neurons and skeletal myotubes of the rat in cell culture. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 72: 1955–1959Google Scholar
  97. O’Lague PH, Potter DD, Furshpan EJ (1978) Studies on rat sympathetic neurons developing in cell culture. III. Cholinergic transmission. Dev Biol 67: 424–443Google Scholar
  98. Olpe H-R, McEwen BS (1976) Glucocorticoid binding to reeeptor-like proteins in rat brain and pituitary: ontogenetic and experimentally induced changes. Brain Res 105: 121–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Olson L (1970) Fluorescence histochemical evidence for axonal growth and secretion from transplanted adrenal medullary tissue. Histochemie 22: 1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Otten U, Thoenen H (1975) Circadian rhythm of tyrosine hydroxylase induction by short-term cold stress: modulatory actions of glucocorticoids in newborn and adult rat. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 72: 1415–1419Google Scholar
  101. Otten U, Thoenen H (1976a) Selective induetion of typrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-ß-hydroxylase in sympathetic ganglia in organ culture: role of glucocorticoids as modulators. Mol Pharmacol 12: 353–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Otten U, Thoenen H (1976b) Role of membrane depolarization in transsynaptic induction of tyrosine hydroxylase in organ cultures of sympathetic ganglia. Neurosci Lett 2: 93–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Otten U, Thoenen H (1977) Effect of glucocorticoids on NGF-mediated enzyme induction in organ cultures of rat sympathetic ganglia: enhanced response and reduced time requirement to initiate enzyme induction. J Neurochem 29: 69–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Otten U, Towbin M (1980) Permissive action of glucocorticoids in induction of tyrosine hydroxylase by nerve growth factor in a pheochromocytoma cell line. Brain Res 193: 304–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Patterson PH, Chun LLY (1977a) The induction of acetylcholine synthesis in primary cultures of dissociated rat sympathetic neurons. I. Effects of conditioned medium. Develop Biol 56: 263–280Google Scholar
  106. Patterson PH, Chun LLY (1977b) The induction of acetylcholine synthesis in primary cultures of dissociated rat sympathetic neurons. II. Developmental aspects. Dev Biol 60: 473–481Google Scholar
  107. Piddington R (1967) Hormonal effects on the development of glutamine synthetase in the embryonic chick retina. Dev Biol 16: 168–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Piddington R, Moscona AA (1965) Correspondence between glutamine synthetase activity and differentiation in the embryonic retina in situ and in culture. J Cell Biol 27: 247–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Piddington R, Moscona AA (1967) Precocious induction of retinal glutamine synthetase by hydrocortisone in the embryo and in culture: age-dependent differences in tissue response. Biochim Biophys Acta 141: 429–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Pohorecky LA, Wurtman RJ (1971) Adrenocortical control of epinephrine synthesis. Pharmacol Rev 23: 1–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Raff MC, Fields KL, Hakomori S-I, Mirsky R, Pruss RM, Winter J (1979) Cell-type specific markers for distinguishing and studying neurons and the major classes of glial cells in culture. Brain Res 174: 283–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Ramaley JA (1974) The changes in basal corticosterone secretion in rats blinded at birth. Experientia 30: 827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Rybarczyk KE, Baker HA, Burke JP, Hartman BK, Van Orden LS (1976) Histochemical and immunocytochemical identification of catecholamines, dopamine-ß-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase. In: Eränkö O (ed) SIF cells. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, pp 68–81Google Scholar
  114. Saavedra JM, Palkovits M, Brownstein MJ, Axelrod J (1974) Localisation of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in the rat brain nuclei. Nature 248: 695–696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Sandrock AW, Leblanc GG, Wong DL, Ciaranello RD (1980) Regulation of rat pineal hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase: evidence of S-adenosylmethionine-mediated glucocorticoid control. J Neurochem 35: 536–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Schmidt MJ, Sanders-Bush E (1971) Tryptophan hydroxylase activity in developing rat brain. J Neurochem 18: 2549–2551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Shepherd DM, West GB (1951) Noradrenaline and the suprarenal medulla. Br J Pharmacol Chemother 6: 665–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Starr MS (1974) Evidence for the compartmentalization of glutamate metabolism in isolated rat retina. J Neurochem 23: 337–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Sze PY (1976) Glucocorticoid regulation of the serotonergic system of the brain. Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol 15: 251–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sze PY, Neckers L, Towle AC (1976) Glucocorticoids as aregulatory factor for brain tryptophan hydroxylase. J Neurochem 26: 169–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Taxi J (1979) The chromaffin and chromaffin-like cells in the autonomic nervous system. Int Rev Cytol 57: 283–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Teillet MA, Cochard P, LeDouarin NM (1978) Relative roles of the mesenchymal tissues and of the complex neural tube-notochord on the expression of adrenergic metabolism in neural crest cells. Zoon 6: 115–122Google Scholar
  123. Teitelman G, Joh TH, Reis DJ (1978) Transient expression of a noradrenergic phenotype in cells of the rat embryonic gut. Brain Res 158: 229–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Teitelman G, Baker H, Joh TH, Reis DJ (1979) Appearance of catecholamine-synthesizingGoogle Scholar
  125. enzymes during development of rat sympathetic nervous system: possible role of tissue environment. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 76:509–513Google Scholar
  126. Thoenen H (1975) Trans-synaptic regulation of neuronal enzyme synthesis. In: Iversen LL, Iversen SD, Snyder SH (eds) Handbook of Psychopharmacol, 3rd edn, vol 3. Plenum Press, New York, pp 443–475Google Scholar
  127. Thoenen H, Otten U (1978) Role of adrenocortical hormones in the modulation of synthesis and degradation of enzymes involved in the formation of catecholamines. In: Ganong WF, Martini L (eds) Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, vol 5. Raven Press, New York, pp 163–184Google Scholar
  128. Thoenen H, Saner A, Kettler R, Angeletti PU (1972) Nerve growth factor and preganglionic cholinergic nerves: their relative importance to the development of the terminal adrenergic neurons. Brain Res 44: 593–602Google Scholar
  129. Thoenen H, Otten U, Schwab M (1979) Orthograde and retrograde signals for the regulation of neuronal gene expression: the peripheral sympathetic nervous system as a model. In: Schmidt FO, Worden FG (eds) The neurosciences fourth study program. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 911–928Google Scholar
  130. Turner BB, Katz RJ, Carroll BJ (1979) Neonatal corticosteroid permanently alters brain activity of epinephrine-synthesizing enzyme in stressed rats. Brain Res 166: 426–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Unsicker K, Krisch B, Otten U, Thoenen H (1978) Nerve growth factor-induced fiber outgrowth from isolated rat adrenal chromaffin cells: impairment by glucocorticoids. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 75: 3498–3502Google Scholar
  132. Verhofstad AAJ, Hökfelt T, Goldstein M, Steinbusch HWM, Joosten HWJ (1979) Appearance of tyrosine hydroxylase, aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase, dopamine β-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase during the ontogenesis of the adrenal medulla. An immunohistochemical study in the rat. Cell Tissue Res 200: 1–13Google Scholar
  133. Wainwright SD (1974) Course of the increase in hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activity in the pineal gland of the chick embryo and young chick. J Neurochem 22: 193–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Walicke PA, Patterson PH (1981) On the role of Ca* in the transmitter choice made by cultured sympathetic neurons. J Neurosci 1: 343–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Walicke PA, Campenot RB, Patterson PH (1977) Determination of transmitter function by neuronal activity. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 74: 5767–5771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Warembourg M (1975a) Radioautographic study of the rat brain after injection of [1,2-3H] corticosterone. Brain Res 89: 61–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Warembourg M, Otten U, Schwab ME (1981) Labelling of Schwann and satellite cells by 3H-dexamethasone in a rat sympathetic ganglion and sciatic nerve. Neuroscience 6: 1139–1144Google Scholar
  138. Waziri R, Sahu SK (1980) Induetion of 2’, 3’-cyclic nucleotide 3’-phosphohydrolase and morphological alterations in C6 glioma cells by dexamethasone, (3-butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolinone and Prostaglandin El. In Vitro 16: 97–102Google Scholar
  139. Weingarten D, de Vellis J (1980) Selective inhibition by sodium butyrate of the glucocorticoid induction of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase in glial cultures. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 93: 1297–1304Google Scholar
  140. Wurtman RJ, Axelrod J (1965) Adrenaline synthesis: control by the pituitary gland and adrenal glucocorticoids. Science 150: 1464–1465PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allison J. Doupe
    • 1
  • Paul H. Patterson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurobiologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations