General Methods in Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Nervous System

  • K. Meller

Abstract

The scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows one to obtain a three-dimensional representation of biological structures. In this way the SEM study of nervous structures may have filled the gap between the information provided by the classic Golgitechnique and the fine structural data supplied by transmission electron microscopy. One drawback of the SEM is that it provides most information about free surfaces; these surfaces however, such as the ventricular surface, cover only a small portion of nervous tissue. The achievement of optimal preserved internal regions of the nervous system and the observation of not naturally occurring surfaces is still the object of SEM methodological efforts. The present accomplishments of the SEM technique are not restricted by the resolution power of the microscope but rather by the unsolved problems concerning the preparation of specimens.

Keywords

Formaldehyde Acetone Epoxy Shrinkage Fractionation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander IGS, Capicchiano PM, Ritchie BC, Maloney JE (1973) Plastic embedding and surface erosion technique in soft tissue scanning electron microscopy. J Microsc 99:69–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen DJ, Low FN (1973) The ependymal surface of the lateral ventricle of the dog as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (1). Am J Anat 137:483–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson TF (1966) Electron microscopy of microorganisms. In: Pollister AW (ed) Physical techniques in biological research, 2nd ed, vol III/A. Academic Press, New York and London, p 319Google Scholar
  4. Azzam NA, Trow LJ (1976) A scanning electron microscopic observation of the phagocytic activity of the rat ependymal cells. Anat Rec 184:348–349Google Scholar
  5. Backhouse M (1974) Observations on the development of the early chick embryo. In: Johari O (ed) Scanning electron microscopy 1974, part III. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill., p 525Google Scholar
  6. Bagger-Sjöbäck D, Wersäll J (1973) The sensory hairs and tectorial membrane of the basilar papilla in the lizard calotes versicolor. J Neurocytol 2:329–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bancroft M, Bellairs R (1975) Differentiation of the neural plate and neural tube in the young chick embryo. Anat Embryol 147:309–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barber VC, Boyde A (1968) Scanning electron microscopic studies of cilia. Z Zeilforsch 84: 269–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ben-Shaul Y, Moscona AA (1975) Scanning electron microscopy of embryonic neural retina cell surfaces. Dev Biol 44:386–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bleier R (1975) Surface fine structure of supra-ependymal elements and ependyma of hypothalamic third ventricle of mouse. J Comp Neurol 161:555–568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blood LA (1975) Scanning electron microscopic observations of the outgrowth from embryonic chick dorsal root ganglia in culture. Neurobiol 5:75–83Google Scholar
  12. Borit A, Sidman RL (1972) New mutant mouse with communicating hydrocephalus and secondary aqueductal stenosis. Acta Neuropathol 21:316–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyde A, Wood C (1969) Preparation of animal tissues for surface-scanning electron microscopy. J Microsc 90:221–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boyde A, James DW, Tresman RL, Willis RA (1968) Outgrowth from chick embryo spinal cord in vitro, studied with the scanning electron microscope. Z Zellforsch 90:1–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Breipohl W, Bijvank GJ (1974) Scanning electron microscopy of various sensory receptor cells in different vertebrates. In: Johari O (ed) Scanning electron microscopy/1974, part III. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill., p 557Google Scholar
  16. Breipohl W, Bijvank GJ, Zippel HP (1973) Rastermikroskopische Untersuchungen der olfaktorischen Rezeptoren im Riechepithel des Goldfisches (carassius auratus). Z Zellforsch 138:439–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Breipohl W, Fernandez M (1977) Scanning electron microscopic investigations of olfactory epithelium in the chick embryo. Cell Tissue Res 183:105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown MF, Brotzman HG, Kinden DA (1976) Use of a tissue sectioner to expose internal structures of biological samples for scanning electron microscopy. Stain Technol 51:267–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bruni JE, Montemurro DG, Clattenburg RE (1977) Morphology of the ependymal lining of the rabbit third ventricle following intraventricular administration of synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH): A scanning electron microscopic investigation. Am J Anat 150:411–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clementi F, Marini D (1972) The surface fine structure of the walls of cerebral ventricles and of choroid plexus in cat. Z Zellforsch 123:82–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cleveland PH, Schneider CW (1969) A simple method of preserving ocular tissue for scanning electron microscopy. Vision Res 9:1401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coates PW (1977) The third ventricle of monkeys. Scanning electron microscopy of surface features in mature males and females. Cell Tissue Res 177:307–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cohen AL (1979) Critical point drying — Principles and procedures. In: Johari O, Becker RP (eds) Scanning electron microscopy/1979, part II. SEM, AMF O’Hare, Ill., p 303Google Scholar
  24. Collins P, Morriss GM (1975) Changes in the surface features of choroid plexus of the rat following the administration of acetazolamide and other drugs which affect CSF secretion. J Anat 120:571–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cupedo RNJ (1977) The surface ultrastructure of the habenular complex of the rat. Anat Embryol 152:43–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dalen H, Schlapfer WT, Mamoon A (1971) Cilia on cultured ependymal cells examined by scanning electron microscopy. Exp Cell Res 67:375–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dellmann H-D (1978) Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the subfornical organ of the frog (rana pipiens). Cell Tissue Res 186:361–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dellmann H-D, Simpson JB (1976) Regional Differences in the morphology of the rat subfornical organ. Brain Res 116:389–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dempsey EW (1973) Neural and vascular ultra-structure of the area postrema in the rat. J Comp Neurol 150:177–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. De Waele G, Dierickx K, Goossens N (1974) Scanning electron microscopy of the wall of the third ventricle of the brain of rana temporaria. Cell Tissue Res 154:511–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dierickx K, Druyts A, Vandenberghe MP, Goossens N (1972) Identification of adeno-hypophysiotropic neurohormone producing neurosecretory cells in rana temporaria. I. Ultrastructural evidence for the presence of neurosecretory cells in the tuber cinereum. Z Zellforsch 134:459–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Düring v. M, Karduck A, Richter H-G (1974) The fine structure of the inner ear in caiman crocodilus. Z Anat Entwicklungsgesch 145:41–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ebendal T (1974) Scanning electron microscopy of chick embryo nerve fibres and heart fibroblasts on collagen substrata in vitro. Zoon 2:99–104Google Scholar
  34. Edelman GM, Rutishauser U, Millette CF (1971) Cell fractionation and arrangement on fibers, beads, and surfaces. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68:2153–2157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. England MA, Cowper SV (1976) A transmission and scanning electron microscope study of primary neural induction. Experientia 32:1578–1580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Faltin J, Lodin Z, Booher J (1974) The surface of dissected neurons, neurons in smears, cultivated cells and sections as studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. Acta Histochem 50:187–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fromme HG, Pfautsch M, Pfefferkorn G, Bystricky V (1972) Die „Kritische Punkt“-Trocknung als Präparationsmethode für die Raster-Elektronenmikroskopie. Microsc Acta 73:29–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gopalakrishnan TV, Thompson EB (1975) A method for enucleating cultured mammalian cells. Exp Cell Res 96:435–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hannah RS, Geber W (1977) Specializations of the ependyma in the third ventricle of the developing hamster. Am J Anat 149:597–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hetzel W (1978) Ependyma and ependymal protrusions of the lateral ventricles of the rabbit brain. Cell Tissue Res 192:475–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hill CE, Chamley JH, Burnstock G (1974) Cell surfaces and fiber relationships in sympathetic ganglion cultures: A scanning electron-microscopic study. J Cell Sci 14:657–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hillman DE, Lewis ER (1971) Morphological basis for a mechanical linkage in otolithic receptor transduction in the frog. Science 174:416–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hirunagi K, Yasuda M (1979) Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the linings of the fourth ventricle in the domestic fowl. Cell Tissue Res 197:169–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Jacobs JJ, Monroe KD (1977) A scanning electron microscopic survey of the brain ventricular system of the female armadillo. Cell Tissue Res 183:531–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kawabata I, Ishii H (1971) Fiber arrangement in the tympanic membrane. Scanning electron microscope observations. Acta Otolaryngol 72:243–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kelley RO, Dekker RAF, Bluemink JG (1973) Ligand-mediated osmium binding: Its application in coating biological specimens for scanning electron microscopy. J Ultrastruct Res 45:254–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Klara PM, Brizzee KR (1977) Ultrastructure of the feline area postrema. J Comp Neurol 171:409–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kosaka N, Tanaka T, Takiguchi T, Ozeki Y, Takahara S (1971) Observation on the organ of Corti with scanning electron microscope. Acta Otolaryngol 72:377–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kozlowski GP, Scott DE, Murphy JA (1972) Scanning electron microscopy of the lateral ventricle of sheep. Am J Anat 135:561–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kozlowski GP, Scott DE, Krobisch-Dudley GK (1973) Scanning electron microscopy of the third ventricle of sheep. Z Zellforsch 136:169–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Krisch B, Leonhardt H, Desaga U (1978) The rhombencephalic recess in the rat. A light and electron microscopic study. Cell Tissue Res 189:479–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Landolt JP, Correia MJ, Young ER, Cardin RPS, Sweet RC (1975) A scanning electron microscopic study of the morphology and geometry of neural surfaces and structures associated with the vestibular apparatus of the pigeon. J Comp Neurol 159:257–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Leonhardt H, Lindemann B (1973 a) Surface morphology of the subfornical organ in the rabbit’s brain. Z Zellforsch 146:243–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Leonhardt H, Lindemann B (1973 b) Über ein supraependymales Nervenzell-, Axon-, und Gliazellsystem. Eine raster-und transmis-sionselektronenmikroskopische Untersuchung am IV. Ventrikel (Apertura lateralis) des Kaninchengehirns. Z Zellforsch 139:285–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Leslie RA, Gwyn DG, Morrison CM (1978) The fine structure of the ventricular surface of the area postrema of the cat, with particular reference to supraependymal structures. Am J Anat 153:273–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lindberg L-A, Talanti S (1975) The surface fine structure of the bovine subcommissural organ. Cell Tissue Res 163:125–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lindberg L-A, Vasenius L, Talanti S (1977) The surface fine structure of the ependymal lining of the lateral ventricle in rats with hereditary hydrocephalus. Cell Tissue Res 179:121–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lindeman HH, Bredberg G (1972) Scanning electron microscopy of the organ of corti after intense auditory stimulation: Effects on stereocilia and cuticular surface of hair cells. Arch Klin Exp Ohren Nasen Kehlkopfheilkd 203:1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lodin Z, Faltin J, Booher J, Hartman J, Sensenbrenner M (1973) Formation of intercellular contacts in cultures of dissociated neurons from embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglia. An electron microscopic and scanning electron microscopic study. Neurobiology 3:376–390Google Scholar
  60. Maeda S, Honjo S, Mogi G (1974) Surface structures of the normal mucosa in developing rat middle ear. In: Johari O (ed) Scanning electron microscopy/1974, part III. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill., p 565Google Scholar
  61. Mak LL (1978) Ultrastructural studies of amphibian neural fold fusion. Dev Biol 65:435–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Malick LE, Wilson RB, Stetson D (1975) Modified thiocarbohydrazide procedure for scanning electron microscopy: Routine use for normal, pathological, or experimental tissues. Stain Technol 50:265–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Mazia D, Schatten G, Sale W (1975) Adhesion of cells to surfaces coated with polylysine. Applications to electron microscopy. J Cell Biol 66:198–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Meller K, Tetzlaff W (1975) Neuronal migration during the early development of the cerebral cortex. A scanning electron microscopic study. Cell Tissue Res 163:313–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Meller K, Tetzlaff W (1976) Scanning electron microscopic studies on the development of the chick retina. Cell Tissue Res 170:145–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mestres P, Rascher K (1977) Some aspects of the early development of the rat hypothalamus: A scanning electron microscopic (SEM) study. In: Johari O (ed) Scanning electron microscopy/1977, vol II. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill., p 381Google Scholar
  67. Mikami S-I, Asari M (1978) Ultrastructure of the subfornical organ of the japanese quail, coturnix coturnix. Cell Tissue Res 188:19–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Miller MR (1973 a) Scanning electron microscope studies of some lizard basilar papillae. Am J Anat 138:301–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Miller MR (1973 b) A scanning electron microscope study of the papilla basilaris of gekko gecko. Z Zellforsch 136:307–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Miodonski A, Poborowska J, De Grubenthal F (1979) Scanning electron microscopic study of the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle in the cat. Anat Embryol 155:323–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nelson DJ, Wright EM (1974) The distribution, activity, and function of the cilia in the frog brain. J Physiol 243:63–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Noack W, Dumitrescu L, Schweichel JU (1972) Scanning and electron microscopical investigations of the surface structures of the lateral ventricles in the cat. Brain Res 46:121–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Olson MD (1977) The development of photoreceptor inner and outer segments in the retina of the chick as observed by scanning electron microscopy. In: Johari O (ed) Scanning electron microscopy/1977, vol II. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill., p 453Google Scholar
  74. Paull WK, Martin H, Scott DE (1977) Scanning electron microscopy of the third ventricular floor of the rat. J Comp Neurol 175:301–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Peters A (1974) The surface fine structure of the choroid plexus and ependymal lining of the rat lateral ventricle. J Neurocytol 3:99–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Phillips MI, Balhorn L, Leavitt M, Hoffman W (1974) Scanning electron microscope study of the rat subfornical organ. Brain Res 80:95–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Portch PA, Barson AJ (1974) Scanning electron microscopy of neurulation in the chick. J Anat 117:341–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Prescott DM, Myerson D, Wallace J (1972) Enucleation of mammalian cells with cyto-chalasin B. Exp Cell Res 71:480–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Privat A, Mandon P, Drian MJ (1972) Contribution de la microscopie électronique à balayage pour l’étude du tissu nerveux en culture organisée. Exp Cell Res 71:232–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ribas JL (1977) The rat epithalamus. I. Correlative scanning-transmission electron microscopy of supraependymal nerves. Cell Tissue Res 182:1–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rivera-Dominguez M, Agate JR. FJ, Noback CR (1974) Scanning electron microscopic observations of the organ of corti of the rhesus monkey. Brain Res 65:159–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ross MD (1974) The tectorial membrane of the rat. Am J Anat 139:449–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Scott DE, Pauli WK (1978) Correlative scanning-transmission electron microscopic examination of the perinatal rat brain. Cell Tissue Res 190:317–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Scott DE, Pauli WK, Krobisch Dudley G (1972) A comparative scanning electron microscopic analysis of the human cerebral ventricular system. I. The third ventricle. Z Zellforsch 132:203–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Scott DE, Kozlowski GP, Pauli WK, Ramalingam S, Krobisch-Dudley G (1973 a) Scanning electron microscopy of the human cerebral ventricular system. II. The fourth ventricle. Z Zellforsch 139:61–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Scott DE, Kozlowski GP, Krobisch-Dudley G (1973 b) A comparative ultrastructural analysis of the third cerebral ventricle of the North American Mink (mustela vison). Anat Rec 175:155–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Scott DE, Van Dyke DH, Pauli WK, Kozlowski GP (1974) Ultrastructural analysis of the human cerebral ventricular system. III. The choroid plexus. Cell Tissue Res 150:389–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Scott DE, Krobisch-Dudley G, Paull WK, Kozlowski GP, Ribas J (1975) The primate median eminence. I. Correlative scanning-transmission electron microscopy. Cell Tissue Res 162:61–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Scott DE, Pauli WK, Steger RW, Mestres P, Mitchell JA, Hafez ESE (1976) The primate hypothalamus: Correlative scanning-transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM). In: Johari O (ed) Scanning electron microscopy/1976, part VI. IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Ill., p 431Google Scholar
  90. Scott DE, Krobisch-Dudley G, Pauli WK, Kozlowski GP (1977) The ventricular system in neuroendocrine mechanisms. III. Supraependymal neuronal networks in the primate brain. Cell Tissue Res 179:235–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Seymour R, Berry M (1975 a) Surface changes in epithelial cells during mitosis in vivo. J Anat 120:401–402Google Scholar
  92. Seymour RM, Berry M (1975 b) Scanning transmission electron microscope studies of interkinetic nuclear migration in the cerebral vesicles of the rat. J Comp Neurol 160:105–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Seymour RM, Berry M (1979) The nervous system. In: Hodges GM, Hallowes RC (eds) Biomedical research applications of scanning electron microscopy. Vol I.p 127Google Scholar
  94. Sheffield JB, Isaacson M, Johnson D (1971) Visualization of surface structures on embryonic cells with a simple electron gun scanning microscope. Exp Cell Res 64:49–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shimada Y, Fischman DA (1972) Scanning electron microscopy of neuromuscular junctions in cell culture. J Cell Biol 55:237 aGoogle Scholar
  96. Shimada Y, Fischman DA (1975) Scanning electron microscopy of nerve-muscle contacts in embryonic cell culture. Dev Biol 43:42–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Takei Y, Tsuneki K, Kobayashi H (1978) Surface fine structure of the subfornical organ in the japanese quail, coturnix coturnix japonica. Cell Tissue Res 191:389–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tanaka K (1972) Freezed resin cracking method for scanning electron microscopy of biological materials. Naturwiss 59:77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tanaka K, Smith CA (1978) Structure of the chicken’s inner ear: SEM and TEM study. Am J Anat 153:251–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vigh B, Vigh-Teichmann I, Aros B (1977) Special dendritic and axonal endings formed by the cerebrospinal fluid contacting neurons of the spinal cord. Cell Tissue Res 183:541–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Walsh RJ, Brawer JR, Lin PS (1978) Early postnatal development of ependyma in the third ventricle of male and female rats. Am J Anat 151:377–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Waterman RE (1972) Use of the scanning electron microscope for observation of vertebrate embryos. Dev Biol 27:276–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Waterman RE (1975) SEM observations of surface alterations associated with neural tube closure in the mouse and hamster. Anat Rec 183:95–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Weindl A, Schinko I (1975) Evidence by scanning electron microscopy for ependymal secretion into the cerebrospinal fluid and formation of Reissner’s fiber by the subcommissural organ. Brain Res 88:319–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Weindl A, Schinko I, Wetzstein R (1975) Raster-elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen am Ventrikelependym. Verh Anat Ges 69:463–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Wersäll J, Björkroth B, Flock A, Lundquist P-G (1971) Sensory hair fusion in vestibular sensory cells after gentamycin exposure. A transmission and scanning electron microscope study. Arch Klin Exp Ohren Nasen Kehlkopfheilkd 200:1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Meller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations