Advertisement

Geriatrics 1 pp 343-390 | Cite as

Alzheimer’s Disease and its Clinical Implications

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) may be defined clinicopathologically as a progressive presenile dementing organic brain disease, starting insidiously between 40 and 65 years of age. The dominant psychiatric symptoms are amnesia, apraxia, agnosia, and aphasia, the most prominent pathoanatomical correlate of which is cerebral atrophy with striking histological changes such as senile plaques and neurofibrillary degeneration.

Keywords

Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Senile Dementia Paired Helical Filament Neurofibrillary Degeneration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams RD, Fisher CM, Hakin S, Ojemann RG, Sweet WH (1965) Symptomatic occult hydrocephalus with „normal“ cerebrospinal fluid pressure. New Engl J Med 3: 117–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adolfsson R, Gottfries CG, Oreland L, Roos BB, Winblad B (1978) Reduced levels of catecholamines in the brain and increased activity of monoamine oxidase in platelets in Alzheimer’s disease: Therapeutic implications. In: Katzman A, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Senile dementia and relates disorders (Ageing vol 7 ). Raven Press, New York, p 441Google Scholar
  3. Adolfsson R, Forsell Ä, Gottfries CG, Kajsajuntti C (1979) Substitution therapy with l-dopa and dopamine agonist in dementia disorders of Alzheimer type. In: Orimo H, Shimada K, Iriki M, Maeda O (eds) Recent advances in gerontology. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 173Google Scholar
  4. Alfrey AC, LeGendre GR, Kaehny WD (1976) The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. Possible aluminum intoxication. New Engl J Med 294: 184–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alzheimer A (1906) Lecture, 37 Versammlung Südwestdtsch Irrenärzte, Tübingen Nov 1906, noted by title only; published 1907Google Scholar
  6. Alzheimer A (1907) Über eine eigenartige Erkrankung der Hirnrinde. Verh psychiatr Vereine: Verein südwestdeutscher Irrenärzte. Allg Z Psychiatr 64: 141–148Google Scholar
  7. Alzheimer A (1911) Über eigenartige Krankheitsfälle des späteren Alters. Z. Ges Neurol Psychiat 356–385Google Scholar
  8. Arendt A (1972) Altern des Zentralnervensystems. In: Holle G (ed) Handbuch der allgemeinen Pathologie, B IV/4. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 490Google Scholar
  9. Ball MJ (1977) Neuronal loss, neurofibrillary tangles and granulovacuolar degeneration in the hippocampus with ageing and dementia. A quantitative study. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 37: 111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ball MJ (1978) Topographic distribution of neurofibrillary tangles and granulovacuolar degeneration in hippocampal cortex of aging and demented patients. A quantitative study. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 42: 73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ball MJ, Lo P (1977) Granulovacuolar degeneration in the ageing brain and in dementia. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 36: 474–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bartus RT (1978) Short-term memory in the rhesus monkey: Effects of depamine blockade via acute haloperiodol administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 9 (3): 353–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Behan PO, Behan NMH (1979) Possible immunological factors in Alzheimer’s disease. In: Glen AIM, Whalley LJ (eds) Alzheimer’s disease. Early recognition of potentially reversible deficits. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, p 33Google Scholar
  14. Bergener M, Jungklaass FK (1970) Genetische Befunde bei Morbus Alzheimer und seniler Demenz. Geront Clin 12: 71–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berger H (1931) Über das Elektroencephalogramm des Menschen. Fünfte Mitteilung. Arch Psychiat Nervenkrankh 98: 231–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blessed G, Tomlinson BE (1965) Senile plaques and intellectual deterioration in old age. In: Psychiatric disorders of the aged. Geigy ( UK) Ltd, Basle, pp 310–321Google Scholar
  17. van Bogaert L (1970) Cerebral amyloid angiopathy and Alzheimer’s disease. In: Wolstenholme and O’Connor M (eds) Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions. Churchill, London, p 95Google Scholar
  18. Bowen DM (1979) Neurochemical findings in Alzheimer’s disease. In: Glenn AIM, Whalley LJ (eds) Alzheimer’s disease. Early recognition of potentially reversible deficits. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, p 17Google Scholar
  19. Bowen DM, Smith CB, Davison AN (1973) Molecular changes in senile dementia. Brain 96: 849–856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bowen DM, Smith CB, White P, Davison AN (1976) Senile dementia and related abiotrophies: Biochemical studies on histologically evaluated human postmortem specimens. In: Terry RD, Gershon S (eds) Neurobiology of Aging. Raven Press, New York, p 361Google Scholar
  21. Bowen DM, Spillane JA, Curzon G, Meier-Ruge W, White P, Goodhardt MJ, Iwangoff P, Davison AN (1979) Accelerated ageing or selective neuronal loss as an important cause of dementia? Lancet 1; 8106: 11–14Google Scholar
  22. Braunmühl A (1957) Alterserkrankungen des Zentralnervensystems. Senile Involution. Senile Demenz. Alzheimersche Krankheit. In: Lubarsch O, Henke F, Rössle R (eds) Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie. Band XIII/1. Springer, Berling Göttingen Heidelberg, p 337Google Scholar
  23. Brierly JB (1961) Clinico-pathological correlations in amnesia. Gerontol Clin 3: 97–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brion S (1966) Démences par atrophie cérébrale primitive. Le concours médical 15-I-88-3, Dossier EPU no 31: 313–324Google Scholar
  25. Brody H (1955) Organization of the cerebral cortex III. A study of ageing in the human cerebral cortex. J Comp Neurol 102: 511–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brody H (1970) Structural changes in the aging nervous system. Interdiscipl Topics Gerontol 7: 9–21Google Scholar
  27. Brody H (1976) An examination of cerebral cortex and brainstem aging. In: Terry RD, Gershon S (eds) Neurobiology of Aging. Raven Press, New York, p 177Google Scholar
  28. Brody H (1978) Cell counts in cerebral cortex and brain stem. In: Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease. Senile dementia and related disorders (Aging vol 7 ). Raven Press, New York, p 345Google Scholar
  29. Brun A, Brunk U (1974) Lysosomal alterations related to age. In: Viidik A (ed) Proc 4 th Europ Sympos on basic res in Geront. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 141: 18–19Google Scholar
  30. Brun A, Cameron R (to be published 1981) The appearance of cerebrovascular amyloidosis in Alzheimer’s disease and Down’s syndromeGoogle Scholar
  31. Brun A, Dictor M (1981) Senile plaques and tangles in dialysis dementia. Acta path microbiol Scand 89: 193–198Google Scholar
  32. Brun A, Englund E (1981) The pattern of degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuronal loss and histopathological grading. Histopathology 5: 549–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brun A, Gustafson L (1976) Distribution of cerebral degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease. A clinico-pathological study. Arch Psychiat Nervenkr 223: 15–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Brun A, Gustafson L (1978) Limbic lobe involvement in presenile dementia. Arch Psychiat Nervenkr 226: 79–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Brun A, Gustafson L, Ingvar DH (1975) Neuropathological findings related to neuropsychiatrie symptoms and regional cerebral blood flow in presenile dementia. VII th Int Congress of Neuropathology. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 101Google Scholar
  36. Brun A, Gustafson L, Mitelman F (1978 a) Normal chromosome banding pattern in Alzheimer’s disease. Gerontology 24: 369–372Google Scholar
  37. Brun A, Gustafson L, Risberg J (1978 b) The development of Alzheimer’s encephalopathy and its clinical expression. J Neurpath exp Neurol 37, 5, p 595Google Scholar
  38. Brunk U, Brun A (1972) The effect of aging on lysosomal permeability in nerve cells of the central nervous system. An enzyme histochemical study in rat. Histochemie 30: 315–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Buell S J, Coleman PD (1979) Dendritic growth in the aged human brain and failure to grow in senile dementia. Science 206: 854–856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cammermeyer J (1961) The importance of avoiding “dark” neurons in experimental neuropathology. Acta Neuropath (Berlin) 1: 245–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Christian W (1968) Elektroencephalographie. Lehrbuch und Atlas. Georg Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  42. Colmant HJ (1968) Spongiöse Dystrophien. Verh d Dtsch Ges f Path 52 Tagung 1968. G Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, p 126–152Google Scholar
  43. Colon EJ (1973) The cerebral cortex in presenil dementia. A quantitative analysis. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 23: 281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Constantinidis J (1978) Is Alzheimer’s disease a major form of senile dementia? Clinical, anatomical and genetic data. In: Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Senile dementia and related disorders (Aging vol 7 ). Raven Press, New York, p 15Google Scholar
  45. Constantinidis J, Garrone D, deAjuriaquerra J, (1962) L-hérédité de démenes de l’âge avance. L’Encépale 4: 301–344Google Scholar
  46. Corsellis JAN (1962) Mental illness and the ageing brain. Oxford University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. Corsellis JAN (1969) The pathology of dementia. Br J Hosp Med 1969: 695–702Google Scholar
  48. Corsellis JAN (1970) The limbic areas in Alzheimer’s disease and in other conditions associated with dementia. In: Wolstenholme GBW, O’Connor M (eds) Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. A CIBA Foundation Symposium, Churchill, London, p 37Google Scholar
  49. Corsellis JAN ( 1976 a) Ageing and the dementias. In: Blackwood W, Corsellis JAN (eds) Greenfield’s Neuropathology, 3rd ed. Edward Arnold publishers Ltd, London, p 796Google Scholar
  50. Corsellis JAN ( 1976 b) Some observations on the Purkinje cell population and on brain volume in human aging. In: Terry RD, Gershon S (eds) Neurobiology of aging. Raven Press, New York, p 205Google Scholar
  51. Crapper DR (1976) Functional consequenses of neurofibrillary degeneration. In: Terry RD, Gershon S (eds) Neurobiology of Aging. Raven Press, New York, p 405Google Scholar
  52. Crapper DR, Karlik S, De Boni U (1978) Aluminum and other metals in senile (Alzheimer) dementia. In: Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Senile dementia and related disorders (Aging vol 7 ). Raven Press, New York, p 471Google Scholar
  53. Crapper DR, De Boni U (1978) Brain aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Can Psychiat Assoc J 4: 229–233Google Scholar
  54. Dales S (1975) Involvement of the microtubule in replication cycles of animal viruses. Ann NY Acad Sci 253: 440–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dalton AJ, Crapper DR, Schlotter GR (1974) Alzheimer’s disease in Down’s syndrome: Visual retention deficits. Cortex 10: 366–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Davies P (1978) Studies on the neurochemistry of central colinergic systems in Alzheimer’s disease. In: Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Senile dementia and related disorders (Aging vol 7 ). Raven Press, New York, p 453Google Scholar
  57. Davies P (1979) Biochemical changes in Alzheimer’s disease-senile dementia: Neurotransmitters in senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. In: Katzman R (ed) Congenital and aquired cognitive disorders. Raven Press, New York, p 153Google Scholar
  58. Davies P, Maloney AJF (1976) Selective loss of central cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 11: 1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Davies P, Verth AH (1978) Regional distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in normal and Alzheimer’s-type dementia brains. Brain Res 138: 385–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. DeBoni U, Crapper DR (1978) Paired helical filaments of the Alzheimer type in cultured neurones. Nature 271: 566–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. DeBoni U, Scott JM, Crapper DR (1974) Intracellular aluminum binding: A histochemical study. Histochemistry 40: 31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. DeKosky ST, Bass NH (1980) Effects of aging and senile dementia on the microchemical pathology of human cerebral cortex. In: Amaducci L, Davison AN, Antuono P (eds) Aging of the brain and dementia (Aging vol 13 ). Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. Divry P (1927) Etude histochimique des plaques séniles. J Beige Neurol 27: 643–657Google Scholar
  64. Donaldson AA (1979) CT scan in Alzheimer pre-senile dementia. In: Glen AIM, Whalley LJ (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Early recognition of potentially reversible deficits. Raven Press, New York, p 97Google Scholar
  65. Drachman DA (1977) Memory and cognitive function in man: Does the cholinergic system have a specific role? Neurology 27: 783–790PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Duckett S, Galle P (1976) Mise en évidence de l’aluminium dans le plaques séniles de la maladie d’Alzheimer: Etude a la microsonde de Castaign. C R Acad Sci (0) Paris 282: 393–395Google Scholar
  67. Edmond E (1979) Conventional viruses in slow infection of the central nervous system. In: Glen AIM, Whalley LJ (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Early recognition of potentially reversible deficits. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, p 46Google Scholar
  68. Ellis WG (1974) Presenile dementia in Down’s syndrome. Ultrastructural identity with Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 24, no 2: 101–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Escourolle R (1958) La maladie de Pick. Etude critique d’ensemble et synthese anatomo-clinique. Imprimerie R Foulon, ParisGoogle Scholar
  70. Etienne P, Gauthier S, Johnson G, Collier B, Mendis T, Dastoor D, Cole M, Muller HF (1978 a) Clinical effects of choline in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 1: 508–509Google Scholar
  71. Etienne P, Gauthier S, Dastoor D, Collier B, Ratner J (1978 b) Lecithin in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 11: 1206Google Scholar
  72. Faden AI, Townsend J J (1976) Myoclonus in Alzheimer disease. A confusing sing. Arch Neurol 33: 278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Feldman ML (1976) Aging changes in the morphology of cortical dendrites. In: Terry RD, Gershon S (eds) Neurobiology of aging. Raven Press, New York, p 211Google Scholar
  74. Fox JA, Kaszniak AW, Huckman M (1979) Computerized tomography scanning not very helpful in dementia. New Engl J Med 300/8: 437Google Scholar
  75. Freyhan FA, Woodford RB, Kety SS (1951) Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in psychoses of senility. J Nerv Ment Dis 113: 449–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Friede RL (1965) Enzyme histochemical studies of senile plaques. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 24: 477–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gaches J, Supino-Viterbo V, Foucin JF (1977) Association de maladies d’Alzheimer et de Creutzfeldt-Jakob. Acta Neurol Belg 77: 202–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Galle F, Berry J-P, Duckett S (1980) Electron microprobe ultrastructural localization of aluminum in rat brain. Acta Neuropathol (Berlin) 49: 245–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Galloway SM, Buckton RE (1978) Aneuploidy and ageing: Chromosome studies on a random sample of the population using G-banding. Cytogenet Cell Genet 20: 78–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gellerstedt N (1933) Zur Kenntnis der Hirn Veränderungen bei der normalen Altersinvolution. Diss Uppsala Läk-fören Förh 38: 191Google Scholar
  81. Gibbs CJ, Gajdusek DC (1978) Subacute spongiform virus encephalopathies. The transmissible virus dementias. In: Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Senile dementia and related disorders (Aging vol 7 ). Raven Press, New York, p 559Google Scholar
  82. Gibson PH, Tomlinson BE (1977) Numbers of hirano bodies in the hippocampus of normal and demented people with Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Sci 33: 199–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Glen AIM, Christie IE (1979) Early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: working definitions for clinical and laboratory criteria. In: Glen AIM, Whalley LJ (eds) Alzheimer’s disease. Early recognition of potentially reversible deficits. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, p 122Google Scholar
  84. Glen AIM, Whalley LJ (1979) Alzheimer’s disease. Early recognition of potentially reversible deficits. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  85. Glenner GG (1978) Current knowledge of amyloid deposits as applied to senile plaques and congophilic angiopathy. In: Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders (Aging vol 7 ). Raven Press, New York, p 493Google Scholar
  86. Gonatas NK, Gambetti P (1970) The pathology of the synapse in Alzheimer’s disease. In: Wolstenholme GEW, O’Connor M (eds) Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions. A CIBA Foundation Symposium Bd 6. Churchill, London, p 169Google Scholar
  87. Gonatas NK, Moss A (1975) Pathologic axons and synapses in human neuropsychiatric disorders. Human Pathology 6: 5: 571–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gordon EB, Sim M (1967) The EEG in presenile dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 30: 285–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Granville-Grossman K (1971) Hydrocephalic dementia. In: Recent advances in clinical psychiatry. Churchill, London, p 246Google Scholar
  90. Green MA, Stevenson LD, Fonseca JE, Wortis SB (1952) Cerebral biopsy in patients with presenile dementia. Dis Nerv Syst 13: 303–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Grufferman S (1978) Alzheimer’s disease and senile dementia: one disease or two? In: Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Senile dementia and related disorders (Aging vol 7 ). Raven Press, New York, p 35Google Scholar
  92. Grundke-Iqbal I, Wisniewski HM, Johnson AB, Terry RD, Iqbal K (1979) Evidence that Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles originate from neurotubules. Lancet 1: 578–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gudmundsson G, Hallgrimsson J, Jönasson TA, Bjarnason O (1972) Hereditary cerebral haemorrhage with amyloidosis. Brain 95: 387–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Guiraud P (1956) Psychiatrie clinique. Le Frangcois, Paris, p 533–550Google Scholar
  95. Gustafson L (1975) Psychiatric symptoms in dementia with onset in the presenile period. Acta Psychiat Scand suppl 257, p 9Google Scholar
  96. Gustafson L (1979) Regional cerebral blood flow in Alzheimer’s disease — differential diagnosis, the possibility of early recognition and evaluation of treatment. In: Glen AIM, Whalley LJ (eds) Alzheimer’s disease. Early recognition of potentially reversible deficits. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, p 102Google Scholar
  97. Gustafson L, Hagberg B (1978) Recovery in hydrocephalic dementia after shunt operation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat vol 41, no 10: 940–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Gustafson L, Nilsson L (1981) Differential diagnosis of presenile dementia on clicinal grounds. Acta Psych Scand (accepted)Google Scholar
  99. Gustafson L, Risberg J (1974) Regional cerebral blood flow related to psychiatric symptoms in dementia with onset in the presenile period. Acta Psychiat Scand 50: 516–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Gustafson L, Risberg J (1979) Regional cerebral blood flow measured by the 133-Xe inhalation technique in differential diagnosis of dementia. Acta Neurol Scand 60, suppl 72: 546–547Google Scholar
  101. Gustafson L, Brun A, Ingvar DH (1977) Presenile dementia: Clinical symptoms, pathoanatomical findings and cerebral blood flow. In: Meyer JS, Lechner H, Reivich M (eds) Cerebral vascular disease. Proceedings of the 8 th International Salzburg Conference. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 5Google Scholar
  102. Gustafson L, Hagberg B, Ingvar DH (1978) Speech disturbances in presenile dementia related to local blood flow abnormalities in the brain. Brain Language 5: 103–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Haberland C (1969) Travauz originaux. Alzheimer’s disease in Down’s syndrome. Clinical-neuropathological observations. Acta Neurol Belg 69: 369–380Google Scholar
  104. Hachinski VC, Lassen NA, Marshall J (1974) Multi-infarct dementia, a cause of mental deterioration in the elderly. Lancet 11: 207–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hachinski VC, Iliff LD, Zilhka E, duBoulay GH, McAllister VL, Marshall J, Ross Russell RW, Symon L (1975) Cerebral blood flow in dementia. Arch Neurol 32: 632–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Hadfield MG, Martinez AH, Gilmartin AC (1974) Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with paramyxovirus-like structures, Hirano bodies and neurofibrillary tangles. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 27: 277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hagberg B (1978 a) Defects of immediate memory related to the cerebral blood flow distribution. Brain Language 5:366–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hagberg B ( 1978 b) Cognitive impairment and personality change in relation to brain dysfunction. Thesis. Studiae Psychol et pedag. Series altera 44. Liber, CWK Gleerup, LundGoogle Scholar
  109. Hagberg B (1980 a) Psychometry and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements. An evaluation of central concepts in the dynamic localization theory of behaviour determination. Psychological research, in Luria Memorial Issue, vol 41 (2–3)Google Scholar
  110. Hagberg B ( 1980 b) Cognitive impairment and test taking attitudes in organic dementia. A comparison between diffuse pre- and postcentral lesions. Psychol Bull, Lund University, Lund, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  111. Hagberg B ( 1980 c) Bedömning av tidiga demenstillständ (Evaluation of dementia with early onset). In: Kongressrapport frän 4: e nord kongr i Gerontologi, Oslo 28–30 maj 1979. Universitetsförlaget, Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  112. Hagberg B, Ingvar DH (1976) Cognitive reduction in presenile dementia related to regional abnormalities of the cerebral blood flow. J Psychiatr 128: 209–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hallgren B, Sourander P (1960) The non-haemin iron in the cerebral cortex in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurochem 5: 307–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Henig AM (1980) Aluminum neurotoxicity studied. Gerontologists emphasize the aging brain. Bio Sci 30: 61–63Google Scholar
  115. Heston LL (1979) Alzheimer’s disease and senile dementia: Genetic relationships to Down’s syndrome and hematologic cancer. In: Katzman R (ed) Congenital and aquired cognitive disorders. Raven Press, New York, p 167Google Scholar
  116. Heston LL, Mastri AR (1977) The genetics of Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry 34: 976–981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Hirabayashi K, Ikeda K, Shimokawa K, Orthner H (1979) Vorzeitiges Gehirnaltern bei Down-Syndrom. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Japon 33: 1: 81–95Google Scholar
  118. Hirano A, Malamud N, Elizan TS, Kurland LT (1966) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism-dementia complex on Guam. Arch Neurol 15: 35–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Hochschild R (1971) Lysosomes, membranes and aging. Exp Geront 6: 153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Hollander D, Strich SJ (1970) Atypical Alzheimer’s disease with congophilic angiopathy presenting with dementia of acute onset. In: Wolstenholme GE, O’Connor M (eds). Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions. A CIBA Foundation Symposium, Churchill Ltd, London, p 105Google Scholar
  121. Hooper MV, Vogel S (1976) The limbic system in Alzheimer’s disease. A neuropathologic investigation. Am J Pathol 85: 1–20Google Scholar
  122. Ingvar DH, Gustafson L (1970) Regional cerebral blood flow jn organic dementia with early onset. In: Juul-Jensen P (ed) Proceedings of the 19 th Congress of Scandinavian Neurologists. Acta Neurol Scand suppl 43, vol 46. Munksgaard, Copenhagen, p 42Google Scholar
  123. Ingvar DH, Lassen NA (1961) Quantitative determination of regional cerebral blood flow in man. Lancet 1: 806–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Ingvar DH, Risberg J, Schwartz MS (1975) Evidence of subnormal function of association cortex in presenile dementia. Neurology 25: 964–974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Ishii T, Haga S, Tokutake S (1979) Presence of neurofilament protein in Alzheimer’s neurofibrillary tangles (ANT). An immunofluorescent study. Acta Neuropathol 48: 105–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Jacob H (1970) Muscular twitchings in Alzheimer’s disease. In: Wolstenholme GE, O’Connor M (eds) Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions. A CIBA Foundation Symposium, Churchill LTD, London, p 75Google Scholar
  127. Jamada M, Mehraein P (1968) Verteilungsmuster der senilen Veränderungen im Gehirn. Die Beteiligung des limbischen Systems bei hirnatrophischen Prozessen des Seniums und bei Morbus Alzheimer. Arch Psychiatr Ges Neurol 211: 308–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Jelgersma HC (1964) Ein Fall von juveniler hereditärer Demenz vom Alzheimer Typ mit Parkinsonismus und Klüver-Bucy-Syndrom. Arch Psychiatr Z Ges Neurol 205: 262–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Jellinger K (1976) Neuropathological aspects of dementias resulting from abnormal blood and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. Acta Neurol Belg 76: 83–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Jellinger K (1977) Cerebrovascular amyloidosis with cerebral hemorrhage. J Neurol 214: 195–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Jervis GA (1948) Early senile dementia in mongoloid idiocy. Am J Psychiatr 105: 102–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Jervis GA (1956) The presenile dementias. In: Kaplan OJ (ed) Mental disorders in later life, 2nd ed. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, p 262Google Scholar
  133. Jervis GA (1971) Alzheimer’s disease. In: Minckler J (ed) Pathology of the nervous system, vol 2. McGraw Hill Co, New York, p 1385Google Scholar
  134. Johannesson G, Brun A, Gustafson L, Ingvar DH (1977) EEG in presenile dementia related to cerebral blood flow and autopsy findings. Acta Neurol Scand 56: 89–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Johannesson G, Hagberg B, Gustafson L, Ingvar DH (1979) EEG and cognitive impairment in presenile dementia. Acta Neurol Scand 59: 225–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kemper TL (1978) Senile dementia: A focal disease in the temporal lobe. In: Nandy K (ed) Senile dementia: A biomedical approach. Developments in neuroscience, vol 3. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, New York Amsterdam, p 105Google Scholar
  137. Kidd M (1963) Paired helical filaments in electron microscopy of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature 197: 192–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Kidd M (1964) Alzheimer’s disease - an electronmicroscopical study. Brain 87: 307–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Klatzo I, Wisniewski H, Streicher E (1965) Experimental production of neurofibrillary degeneration. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 24: 187 - 199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Klüver H, Bucy PC (1938) An analysis of certain effects of bilateral temporal lobectomy in the rhesus monkey with special reference to “psychic blindness”. J Psychol 5: 33–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Klüver H, Bucy P (1939) Preliminary analysis of functions of the temporal lobes in monkeys. Arch Neurol Psychiat 6, 42: 979–1000Google Scholar
  142. Konigsmark BW, Murphy EA (1972) Volume of the ventral cochlear nucleus in man — its relationship to neuronal population and age. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 31: 304–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Larsson T, Sjögren T, Jacobson G (1963) Senile dementia, a clinical, sociomedical and genetic study. Acta Psych Scand 39 (suppl 167): 1–257Google Scholar
  144. Lassen NA, Munck O, Tottey ER (1957) Mental function and cerebral oxygen consumption in organic dementia. Arch Neurol Psych 77: 126–133Google Scholar
  145. Lauter H (1968) Zur Klinik und Psychopathologie der Alzheimerschen Krankheit. Psychiat Clin 1: 85–108Google Scholar
  146. Lauter H (1970) Über Spätformen der Alzheimerschen Krankheit und ihre Beziehung zur senilen Demenz. Psychiat Clin 3: 169–189Google Scholar
  147. Lee Sh-Sh, Stemmermann GN (1978) Congophilic angiopathy and cerebral hemorrhage. Arch Pathol Lab Med 102: 317–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Letemendia F, Pampiglione (1958) Clinical and electroencephalographic observations in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 21: 167–172Google Scholar
  149. Lökken A, Cyvin K (1954) A case of clinical juvenile amaeurotic idiocy with the histological picture of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 17: 211–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Mancardi GL, Perdelli F, Rivano C, Leonardi A, Bugiani O (1980) Thickening of the basement membrane of cortical capillaries in Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 49: 79–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mandybur TI (1975) The incidence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 25: 120–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Mandybur TI, Bates SRD (1978) Fatal massive intracerebral hemorrhage complicating cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Arch Neurol 35: 246–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Mandybur TI, Nagpaul AS, Pappas S (1977) Alzheimer neurofibrillary change in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Ann Neurol 1: 103–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Mann DMA (1978) Granulovacuolar degeneration in pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. Acta Neuropath (Berl) 42: 149–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Mann DMA, Sinclair KGA (1978) The quantitative assessment of lipofuscin pigment, cytoplasmic RNA and nucleolar volume in senile dementia. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 4: 129–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Mann DMA, Yates PO (1979) The effects of ageing on the pigmented nerve cells of the human locus caeruleus and substantia nigra. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 47: 93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Mansvelt J (1954) Pick’s disease. A syndrome of lobar cerebral atrophy; its clinical-anatomical and histopathological types. Thesis. Enschede, UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  158. Mark J, Brun A (1973) Chromosomal deviations in Alzheimer’s disease compared to those in senescence and senile dementia. Gerontol Clin 15: 253–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. McDermott JR, Smith AI, Ward MN, Parkinson S, Kerr DNS (1978) Brain-aluminium concentration in dialysis encephalopathy. Lancet 1: 901–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. McDermott JR, Smith AI, Iqbal K, Wisniewski HM (1979) Brain aluminum in aging and Alzheimer disease. Neurology 29: 809–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. McMenemy WH (1963) The dementias and the progressive disease of the basal ganglia. In: Blackwood W, McMenemy WH, Mayer A, Norman RM, Russell DS (eds) Greenfield’s neuropathology, 2nd ed. Edward Arnold, London, p 520Google Scholar
  162. Mehraein P, Rothemund E (1976) Neuromorphologische Grundlagen des amnestischen Syndrom. Arch Psychiat Nervenkr 222: 153–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Mehraein P, Yamada M, Tarnowska-Dziduszko E (1975) Quantitative study on dendrites and dendritic spines in Alzheimer’s disease and senile dementia. In: Kreutzberg GW (ed) Advances in neurology, 12. Raven Press, New York, p 453Google Scholar
  164. Morel F, Wildi E (1952) General and cellular pathochemistry of senile and presenile alterations of the brain. Proc 1 st Int Cong Neuropathol 2: 347–374Google Scholar
  165. Munck O, Lassen NA (1957) Bilateral cerebral blood flow and 02 consumption in man by use of krypton 85. Circ Res 5: 163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Mutrux S (1947) Diagnostic différentiel histologique de la maladie d’Alzheimer et de la démence sénile. Pathophobie de la zone de projection corticale. Mrschr Psychiat Neurol 113: 100–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Nandy K (1978) Brain-reactive antibodies in aging and senile dementia. In: Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Senile dementia and related disorders (Aging vol 7 ). Raven Press, New York, p 503Google Scholar
  168. Neuman M, Cohn R (1978) Epidemiological approach to questions of identity of Alzheimer’s and senile brain disease. A proposal. In: Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Senile dementia and related disorders (Aging vol 7 ). Raven Press, New York, p 27Google Scholar
  169. Nevin S (1967) On some aspects of cerebral degeneration in later life. Proc R Soc Med 60: 517–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Nielsen J (1968) Chromosomes in senile dementia. Br J Psychiat 114: 303–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Obrist WD, Chivian E, Cronqvist S, Ingvar DH (1970) Regional cerebral blood flow in senile and presenile dementia. Neurology 20: 315–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Obrist WD, Thompson HK, Wang HW, Wilkinson WE (1975) Regional blood flow estimated by 133-Xenon inhalation. Stroke 6: 245–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Ohara PT (1972) Electron microscopical study of the brain in Down’s syndrome. Brain 95: 681–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Okazaki H, Reagan TJ, Campbell RJ (1979) Clinicopathological studies of primary cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Mayo Clin Proc 54: 22–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Olson MI, Shaw C-M (1969) Presenile dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in mongolism. Brain 92: 147–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Onari K, Spatz H (1926) Anatomische Beiträge zur Lehre von der Pickschen umschriebenen Großhirnrinden-Atrophie („Picksche Krankheit“). Z Ges Neurol Psychiat, pp 470–511Google Scholar
  177. Palo S, Sulkava R, Wikström J, Pukonen A-R (1979) An approach to the epidemiology of dementia in general population. In: Glen AIM, Whalley LJ (eds) Alzheimer’s disease. Early recognition of potentially reversible deficits. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, p 86Google Scholar
  178. Pantelakis S (1954) Un type particulier d’angiopathie sénile du système nerveux central: l’angiopathie congophile. Topographie et fréquence. Monatsschr Psychiat Neurol 128: 219–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Pearce J (1974) The extrapyramidal disorder of Alzheimer’s disease. Eur Neurol 12: 94–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Perez FI, Rivera VM, Meyer JS, Gay JRA, Taylor RL, Mathew NT (1975) Analysis of intellectual and cognitive performances in patients with multi-infarct dementia, vertebrobasilar insufficiency with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 38: 533–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Perry EK, Perry RH, Blessed G, Tomlinson BE (1977) Necropsy evidence of central cholinergic deficits in senile dementia. Lancet 1: 189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Perry EK, Tomlinson BE, Blessed G, Bergmann, Gibson, Perry RH (1978) Correlation of cholinergic abnormalities with senile plaques and mental test scores in senile dementia. Br Med J 2: 1457–1459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Perusini G (1909) Über klinisch und histologisch eigenartige psychische Erkrankungen des späteren Lebensalters. Histologische und histopathologische Arbeiten über die Großhirnrinde. In: Nissl F (ed) Nissl-Alzheimers Arbeiten 3. Fischer, Jena, p 297Google Scholar
  184. Peters G (1967) Neuropathologie und Psychiatrie. In: Kisker KP, Meyer JE, Müller C, Stromgren E (eds) Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, Band 1/1, Teil A. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 286Google Scholar
  185. Pilleri G (1966) The Klüver-Bucy sundrome in man. A clinicoanatomical contribution to the function of the medial temporal lobe structures. Psychiat Neurol, Basel 152: 65–103Google Scholar
  186. Powers JM, Spicer SS (1977) Histochemical similarity of senile plaque amyloid to apudamyloid. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 376: 107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Pratt RTC (1970) The genetics of Alzheimer’s disease. In: Wolstenholme GEW, O’Connor U (eds) CIBA Foundation Symposium. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, p 137Google Scholar
  188. Ramani SV, Loewenson RB, Gold L (1979) Computerized tomographic scanning and the diagnosis of dementia. New Engl J Med 300: 23Google Scholar
  189. Reisine TD, Yamamura HI, Bird ED, Spokes E, Enna S J (1978) Pre- and postsynaptic neurochemical alterations in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Res 159: 477–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Reisine TD, Pedigs VW, Meiners B, Iqbal K, Yamamura HI (1980) Alzheimer’s disease; studies on neurochemical alterations in the brain. In: Amaducci L, Davison AN, Antuono P (eds) Aging of the brain and dementia (Aging vol 13 ). Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  191. Renvoize EB, Jerram T (1979) Choline in Alzheimer’s disease. New Engl J Med 301: 330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Renvoize EB, Hambling MH, Pepper MD, Rajah SM (1979) Possible association of Alzheimer’s disease with HLA-BW15 and cytomegalovirus infection. Lancet 1: 1238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Rewcastle NB, Gibbs CJ, Gajdusek DC (1978) Transmission of familial Alzheimer’s disease to primates. Proc VIII th Intern Cong of Neuropath 295: 679Google Scholar
  194. Risberg J (1980 a) Regional cerebral blood flow measurements by 133 Xe-inhalation: Methodology and applications in neuropsychology and psychiatry. Brain Language 9: 9–34Google Scholar
  195. Risberg J ( 1980 b) Non-invasive measurements of CBF during brain work in chronic cerebrovascular disease. In: Gallad D (ed) Cerebrovascular disease: Drugs and methods. Proceedings of the symposium on “Experimental and clinical methodologies for the study of acute and chronic cerebrovascular diseases. Clinical applications to vasoactive drug studies. Pergamon Press, Paris, p 24Google Scholar
  196. Risberg J, Ali Z, Wilson EM, Willis EL, Halsey JH (1975) Regional cerebral blood flow by 133 Xenon inhalation. Preliminary evaluation of an initial slope index in patients with unstable flow compartments. Stroke 6: 142–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Robertson EE, leRoux AVS, Brown JH (1958) The clinical differentiation of Pick’s disease. J Ment Sci 104: 1000–1024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Rosenblum WI, Ghatak NR (1979) Lewy bodies in the presence of Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Neurol 36: 170–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Roth M (1971) Classification of and aetiology in mental disorders of old age: some recent developments. In: Kay DWK, Wack A (eds) Recent developments in psychogeriatrics. Brit J Psych Spec publ no 6. Headley Brothers Ltd, Ashford Kent, p 1Google Scholar
  200. Roth M, Tomlinson BE, Blessed G (1967) The relationship between quantitative measures of dementia and of degenerative changes in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects. Proc R Soc Med 60: 14–18Google Scholar
  201. Rotschild D (1934) Alzheimer’s disease. A clinicopathologic study of five cases. Am J Psychiat 91: 485–575Google Scholar
  202. Scheibel AB (1979 a) The hippocampus: organizational patterns in health and senescence. Mech Ageing Develop 9:89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Scheibel AB ( 1979 b) Dendritic changes in senile and presenile dementias. In: Katzman R (ed) Congenital and aquired cognitive disorders. Raven Press, New York, p 107Google Scholar
  204. Schlaepfer WW, Lynch RG (1976) Immunofluorescent studies of neurofilaments in the peripheral and central nervous system of rats and humans (abstr). J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 35: 345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Schmitt HP, Barz J (1978) Cerebral massive hemorrhage in congophilic angiopathy and its medicolegal significance. Forens Sci Intern 12: 187–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Schneider C (1927) Über Picksche Krankheit. Monatschr Psychiat Neurol 65: 230–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Schochet Jr SS, McCormic WF (1972) Ultrastructure of Hirano bodies. Acta Neuropath (Berl) 21: 50–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Schochet Jr SS, Lampert PW, McCormick WF (1973) Neurofibrillary tangles in patients with Down’s syndrome: A light and electron microscopic study. Acta Neuropath (Berl) 23: 342–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Scholz W (1938) Studien zur Pathologie der Hirngefäße. II: Die drüssige Entartung der Hirnarterien und Kapillaren. Z Neurol Psychiat 162: 694–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Schwartz Ph (1968) New patho-anatomic observations on amyloidosis in the aged. Fluorescence microscopic investigations. In: Madama I (ed) Amyloidosis. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 403Google Scholar
  211. Shefer VF (1972) Absolute number of neurons and thickness of the cerebral cortex during aging, senile and vascular dementia, and Pick’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Zhurnal Nevropathol Psikhiatr, Korsak 72: 1024–1029Google Scholar
  212. Shefer VF (1977) Hippocampal pathology as a possible factor in the pathogenesis of senile dementias. Neurosci Behav Physiol 8 (3): 236–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Sim M (1979) Early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. In: Glen AIM, Whalley LJ (eds) Alzheimer’s disease. Early recognition of potentially reversible deficits. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, p 78Google Scholar
  214. Sim M, Sussman I (1962) Alzheimer’s disease: its natural history and differential diagnosis. J Nerv Ment Dis 135: 489–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Simchowitcz T (1911) Histopathologische Studien über die senile Demenz. In: Nissl F, Alzheimer A (eds) Histologie und histopathologische Arbeiten über Großhirnrinde. Fischer, Jena, p 267Google Scholar
  216. Sjögren H (1950) Twenty-four cases of Alzheimer’s disease. A clinical analysis. Acta Med Scand, suppl 246: 225–233Google Scholar
  217. Sjögren H, Sourander P (1962) Histopathological studies in Alzheimer’s disease. Proc 4 th Int Congr Neuropath, vol III. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 319Google Scholar
  218. Sjögren H, Sourander P, Svennerholm L (1965) Clinical, histological and chemical studies on presenile and senile neuropsychiatric diseases. Proc V th Int Congr Neuropathol. Exc Med Int Congr ser no 100, p 555–559Google Scholar
  219. Sjögren T, Sjögren H, Lindgren AGH (1952) Morbus Alzheimer and morbus Pick. A genetic, clinical and pathoanatomical study. Acta Psychiat Scand suppl 82: 1: 1–52Google Scholar
  220. Smith WTh, Turner E, Sim M (1966) Cerebral biopsy in the investigation of presenile dementia. Br J Psychiat 112: 127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Sourander P, Sjögren H (1970) The concept of Alzheimer’s disease and its clinical implications. In: Wolstenholme GEW, O’Connor M (eds) Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions. A CIBA Foundation Symposium. Churchill, London, p 11Google Scholar
  222. Stertz S (1922) Zur Frage der Alzheimerschen Krankheit. Allg Zeitschr Psych 336Google Scholar
  223. Stickland CA (1954) Two Mongols of unusually high mental status. Br J Med Psychol 27: 80–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Sulkava R, Rossi L, Knuutila S (1979) No elevated sister chromatid exchange in Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neurol Scand 59: 156–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Swain JM (1959) Electroencephalographic abnormalities in presenile atrophy. Neurology 9: 722–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Tan YH, Tischfield J, Ruddle FH (1973) The linkage of genes for the human interferon-induced antiviral protein and indolphenoloxidase-B traits to chromosomes G-21. J Exp Med 137: 317–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Tariska I (1970) Circumscribed cerebral atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease: A pathological study. In: Wolstenholme GE, O’Connor M (eds) Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions. A CIBA Foundation symposium. Churchill Ltd, London, p 51Google Scholar
  228. Terry RD (1963) The fine structure of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neuropath Exp Neurol 22: 629–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Terry RD ( 1978 a) Aging, senile dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. In: Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Senile dementia and related disorders. Raven Press, New York, p 11Google Scholar
  230. Terry RD ( 1978 b) Ultrastructural alterations in senile dementia. In: Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Senile dementia and related disorders (Aging vol 7). Raven Press, New York, p 375Google Scholar
  231. Terry RD (1978 c) Senile dementia. Fed Proc 37:2837–2840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Terry RD (1979) Morphological changes in Alzheimer’s disease — Senile dementia: Ultrastructural changes and quantitative studies. In: Katzman R (ed) Congenital and aquired cognitive disorders. Raven Press, New York, p 99Google Scholar
  233. Terry RD, Wisniewski H (1970) The ultrastructure of the neurofibrillary tangle and the senile plaque. In: Wolstenholme GEW, O’Connor M (eds) Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions. CIBA Foundation Symposium, Churchill, London, p 145Google Scholar
  234. Terry RD, Wisniewski H (1972) The ultrastructure of senile dementia and of experimental analoge. In: Gaitz CM (ed) Aging and the brain. Plenum Publ Corp, New York, p 123Google Scholar
  235. Terry RD, Gonatas NK, Weiss M (1964) Ultrastructural studies in Alzheimer’s presenile dementia. Am J Path 44: 269–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Terry RD, Fitzgerald C, Peck A, Miliner J, Farmer P (1977) Cortical cell counts in senile dementia. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 36: 633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Tomlinson BE (1977) The pathology of dementia. In: Wells K (ed) Contemporary neurology series. FA Davis Co, Philadelphia, p 113–153Google Scholar
  238. Tomlinson BE (1979) The ageing brain. In: Smith WT, Cavanagh JB (eds) Recent advances in neuropathology. Churchill Livingstone, New York, p 129Google Scholar
  239. Tomlinson BE, Henderson G (1976) Some quantitative cerebral findings in normal and demented old people. In: Terry RD, Gerson S (eds) Neurobilogy of aging. Raven Press, New York, p 183Google Scholar
  240. Tomlinson BE, Blessed G, Roth M (1970) Observations on the brains of demented old people. J Neurol Sci 11: 205–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Torack RM (1978) The pathologic physiology of dementia. With indications for diagnosis and treatment. In: Hippius H, Janzarik W, Müller C (eds) Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiete der Psychiatrie, Psychiatry Series. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 1Google Scholar
  242. Trapp GA, Miner GD, Zimmerman RL, Mastri AR, Heston LL (1978) Aluminum levels in brain in Alzheimer’s disease. Biol Psychiatry vol 13 no 6: 709–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Ule G (1958) Pathologisch-anatomische Befunde bei Korsakow-Psychosen und ihre Bedeutung für die Lokalisationslehre in der Psychiatrie. Ärztl Wochenschr 13: 6–13Google Scholar
  244. Ward BE, Cook RH, Robinson A, Austin JH (1979) Increased aneuploidy in Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Med Genet 3: 137–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Whalley LJ, Buckton KE (1979) Genetic factors in Alzheimer’s disease. In: Glen AIM, Whalley LJ (eds) Alzheimer’s disease. Early recognition of potentially reversible deficits. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, p 36Google Scholar
  246. Whalley LJ, Urbaniak SJ, Darg C, Peutherer JF, Christie E (1980) Histocompatibility antigens and antibodies to viral and other antigens in Alzheimer pre-senile dementia. Acta Psychiat Scand 61: 1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Wisniewski HM (1978) Possible viral etiology of neurofibrillary changes and neuritic plaques. In: Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds) Alzheimer’s disease: Senile dementia and related disorders (Aging vol 7 ). Raven Press, New York, p 555Google Scholar
  248. Wisniewski HM (1979) Neurofibrillary and synaptic pathology in senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (SDAT). In: Glen AIM, Whalley LJ (eds) Alzheimer’s disease. Early recognition of potentially reversible deficits. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, p 7Google Scholar
  249. Wisniewski HM, Soifer D (1979) Neurofibrillary pathology: current status and research perspectives. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 9: 119–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Wisniewski HM, Terry RD (1973 a) Morphology of the aging brain, human and animal. In: Ford DH (ed) Progress in brain research, vol 40. Neurobiological aspects of Maturation and Aging, p 167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Wisniewski HM, Terry RD ( 1973 b) Reexamination of the pathogenesis of the senile plaque. In: Zimmermann HM (ed) Progress in neuropath vol II. Grune Stratton, New York, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  252. Wisniewski HM, Terry RD (1976) Neuropathology of the aging brain. In: Terry RD, Gershon S (eds) Neurobiology of aging. Raven Press, New York, p 265Google Scholar
  253. Wisniewski HM, Johnson AB, Raine CS, Kay WS, Terry RD (1970) Senile plaques and cerebral amyloidosis in aged dogs. Lab Invest 23: 287–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Wisniewski HM, Ghetti B, Terry RD (1973) Neuritic (senile) plaques and filamentous changes in aged rhesus monkeys. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 32: 566–584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Wisniewski HM, Bruce ME, Fräser H (1975) Infectious etiology of neurotic (senile) plaques in mice. Science 190: 1108–1110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Wisniewski HM, Narang HK, Terry RD (1976) Neurofibrillary tangles of paired helical filaments. J Neurol Sci 27: 173–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Wisniewski K, Howe J, Williams DG, Wisniewski HM (1978) Precocious aging and dementia in patients with Down’s syndrome. Biol Psychiatry 13Google Scholar
  258. Yagishita S, Itoh Y, Amano N, Nakano T (1980) Atypical senile dementia with widespread Lewy type inclusion in the cerebral cortex. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 49: 187–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Yamada M (1978) On the distribution of senile changes in the spinal cord. Folia Psychiat Neurol Jpn 32: 249–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. Zerbin-Rüdin E (1967) Hirnatrophische Prozesse. In: Becker PE (ed) Humangenetik vol V/ 2. Thieme, Stuttgart, p 84Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Brun

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations