Meningitis and Hydrocephalus

  • R. W. Oberbauer
  • H. Grubbauer
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Neurosurgery book series (NEURO, volume 9)


Association of meningitis and hydrocephalus almost necessarily results in a neurosurgical intervention. Primary meningitis and/or ventriculitis may cause hydrocephalus requiring drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Infections of hydrocephalus already treated by CSF drainage are considered a severe complication and, generally, require surgical revision. In the literature the occurrence of shunt infections varies from 6 to almost 40% and averages 1520% (3, 5, 7, 12, 17, 22).


Catheter Neurol Meningitis Hydrocephalus Staphylococcus 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ascher, P.W., Oberbauer, R.W.: Comparative clinical study of ventricular-cardiac and ventricular-peritoneal shunts. Med. Probl. Paediat. 18, 196–197 (1977)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Black, J.A., Chalacombe, D.N., Ockenden, B.G.: Nephrotic syndrome associated with bacteraemia after shunt operations for hydrocephalus. Lancet 2, 921–924 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bruce, A.M., Lorber, J., Shedden, W.I.M., Zachary, R.B.: Persistent bacteraemia following ventriculo-caval shunt operations for hydrocephalus in infants. Develop. Med. Child. Neurol. 5,461Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coe, J.E., Rivet, J.R., Margest, T.S.: Twin reservoir flushing device for hydrocephalus: Technical note. J. Neurosurg. 26, 357 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fokes, E.C.: Occult infections of ventriculoatrial shunts. J. Neurosurg. 33, 517 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Forrest, D.M., Cooper, D.G.W.: Complications of ventriculoatrial shunts: a review of 455 cases. J. Neurosurg. 29, 506–512 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Holt, R.: Bacteriological studies on colonised ventriculo-atrial shunts. Develop. Med. Child. Neurol. (Suppl. 22) 105Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Holt, R.: The early serological detection of colonisation by staphylococcus epidermis of ventriculo-atrial shunts. Infection 8, 1 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Luthardt, T.: Bacterial infections in ventriculo-auricular shunt-systems. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 22 (Suppl.): 105–109 (1970)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    McLaurin, R.L., Dodson, D.: Infected ventriculo-atrial shunts: some principles of treatment. Develop. Med. Child Neurol. 13, Supp. 25, (1971)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Meadow, R.: Shunt nephritis: renal disease associated with infected ventriculo-atrial shunts. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 15, 83–84 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mori, K., Raimondi, A.J.: An analysis of external ventricular drainage as a treatment for infected shunts. Child's Brain 1, 243–250 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nicholas, J.L., Kamal, I.M., Eckstein, H.B. (1970): Immediate shunt replacement in the treatment of bacterial colonisation of Holter valves. Develop. Med. Child Neurol. 110 (Suppl. 22)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Noona, J.A., Ehmke, D.A.: Complications of ventriculovenous shunts for control of hydrocephalus. Report of three cases with thromb- emboli to the lungs. New Engl. J. Med. 269, 70–74 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nulsen, F.E., Becker, D.P.: Control of hydrocephalus by valve-regulated shunt: Infections and their prevention. Clin. Neurosurg. 14, 256 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ommaya, A.K.: Subcutaneous reservoir and pump for sterile access to ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Lancet 2, 983 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Perrin, J.C.S., McLaurin, R.L.: Infected ventriculoatrial shunts: a method of treatment. J. Neurosurg. 27, 21Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Raimondi, A.J., Matsumoto, S.: A simplified technique for performing the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt: Technical note. J. Neurosurg. 26, 357 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rames, L., Wise, B., Goodman, J.R., Piel, C.F.: Renal disease with Staphylococcus albus bacteraemia: a complication in ventriculoatrial shunts. J.A.M.A. 212, 1671–1677 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rickham, P.P., Penn, I.A.: The place of the ventriculostomy reservoir in the treatment of myelomeningoceles and hydrocephalus: Technical note. J. Neurosurg. 28, 296 (1965)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schimke, R.T., Black, P.H., Mark, V.H., Swartz, M.N.: Indolent staphylococcus albus or aureus bacteremia after ventriculoatrio- stomy. Role of foreign body in its initiation and perpetuation. New Engl. J. Med. 264, 264Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schoenbaum, S.C., Gardner, P., Shillito, J.: Infections of cerebrospinal fluid shunts: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and therapy. Journ. Infect. Dis. 131, 5 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shurtleff, D.B., Foltz, E.L., Weeks, R.D., Loeser, J.: Therapy of staphylococcus epidermidis: Infections associated with cerebrospinal fluid shunts. Pediatrics 53, 1 (1974)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stauffer, U.G.: Shunt nephritis: diffuse glomerulonephritis complicating ventriculo-atrial shunts. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 22, (Suppl.), 161–164 (1970)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Stickler, G.B., Skin, M.M., Burke, E.C., Molley, K.E., Miller, R.M., Segar, W.E.: Diffuse glomerulonephritis associated with infected ventriculo-atrial shunt. N. Engl. J. Med. 279, 1077–1082 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weiss, S.R., Raskind, R.: Further experience with the ventriculoperitoneal shunt: prophylactic antibiotics. Int. Surg. 53, 300–303 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. Oberbauer
  • H. Grubbauer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations