Transcriptional Control Regions: Nucleotide Sequence Requirements for Initiation by RNA Polymerase II and III

  • Thomas Shenk
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 93)


Until recently, the nucleotide sequences involved in the initiation of transcription within eukaryotic cells remained a mystery. Now, thanks to a variety of technological advances, it is possible to identify these sequences and appreciate their functions in the transcription process. Cloning technology enables one to isolate and study genes individually. Rapid DNA and RNA sequencing procedures facilitate nucleotide sequence analysis of both the genes and the RNAs they encode. A variety of in vitro mutagenesis protocols makes it possible to direct deletions and single base-pair changes to specific nucleotide sequences. Selection procedures are available to return genes which have been manipulated in vitro to cells for analysis. And, finally, in vitro systems have been developed which accurately transcribe either RNA polymerase II- or polymerase Ill-type genes. Genes can now be isolated, sequenced, mutated, and their transcription studied both in vivo and in vitro. As a result, specific functions in the transcription process can be related to specific nucleotide sequences.


Control Region Initiation Site Globin Gene Transcription Unit Simian Virus 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Shenk
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Health Sciences CenterState University of New YorkStony BrookUSA

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