Retinoids pp 13-20 | Cite as

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Oral Aromatic Retinoids

  • U. Paravicini


The preventive effect of Vitamin A and several of its analogs (retinoids) and the induction of precancerous conditions (2) as well as the therapeutic effects on certain hyperkeratotic skin disorders and on chemically induced skin papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas are well known (1).


Retinoic Acid Single Oral Dose Parent Drug Main Metabolite Unchanged Drug 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bollag W (1971) Effects of vitamin A acid (NSC-122758) on transplantable and chemically-induced tumors. Cancer Chemother Rep 55: 53–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bollag W (1972) Prophylaxis of chemically-induced benign and malignant epithelial tumors by vitamin A acid (retinoic acid). Eur J Cancer 8: 689–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bollag W (1975) Prophylaxis of chemically-induced epithelial tumors with an aromatic retinoic acid analog (Ro 10-9359). Eur J Cancer 11: 721–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Luca HF, Zile M (1975) Aspects of teratology of vitamin A acid al-all-trans retinoic acid). Acta Derm Venerol (Stockh) 55 (Suppl. 74): 13–20Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dunagin PE jr, Zachman RD, Olson JA (1964) Identification of free and conjugated retinoic acid as a product of retinal (vitamin A aldehyde) metabolism in the rat in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta 90: 432–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hänni R, Bigler F, Meister W, Englert G (1976) Isolation and identification of three urinary metabolites of retinoic acid in the rat. Helv Chim Acta 59: 2221–2227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hänni R, Bigler F (1977) Isolation and identification of three major metabolites of retinoic acid from rat feces. Helv Chim Acta 60: 881–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hänni R, Bigler F, Vetter W, Englert G, Loeliger P (1977) Der Metabolismus des Retinoids Ro 10-9359. Isolierung and Identifizierung der Hauptmetaboliten aus Plasma, Urin and Faeces des Menschen sowie aus Galle der Ratte. Synthese von drei Urinmetaboliten. Helv Chim Acta 60: 2309–2325Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hänni R (1978) Pharmacokinetic and metabolic pathways of systemically applied retinoids. Dermatologica 157 (Suppl. 1): 5–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hänni R, Hervouet D, Busslinger A (1979) Determination of an aromatic retinoid and its main metabolite by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 162: 615–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoppner J, Phillips WEJ, Murray TK, Campbell JS (1968) Survey of liver vitamin A stores of Canadians. Can Med Assoc J 99: 983–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Inouye T, Minick O, Grubbs C, Moon R, Kent G (1978) Hepatic lipocytes and storages of vitamin A analogues. Fed Proc 37: 299Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Körner WF, Völlm J (1975) New aspects of the tolerance of retinol in humans. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 45: 363–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Metzler CM, Elfring GL, McEwen AJ (1974) A user’s manual for NONLIN and associated programs. Upjohn Company, KalamazooGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ott DB, Lachance PA, Lachance MS (1979) Retinoic acid–a review. Am J Clin Nutr 32: 2522–2531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Raica N jr, Scott J, Lowry L, Sauberlich HE (1972) Vitamin A concentration in human tissues collected from five areas in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 25: 291–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sauberlich HE, Hodges RE, Wallace DL, Kolder H, Canham JE, Hood H, Raica N jr, Lowry LK (1975) Vitamin A metabolism and requirements in the human studied with the use of labeled retinol. Vitam Horm 32: 251–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zachman RD, Dunagin PE jr, Olson JA (1966) Formation and enterohepatic circulation of metabolites of retinol and retinoic acid in bile duct-cannulated rats. J Lipid Res 7: 3–9PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. Paravicini

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations