Glucocorticoid Modulation of Cell Proliferation

  • V. J. Cristofalo
  • B. A. Rosner
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 57)


Glucocorticoids are known to have profound effects on many biological processes. For example, the important role of adrenal cortical steroids in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism has been evident since the early 1900’s (e.g., see Cahill, 1971). Their effects on ACTH activity as well as their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties are also generally well established (Fauci, 1979). It is now evident that, in addition, glucocorticoids play an important role in the growth and differentiation of mammalian tissues (Ballard, 1979). At present, many of the effects of glucocorticoids are being studied in cell culture where hormone responsiveness can be monitored under controlled environmental conditions.


Glucocorticoid Receptor Fetal Lung Human Diploid Fibroblast Human Fetal Lung Replicative Life Span 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armelin, H.A.: Pituitary extracts and steroid hormones in the control of 3T3 cell growth. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 2702–2706 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armelin, M.C.S., Armelin, H.A.: Serum and hormonal regulation of the “resting-prolifer-ative” transition in a variant of 3T3 mouse cells. Nature 265, 148–151 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, J.B., Barsh, G.S., Carney, D.H., Cunningham, D.: Dexamethasone modulates binding and action of epidermal growth factor in serum-free cell cultures. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75, 1882–1886 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ballard, P.L.: Glucocorticoids and differentiation. in: Glucocorticoid hormone actions. Monographs on endocrinology. Baxter, J.D., Rousseau, G.G. (eds.), vol. 12, pp. 493–515. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1979.Google Scholar
  5. Baulieu, E.E.: Some aspects of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 7, 157–173 (1975).Google Scholar
  6. Baxter, J.D., Forsham, P.H.: Tissue effects of glucocorticoids. Am. J. Med. 53, 573–589 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baxter, J.D., Rousseau, G.G.: Glucocorticoid hormone action: an overview. in: Glucocorticoid hormone action. Monographs on endocrinology. Baxter, J.D., Rousseau, G.G. (eds.), vol. 12, pp. 1–24. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1979.Google Scholar
  8. Baxter, J.D., Tomkins, G.M.: The relationship between glucocorticoid binding and tyrosine aminotransferase induction in hepatoma tissue culture cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 65, 709–715 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berliner, D.L., Dougherty, T.F.: Hepatic and extrahepatic regulation of corticosteroids. Pharmacol. Rev. 13, 329–359 (1961).Google Scholar
  10. Burgess, A.W., Camakaris, J., Metcalf, D.: Purification and properties of colony-stimulating factor from mouse lung-conditioned medium. J. Biol. Chem. 252, 1998–2003 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cahill, G.G.: Actions of adrenal cortical steroids on carbohydrate metabolism. in: The human adrenal cortex. Christy, N.P. (ed.), pp. 205–239. New York: Harper & Row (1971).Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, P.S.: The mechanism of the inhibition of uterotrophic responses to acute dexamethasone pretreatment. Endocrinologies 103, 716–723 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Castor, C.W., Prince, R.K.: Modulation of the intrinsic viscosity of hyauronic acid formed by human fibroblasts in vitro: the effects of hydrocortisone and colchicine. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 83, 165–177 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cavenee, W., Melnykovych, G.: Elevation of HeLa cell 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coen-zyme. A reductase activity by glucocorticoids. J. Cell. Physiol. 98, 199–212 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chan, L., Means, A.R., O’Malley, B.W.: Hormone modulation of specific gene expression. Vitam. Horm. 36, 259–295 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen, T.L., Feldman, D.: Glucocorticoid receptors and actions in subpopulations of cultured rat bone cells. J. Clin. Invest. 63, 750–758 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Clark, J.L., Jones, K.L., Gospodarowicz, D., Sato, G.H.: Growth response to hormones by a new rat ovary cell line. Nature New Biol. 236, 180–181 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clausen, P.P.F., Guatvik, K.M., Haugh, E.: Effects of cortisol, 17β-estradiol and thyrolib-erin on prolactin and growth hormone production, cell growth and cell cycle distribution in cultured rat pituitary tumor cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 94, 205–214 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crabtree, G.R., Munck, A., Smith, K.A.: Glucocorticoids inhibit expression of Fc receptors in the human granulocytic cell line HL-60. Nature 279, 338–339 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crabtree, G.R., Smith, R.A., Munck, A.: Glucocorticoid receptors and sensitivity of isolated human leukemia lymphoma and lymphoma cells. Cancer Res. 38, 4268–4272 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cristofalo, V.J.: Metabolic aspects of aging in diploid human cells. in: Aging in cell and tissue culture. Holeckova, E., Cristofalo, V.J. (eds.), pp. 83–119. New York: Plenum Press 1970.Google Scholar
  22. Cristofalo, V.J.: Hydrocortisone as a modulator of cell division and population life span. in: Explorations in aging. Cristofalo, V.J., Roberts, J., Adelman, R.C. (eds.), pp. 57–79. New York: Plenum Press 1975.Google Scholar
  23. Cristofalo, V.J., Rosner, B.A.: Modulation of cell proliferation and senescence of WI-38 cells by hydrocortisone. Fed. Proc. 38, 1851–1856 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cristofalo, V.J., Wallace, J.M., Rosner, B.A.: Glucocorticoid enhancement of proliferative activity in WI-38 cells. In: Hormones and cell culture. Sato, G.H., Ross, R. (eds.)., vol. 6, book b, pp. 875–887. Cold Spring Harbor: Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Publications (1979).Google Scholar
  25. De Larco, J.E., Todaro, G.J.: Growth factors from murine sarcoma virus-transformed cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75, 4001–4005 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dietrich, J.W., Canalis, E.M., Maina, D.M., Raise, L.G.: Effects of glucocorticoids on fetal rate bone collagen synthesis in vitro. Endocrinology 104, 715–721 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dulak, N.C., Temin, H.M.: Multiplication-stimulating activity for chicken embryo fibro-blasts from rat liver cell conditioned medium: a family of small Polypeptides. J. Cell. Physiol. 81, 161–170 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Epifanova, O.I.: Effects of hormones on the cell cycle. in: The cell cycle and cancer. Baserga, R. (ed.), pp. 145–180. New York: Marcel Dekker 1971.Google Scholar
  29. Fauci, A.S.: Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. in: Glucocorticoid hormone action. Monographs on endocrinology. Baxter, J.D., Rousseau, G.G. (eds.), vol. 12, pp. 449–465. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1979.Google Scholar
  30. Flower, R.J., Blackwell, G.J.: Anti-inflammatory steroids induce biosynthesis of A phos-pholipase A2 inhibitor which prevents Prostaglandin generation. Nature 278, 456–459 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fulder, ST.: The growth of cultured human fibroblasts treated with hydrocortisone and extracts of the medicinal plant Panax ginseng. Exp. Gerontol. 12, 125–131 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gaffney, E.V., Pigott, D.: Hydrocortisone stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells. In Vitro 14, 621–624 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gorski, J., Gannon, F.: Current models of steroid hormone action: a critique. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 38, 425–450 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gospodarowicz, D.: Localization of a Fibroblast growth factor and its effect alone and with hydrocortisone in 3T3 cell growth. Nature 249, 123–127 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gospodarowicz, D., Moran, J.S.: Stimulation of division of sparse and confluent 3T3 cell populations by a Fibroblast growth factor, dexamethasone, and insulin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71, 4584–4588 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gospodarowicz, D., Moran, J.S.: Mitogenic effect of Fibroblast growth factor on early passage cultures of human and murine fibroblasts. J. Cell Biol. 66, 451–457 (1975 a).Google Scholar
  37. Gospodarowicz, D., Moran, J.S.: Optimal conditions for the study of growth control in BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts. Exp. Cell Res. 90, 279–284 (1975b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gospodarowicz, D., Weseman, J., Moran, J.S., Linstrom, J.: Effect of fibroblast growth factor on the division and fusion of bovine myoblasts. J. Cell Biol. 70, 395–405 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Granner, D.K.: Restoration of sensitivity of cultured hepatoma cells to cyclic nucleotides shows the permissive effect of dexamethasone. Nature 259, 572–573 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Granner, D.K.: The role of glucocorticoid hormones as biological amplifiers. in: Glucocorticoid hormone action. Monographs on endocrinology. Baxter, I.D., Rousseau, G.G. (eds.), vol. 12, pp. 593–661. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1979.Google Scholar
  41. Grasso, R.J., Johnson, C.E.: Dose-response relationships between glucocorticoids and growth inhibition in rate glioma monolayer cultures. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 154, 238–248 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gross, S.R., Aronow, L., Pratt, W.B.: The active transport of cortisol by mouse fibroblasts growing in vitro. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 32, 66–72 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grove, G.L., Houghton, B.A., Cochran, J.W., Kress, E.D., Cristofalo, V.J.: Hydrocortisone effects on cell proliferation: specificity of response among various cell types. Cell Biol. Internat. Rep. 1, 147–155 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Guerriero, V. Jr., Florini, J.R.: Stimulation by glucocorticoids of myoblast growth at low cell densities. Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 2, 441–446 (1978).Google Scholar
  45. Guner, M., Freshney, R.I., Morgan, D., Freshney, G., Thomas, D.G.T., Graham, D.I.: Effects of dexamethasone and betamethosane on in vitro cultures from human astro-cytoma. Brit. J. Cancer 35, 439–447 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hackney, J.F., Gross, S.R., Aronsow, L., Pratt, W.B.: Specific glucocorticoid binding ma-cromolecular from mouse fibroblasts growing in vitro. A possible steroid receptor for growth inhibition. Mol. Pharmacol. 6, 500–512 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Harmon, J.M., Norman, M.R., Fowlkes, B.J., Thompson, E.B.: Dexamethasone induces irreversible G1 arrest and death of a human lymphoid cell line. J. Cell. Physiol. 98, 267–278 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Harper, R.A., Grove, G.: Human skin fibroblasts derived from papillary and reticular dermis: differences in growth potential in vitro. Science 204, 526–527 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harvey, W., Grahame, R., Panayi, G.S.: Effect of steroid hormones on human fibroblasts in vitro. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 35, 148–151 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Higgins, S.J., Gehring, L: Molecular mechanisms of steroid hormone action. Adv. Cancer Res. 28, 313–397 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hollenberg, M.: Steroid-stimulated amino acid uptake in cultured human fibroblasts reflects glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory potency. Mol. Pharmacol. 13, 150–160 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Holley, R.W., Kiernan, J.A.: Control of DNA synthesis of 3T3 cells: serum factors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71, 2908–2911 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Horibata, K., Harris, A.W.: Mouse myelomas and lymphomas in culture. Exp. Cell Res. 60, 61–77 (1970).Google Scholar
  54. Iacobelli, S., Ranelletti, F.O., Longo, P., Riccardi, R., Mastrangelo, R.: Discrepancies between in vivo and in vitro effects of glucocorticoids in myelomonocytic leukemic cells with steroid receptors. Cancer Res. 38, 4257–4762 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jensen, E.V., Jacobson, S.: Basic guides to the mechanism of estrogen action. Recent Prog. Hormone Res. 18, 387–414 (1962).Google Scholar
  56. Jones, F.L., Anderson, W.S., Addison, J.: Glucocorticoid induced growth inhibition of cells from human lung alveolar cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 38, 1688–1693 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. King, R.J.B., Kaye, A.M., Shodell, M.J.: Co-purification of an Oestrogen-induced protein from rat uterus and a factor able to stimulate DNA synthesis in cultured cells. Exp. Cell Res. 109, 1–8 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Loeb, J.N.: Corticosteroids and growth. New Engl. J. Med. 295, 547–552 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Maca, R.D., Fry, G.L., Hayes, A.D.: Effects of glucocorticoids on the interaction of lym-phoblastoid cells with human endothelial cells in vitro. Cancer Res. 38, 2224–2228 (1978 a).Google Scholar
  60. Maca, R.D., Fry, G.L., Hoak, J.C.: The effects of glucocorticoids on cultured human endothelial cells. Brit. J. Haemotol. 38, 501–509 (1978 b).Google Scholar
  61. Macieira-Coelho, A.: Action of cortisone on human fibroblasts in vitro. Experientia 22, 390–391 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Martin, J.D., Tomkins, G.M., Granner, D.: Synthesis and induction of tyrosine amino-transferase in synchronized hepatoma cells in culture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 62, 248–255 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Marshall, S., Huang, H.H., Kledzik, G.S., Campbell, C.A., Moites, J.: Glucocorticoid regulation of prolactin receptors in kidneys and adrenals of male rats. Endocrinology 102, 869–875 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McCarty, K.S. Jr., McCarty, K.S. Jr.: Steroid hormone receptors in the regulation of differentiation. Am. J. Pathol. 86, 704–744 (1977).Google Scholar
  65. Mets, T., Korteweg, M., Verdank, G.: Increased Prostaglandin F2 and E2 production in late passage WI-38 diploid fibroblasts. Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 3, 691–694 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Milgrom, E., Atger, M., Baulieu, E.E.: Studies on estrogen entry into uterine cells and on estradiol-receptor complex attachment to the nucleus. Is the entry of estrogen into uterine cells a protein-mediated process? Biochim. Biophys. Acta 320, 267–283 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Millis, A.J.T., Hoyle, M.: Fibroblast-conditioned medium contains cell surface proteins required for cell attachment and spreading. Nature 271, 668–669 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Munck, A., Leung, K.: Glucocorticoid receptors and mechanisms of action. in: Receptors and mechanism of action of steroid hormones. Pasqualini, J.R. (ed.), chap. 2, pp. 311–397. New York: Marcel Dekker 1977.Google Scholar
  69. Neifeld, J.D., Lyman, M.E., Tomey, D.C.: Steroid hormone receptors in normal lymphocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 252, 2972–2977 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Norman, M.R., Harmon, J.M., Thompson, E.B.: Use of a human lymphoid cell line to evaluate interactions between prednisolone and other chemotherapeutic agents. Cancer Res. 38, 4273–4278 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Osborne, CK., Huff, K.H., Bronzert, D., Lippman, M.E.: Direct inhibition of growth and antagonism of insulin action by glucocorticoids in human breast cancer cells in culture. Cancer Res. 39, 2422–2428 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Pinsky, L., Finkelberg, R., Straisfeld, L., Zilaki, B., Kauffman, M., Hull, G.: Testosterone metabolism by serially subcultured fibroblasts from genital and non-genital skin of individual human donors. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 46, 364–369 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pratt, W.B., Aronow, L.: The effect of glucocorticoids on protein and nucleic acid synthesis in mouse fibroblasts growing in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 241, 5244–5250 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Richman, R.A., Claus, T.C., Pilpis, S.J., Friedman, D.L.: Hormonal stimulation of synthesis in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 73, 3589–3593 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rowe, D.W., Starman, B.D., Fugimoto, W.Y., Williams, R.H.: Differences in growth response to hydrocortisone and ascorbic acid by human diploid fibroblasts. In Vitro 13, 824–830 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rudland, P.S., Seifert, W., Gospodarowicz, D.: Growth control in cultured mouse fibroblasts: induction of the pleiotype and mitogenic responses by purified growth factor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71, 2600–2604 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ruhman, A.G., Berliner, D.L.: Effect of steroids on growth of mouse fibroblasts in vitro. Endocrinology 76, 916–927 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Runikis, J.O., McLean, D.I., Stewart, W.D.: Growth rate of cultured human fibroblasts increased by glucocorticoids. J. Invest. Dermatol. 70, 348–351 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Russell, J.D., Russell, S.B., Trupin, K.M.: Differential effects of hydrocortisone on both growth and collagen metabolism of human fibroblasts from normal and keloid tissue. J. Cell Physiol. 97, 221–230 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Saito, E., Mukai, M., Miraki, T., Ichikawa, Y., Humma, M.: Inhibitory effects of cortico-sterone on cell proliferation and steroidogenesis in the mouse adrenal tumor cell line Y-1. Endocrinology 104, 487–492 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sakai, S., Banerjee, M.: Glucocorticoid modulation of prolactin receptors in mammary cells of lactating mice. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 582, 79–88 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Salomon, D.S., Pratt, R.M.: Inhibition of growth in vitro by glucocorticoids in mouse embryonic facial mesenchyme cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 97, 315–327 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sanford, K.K., Earle, W.R., Likely, G.D.: The growth in vitro of single isolated (no line) tissue cells. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 9, 229–246 (1949).Google Scholar
  84. Sato, G., Reid, L.: Replacement of serum in cell culture by hormones. in: Biochemistry and mode of action of hormones II. Rickenberg, H.U. (ed.), vol. 20, pp. 219–251. Baltimore: University Park Press 1978.Google Scholar
  85. Schmit, J.P., Rousseau, G.G.: Structure and conformation of glucocorticoids. in: Glucocorticoid hormone action. Monographs on endocrinology. Baxter, J.D., Rousseau, G.G. (eds.), vol. 12, pp. 79–95. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1979.Google Scholar
  86. Schneider, E.L., Mitsui, Y.O., Au, K.S., Shorr, S.S.: Tissue-specific differences in cultured human diploid fibroblasts. Exp. Cell Res. 108, 1–6 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Schutz, G., Beato, M., Feigelson, P.: Messenger RNA for hepatic tryptophan oxygenase: Its partial purification, its translation in a heterologous cell-free system, and its control by glucocorticoid hormones. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 1218–1221 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Schutz, G., Killewich, L., Chen, G., Feigelson, P.: Control of the mRNA for hepatic tryptophan oxygenase during hormonal substrate induction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72, 1017–1020 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sibley, C.H., Tomkins, G.M.: Isolation of lymphoma cell variants resistant to killing by glucocorticoids. Cell 2, 213–220 (1974).Google Scholar
  90. Sirbasku, D.: Estrogen induction of growth factors specific for hormone-responsive mammary, pituitary and kidney tumor cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75, 3786–3790 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Smith, B., Torday, J.S., Giroud, C.J.P.: The growth promoting effect of cortisol on human fetal lung cells. Steroids 22, 515–524 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smith, K.A., Crabtree, G.R., Kennedy, S.J., Munck, A.U.: Glucocorticoid receptors and glucocorticoid sensitivity of mitogen stimulated and unstimulated human lymphocytes. Nature 267, 523–526 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smith, B.T.: Lung maturation of the fetal rat: acceleration by injection of fibroblast-pneu-monocyte factor. Science 204, 1094–1095 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stevens, J., Stevens, Y.W.: Cortisol-induced lymphocytolysis of P1798 tumor cells in glucose-free, pyruvate-free medium. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 54, 1493–1494 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Stevenson, R.D., Lucie, N.P., Gray, A.C.: Effect of prednisolone on the growth of human bone marrow cells in vitro. Brit. J. Exp. Path. 59, 467–472 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Tashjian, A.H., Osborne, R., Maina, D., Kraian, A.: Hydrocortisone increases the number of receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone on pituitary cells in culture. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 79, 233–340 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Taylor, L., Polgar, P.: Self regulation of growth by human diploid fibroblasts via Prostaglandin production. FEBS. Letters 79, 69–72 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Thompson, E.B., Lippman, M.: Mechanism of action of glucocorticoids. Metabolism 23, 159–202 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Thrall, C, Webster, R.A., Speisberg, T.C.: Receptor interaction with chromatin. in: The cell nucleus. Busch, H. (ed.), vol.3, pp.461–529. New York: Academic Press 1978.Google Scholar
  100. Thrash, C.R., Cunningham, D.D.: Stimulation of division of density inhibited fibroblasts by glucocorticoids. Nature 242, 399–401 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vignon, F., Chan, P., Rochefort, H.: Hormonal regulation in two rat mammary cancer cell lines: glucocorticoid and androgen receptors. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 13, 191–202 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wicks, W.D.: Non-interaction glucocorticoid nucleus activity: molecular events. in: Biochemistry of hormones. Rickenberg, H.V. (ed.), vol.8, p.811. Boston: Union Park (1974).Google Scholar
  103. Wolff, M.E.: Structure-activity relationship in glucocorticoids. in: Glucocorticoid hormone action. Monographs on endocrinology. Baxter, J.D., Rousseau, G.G. (eds.), vol. 12, pp. 97–107. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1979.Google Scholar
  104. Wyche, J.H., Noteboom, W.D.: Requirement of a specific factor for the multiplication of ovarian cells in serum-free medium. Exp. Cell Res. 110, 135–141 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yamamoto, K.R., Alberts, B.M.: Steroid receptors: elements for modulation of eukaryotic transcription. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 45, 721–746 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. J. Cristofalo
  • B. A. Rosner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations