Photons, Molecules, and Lasers

  • Avinoam Ben-Shaul
  • Yehuda Haas
  • Raphael D. Levine
  • Karl Ludwig Kompa
Part of the Springer Series in Chemical Physics book series (CHEMICAL, volume 10)


To make full use of the unique properties of lasers, one needs an understanding of the fundamental principles which govern their operation. In the first two sections of this chapter we provide an introductory discussion, which should be sufficient for most of the applications treated elsewhere in the book. Extensive representations of the subject can be found in various textbooks, to which the reader is referred [3.1–7]. Chapters 4 and 5 require working knowledge of spectroscopic concepts. An overview of the topics important for chemical lasers and laser chemistry is provided in Sect.3.3. Standard monographs should be consulted for detailed and systematic discussions [3.8–14]. A description of some of the more important laser sources used by chemists is given in the last section. In view of the rapid technological developments in the field, quoted specifications should not be considered as a state of the art. Better performances of existing lasers and novel transitions are announced virtually by the day!


Spontaneous Emission Diatomic Molecule Internuclear Distance Population Inversion Polyatomic Molecule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 3.1
    A. Yariv: Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York 1967, 1975)Google Scholar
  2. 3.2
    A. Yariv: Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York 1971)Google Scholar
  3. 3.3
    A.E. Siegman: An Introduction to Lasers and Masers (McGraw-Hill, New York 1968)Google Scholar
  4. 3.4
    O. Svelto: Principles of Lasers (Plenum, New York 1976)Google Scholar
  5. 3.5
    B.A. Lengyel: Lasers, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York 1971)Google Scholar
  6. 3.6
    M. Sargent, III, M.O. Scully, W.E. Lamb, Jr.: Laser Physics (Addison-Wesley, London 1974)Google Scholar
  7. 3.7
    A. Maitland, M.H. Dunn: Laser Physics (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1969)Google Scholar
  8. 3.8a
    G. Herzberg: Atomic Spectra and Atomic Structure (Dover, New York 1944)Google Scholar
  9. 3.8b
    G. Herzberg: Diatomic Molecules, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. I (Van Nostrand, Princeton 1950)Google Scholar
  10. 3.8c
    G. Herzberg: Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. II (Van Nostrand, Princeton 1945)Google Scholar
  11. 3.8d
    G. Herzberg: Electronic Spectra and Electronic Structure of Polyatomic Molecules, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. III (Van Nostrand, Princeton 1966)Google Scholar
  12. 3.9
    I.N. Levine: Quantum Chemistry, Vols. I and II (Allyn and Bacon, Boston 1970)Google Scholar
  13. 3.10
    G.W. King: Spectroscopy and Molecular Structure (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York 1964)Google Scholar
  14. 3.11
    G.M. Barrow: Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York 1962)Google Scholar
  15. 3.12
    M.D. Harmony: Introduction to Molecular Energies and Spectra (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York 1972)Google Scholar
  16. 3.13
    J.I. Steinfeld: Molecules and Radiation; An Introduction to Modern Molecular Spectroscopy (Harper and Row, New York 1974)Google Scholar
  17. 3.14
    E.B. Wilson, Jr., J.C. Decius, P.C. Cross: Molecular Vibrations (McGraw-Hill, New York 1955)Google Scholar
  18. 3.15
    N. Bloembergen: Non Linear Optics (Benjamin, New York 1965)Google Scholar
  19. 3.16
    V.S. Letokhov, V.P. Chebotayev: Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 4 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1977)Google Scholar
  20. 3.17
    G.C. Baldwin: An Introduction to Nonlinear Optics (Plenum, New York 1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 3.18
    P.G. Harper, B.S. Wherret (eds.): Nonlinear Optics (Academic, New York 1977)Google Scholar
  22. 3.19
    G. Emanuel: In Handbook of Chemical Lasers, ed. by R.W.F. Gross, J.F. Bott (Wiley, New York 1976) Chap. 8Google Scholar
  23. 3.20
    V.S. Zuev, V.A. Katulin, V.Y. Nosach, O.Y. Nosach: Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 870 (1972)Google Scholar
  24. 3.21
    J.E. Geusic, H.M. Marcos, L.G. Van Vitert: Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 182 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 3.22
    F.R. Gilmore: J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 5, 369 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 3.23
    C.K.N. Patel: Sci. Am. 219, 22 (Aug. 1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 3.24
    T. Shimanouchi: “Tables of Molecular Vibrational Frequencies”, USRSD,, NBS 39 (1972)Google Scholar
  28. 3.25
    E. Weitz, G.W. Flynn: J. Chem. Phys. 58, 2679 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 3.26
    J.C. Slater: Quantum Theory of Atomic Structure, Vol. I (McGraw-Hill, New York 1960)Google Scholar
  30. 3.27
    W.H. Bennet, C.F. Meyer: Phys. Rev. 32, 888 (1928)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 3.28
    J.D. Louck, H.W. Galbraith: Rev. Mod. Phys. 48, 69 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 3.29
    W.G. Harter, C.W. Patterson, F.J. da Paixao: Rev. Mod. Phys. 50, 37 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 3.30
    J.P. Aldridge, H. Filip, H. Flicker, R.F. Holland, R.S. McDowell, N.G. Nereson: J. Mol. Spectrosc. 58, 165 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 3.31
    J. Moret Bailly: Cah. Phys. 15, 237 (1961);Google Scholar
  35. 3.31a
    J. Moret Bailly: J. Mol. Spectrosc. 15, 344 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 3.32
    For a review, see D.C. Moule, A.D. Walsh: Chem. Rev. 75, 67 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 3.33
    V.A. Job, V. Sethuraman, K.K. Innes: J. Mol. Spectrosc. 30, 365 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 3.34
    P.L. Houston, C.B. Moore: J. Chem. Phys. 65, 757 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 3.35
    F.P. Schäfer (ed.): Dye Lasers, Topics in Appl. Phys., Vol. 1 (2nd ed.) (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1977)Google Scholar
  40. 3.36
    H. Kressel: In Lasers, Vol. 3, ed. by A.K. Levine, A.J. DeMaria (Dekker, New York 1971) p. 1Google Scholar
  41. 3.37
    Y.R. Shen (ed.): Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Topics in Appl. Phys., Vol. 16 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1977)Google Scholar
  42. 3.38
    V.T. Nguyen, T.J. Bridges: In Ref. 3.37, p. 139Google Scholar
  43. 3.38
    S.R.J. Brueck, A. Mooradian: Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 229 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 3.39
    CK. Rhodes (ed.): Excimer Lasers, Topics in Appl. Phys., Vol. 30 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1979)Google Scholar
  45. 3.40
    J.J. Ewing, CA. Brau: Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 350 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 3.41
    J.H. Jacob, M. Rokni, J.A. Mangano, R. Brochu: Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 109 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 3.42
    H. Pummer, K. Hohla, M. Diegelmann, J.P. Reilly: Opt. Commun. 28, 104 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 3.42a
    M. Diegelmann, K. Hohla, K.L. Kompa: Opt. Commun. 29, 334 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 3.42b
    For detailed kinetic modeling see, e.g., H. Pummer, K. Hohla, F. Rebentrost: Appl. Phys. 20, 129 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 3.42c
    W. Chow, K. Hohla, F. Rebentrost: Report PLF 8, Projektgruppe für Laserforschung der MPG Garchfng (1978)Google Scholar
  51. 3.43
    J.R. McDonald, A.P. Baronavski, V.M. Donnelly: Chem. Phys. 33, 161 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 3.44
    P.W. Smith: Opt. Acta 23, 901 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 3.45
    G. Marowsky, R. Condray, F.K. Tittel, W.L. Wilson, C.B. Collins: Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 59 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 3.46
    P.K. Cheo: In Lasers, Vol. 3, ed. by A.K. Levine, A.J. DeMaria (Dekker, New York 1971) p. 111; See alsoGoogle Scholar
  55. 3.46a
    C.K.N. Patel: In Lasers, Vol. 2, ed. by A.K. Levine, A.J. DeMaria (Dekker New York 1971) p. 1Google Scholar
  56. 3.47
    S.D. Smith, W.E. Schmid: Report PLF 7, Projektgruppe für Laserforschung der MPG Garching (1978); See alsoGoogle Scholar
  57. 3.47a
    S.D. Smith, W.E. Schmid, F.M.G. Tablas, K.L. Kompa: In Laser Induced Processes in Molecules, ed. by K.L. Kompa, S.D. Smith (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1978)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avinoam Ben-Shaul
    • 1
  • Yehuda Haas
    • 1
  • Raphael D. Levine
    • 1
  • Karl Ludwig Kompa
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physical ChemistryThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Max-Planck-Institut für LaserforschungGarchingFed. Rep. of Germany

Personalised recommendations