Advertisement

Clomiphene Citrate in the Treatment of Male Infertility

  • A. M. C. M. Schellen

Abstract

Clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Merrell Touraude) is a synthetic analog of chlorotrianisene (TACE), a nonsteroidal estrogen. TACE in turn is closely related to stilbestrol (Fig. 1). Clomiphene citrate which stimulates ovulation in anovulatory women (Holtkamp et al. 1961) exists in two forms, the cis- and trans-isomers, which are both present in Clomid.

Keywords

Sperm Count Male Infertility Germinal Epithelium Gonadotropic Hormone Anovulatory Woman 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ansari AH, Wieland RG, Klein DE (1972) Cis-clomiphene citrate in the management of oligospermia. J Urol 108:131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arrata WSM (1969) The subfertile male. Fertil Steril 20:460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bardin CW, Ross GT, Lipsett MB (1967) Site of action of clomiphene citrate in men: a study of the pituitary Leydig cell axis. J Clin Endocrinol 27:1558–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burger HG, De Kretzer DM, Hudson B (1976) Spermatogenesis and its endocrine control. In:Hafez ESE (ed) Human semen and fertility regulation in men. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  5. Check JH, Rakoff AE (1977) Improved fertility in Oligospermiemales treated with clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 28:746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiorboli E, Gomes de Silva LFA (1979) Long term use of Clomiphene in low dosage for sub-fertility. Proc First Panca congress. Caracas, p 162Google Scholar
  7. Clermont Y (1970) Dynamics of human spermatogenesis. In: Rosemberg E, Paulsen CA (eds) The human testis. Plenum, New York London, pp 47–59Google Scholar
  8. Conili et al. (1966) (cited by Espinasse)Google Scholar
  9. Da Rugna D, Dedes M, Ghossein E (1974) Erfahrungen mit Humangonadotropinen und Clomiphenzitrat bei Fertilitätsstörungen des Mannes. Der Informierte Arzt 470–474Google Scholar
  10. Emperaire JC et al. (1976) (cited by Espinasse)Google Scholar
  11. Emperaire JC, Riviere J, Ruffie A, Audebert AJM (1979) Clomiphene test and clomiphene therapy in idiopathic male infertility. Arch Androl 2:223–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Epstein JA (1977) Clomiphene treatment in Oligospermie infertile males. Fertil Steril 28:741–745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Espinasse J (1977) Utilisation du citrate de clomiphène isolément ou en association avec les androgènes dans le traitement des hypofertilités masculines idiopathiques. A propos de 74 cas. PhD dissertation, University of ToulouseGoogle Scholar
  14. Foss GL, Tindall VR, Birkett JP (1967) The effect of clomiphene on spermatogenesis and hormone excretion in a patient with Klinefelter’s syndrome. J Reprod Fertil 13:315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Foss GL, Tindall VR, Birkett JP (1973) The treatment of subfertile men with clomiphene citrate. J Reprod Fertil 32:167–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Franchimont P (1973) Human gonadotropin secretion in male subjects. In: James VHT, Serio M, Martina L (eds) The endocrine function of the human testis, vol I. Academic Press, New York London, pp 445–458Google Scholar
  17. Franchimont P, Legros JJ, Demoulin A, Bourguignon (1975) Investigations of gonadotrophin secretion in normal and pathological conditions. In: Schellen AM (ed) Releasing factors and gonadotropic hormones in male and female sterility. European Press, Ghent, pp 12–24Google Scholar
  18. Geller S, Scholler R (1971) Potentialisation par le clomiphène de la réponse testiculaire à la stimulation gonadotrophique. Ann Endocrinol 32:6Google Scholar
  19. Geller S, Dajoux R, Armoghathe JF, Scholler R (1977) Une nouvelle épreuve d’exploration de la fonction testiculaire: l’épreuve combinée clomiphene-HCG-Dexamethasone. Cah Sexuol Clin 17:475–486Google Scholar
  20. Greenblatt RB (1961) Induction of ovulation with MRL-41. JAMA 178:101–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Heller CG, Clermont Y (1964) Kinetics of the germinal epithelium in man. Recent Progr Horm Res 20:545–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Heller CG, Rowley MJ, Heller GV (1969) Clomiphene citrate: a correlation of its effect on sperm concentration and morphology, total gonadotropins. ICSH, estrogen and testosterone excretion and testicular cytology in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 29:638–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holtkamp DE, Davis RH, Rhoads JE (1961) Effect of chloramiphene on fertility and ovulation. Fed Proc 20:419–423Google Scholar
  24. Homonnai ZT, Peled M, Paz GF (1979) Changes in semen quality and fertility in response to endocrine treatment of subfertile men. Gyn Obstet Inv 9:244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jeanne A, Epstein MD (1977) Clomiphene treatment in Oligospermie infertile males. Fertil Steril 28:741Google Scholar
  26. Jerome H, Check MD, Abraham E, Rakoff MD (1977) Improved fertilityin Oligospermie males treated with clomiphene citrate. Fertil Steril 28:746Google Scholar
  27. Jungck EC, Roy S, Greenblatt RB, Matesh VB (1964) Effect of clomiphene citrate on spermatogenesis in the human. A preliminary report. Fertil Steril 15:40–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kalin et al. (1973) (cited by Espinasse)Google Scholar
  29. Kulin HE, Reiter EO, Brindson WE (1976) Pubertal maturation of the gonadotrophin-stimulatory response to clomiphene: Case report. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 43:182–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lorenz E (1971) Medikamentöse Therapie männlicher Fertilitätsstörungen. Inaugural-Dissertation, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  31. Lunenfeld B, Katz M (1972) Traitement de l’infertilité masculine par les gonadotrophines et le clomiphène. In: Masson (ed) Fécondité et sterilité du maie. Masson, Paris, pp 135–152Google Scholar
  32. Martini L (1970) Hypothalamic control of gonadotropin secretion in the male. In: Rosemberg E, Paulsen CA (eds) The human testis. Plenum, New York London, pp 187–204Google Scholar
  33. Mauss J, Mohnfeld G, Börsch G (1974) Synthetic LH-releasing factor and clomiphene stimulation in Oligospermie males with normal FSHexcretion. J Reprod Fertil 40:171–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Meili HU, Bandauer K (1977) Erfahrungen mit der kombinierten Mesterolon-Clomipheen-Citrat-Therapie bei Oligospermien. Helv Chir Acta 44:373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Mellinger RC, Thompson RJ (1966) The effects of clomiphene citrate in male infertility. Fertil Steril 17:94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Mor A (1971) The use of clomiphene citrate in male infertility. Fortsch Androl 2:100Google Scholar
  37. Mroueh A, Lytton B, Kase N (1967) Effect of clomiphene citrate on oligospermia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 98:1033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Nankin HR, Yanaihara T, Troen P (1971) Response of gonadotrophins and testosterone to clomiphene stimulation in a pubertal boy. J Clin Endocrinol 33:360–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Orsola-Marti (1971) Alterations in spermatogenesis. Sixth World Congr Fertil and Steril Tel Aviv 1968 (Abstracts) 104Google Scholar
  40. Palti Z (1970) Clomiphene therapy in defective spermatogenesis. Fertil Steril 21:838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Paulson DF (1977) Clomiphene citrate in the management of male hypofertility: Predictors for treatment selection. Fértil Steril 28:1226–1229Google Scholar
  42. Paulson DF, de Vere White R (1977) Staging profile of hypofertile males. J Urol 116:83Google Scholar
  43. Paulson DF, Wacksman J (1976) Clomiphene citrate therapy in the management of male infertility. J Urol 115:73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Paulson DF, Wacksman J, Hammond CB, Wiehe HR (1975) Hypofertility and clomiphene citrate therapy. Fertil Steril 26:892Google Scholar
  45. Pellegrini G, Piotti LE (1967) Bilan thérapeutique des insuffisances testiculaires dit secondaires. Actual Endocrinol (Paris) 8:191Google Scholar
  46. Potts JF (1968) A clinical evaluation of two types of therapy for male infertility. Med J Aust 17:707Google Scholar
  47. Principi ME et al. (1969) Experienceias del uso del citrato de Clomifen en la esterilidad masculina. Rev Argentina Urol 38:265Google Scholar
  48. Reyes FJ, Faiman C (1974) Long-term therapy with low-dose cisclomiphene in male infertility: effects on semen, serum FSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol, and carbohydrate tolerance. Int J Fértil 19:49–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Rönnberg L (1980) The effect of clomiphene citrate on different sperm parameters and serum hormone levels in preselected infertile men: a controlled double-blind crossover study. Int J Androl 3:479–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rönneberg L, Tuimala R (1979) Treatment of oligozoospermia with clomiphene: Choice of patients on the basis of FSH values. Infertility 2:247Google Scholar
  51. Sas M, Szöllösi J, Falkay G (1976) Traitement par clomiphene de la subfertilité de l’homme. Therapia Hungarica 3:127Google Scholar
  52. Schellen AM (1975) Effects of gonadotropic hormones, clomiphene and releasing factors on human spermatogenesis. In: Beric BM, Lunenfeld B, Kovác T, Prudan R (eds) Gonadotropins in Modern Therapy (Serbo-Croatian). Novi Sad, pp 66–83Google Scholar
  53. Schellen AM, Beek JJ (1972) Clomiphene in male sterility. J Gynecol Obstet Reprod 1:190Google Scholar
  54. Schellen AM, Beek JJ (1974) The use of clomiphene treatment for male sterility. Fertil Steril 25:407–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Schirren C (1968) Die konservative Therapie von Fertilitätstörungen des Mannes. Der Urologe 17:179Google Scholar
  56. Schreiber E et al. (1966) Studies with 14C-labeled clomiphene citrate. Clin Res 14:287–292Google Scholar
  57. Teoh ES (1972) Pregnancy following the use of clomiphene citrate in male infertility. Ann Acad Med (Singapore) 1:43–45Google Scholar
  58. Wieland RG, Ansari AH, Klein DE, Doshi NS, Hallberg MC, Chen JC (1972) Idiopathic oligospermia: Control observations to cisclomiphene. Fertil Steril 23:471–475PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. C. M. Schellen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations