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Disequilibrium

  • Avinoam Ben-Shaul
  • Yehuda Haas
  • Raphael D. Levine
  • Karl Ludwig Kompa
Part of the Springer Series in Chemical Physics book series (CHEMICAL, volume 10)

Abstract

Our concern in this volume is with molecular systems that have been displaced from thermal equilibrium, often to a considerable extent. Lasers and chemical lasers in particular operate because such displacements are feasible and are used, in turn, as means for driving other systems away from equilibrium. The first task is thus to examine those concepts and theoretical constructs of chemical physics that provide the framework for a discussion of disequilibrium on the molecular level. This chapter will center attention on the means for describing the system, means for the characterization of the phenomena in a compact fashion. The need for such a chapter stems from the traditional concern of physical chemistry with the simpler case of systems in thermal equilibrium. When disequilibrium was introduced it was often discussed as a macroscopic phenomenon. An extension of the traditional conceptual machinery is now required. In particular, the two mainstays of physical chemistry, chemical kinetics and chemical thermodynamics, need to be discussed from a molecular or state-to-state point of view.

Keywords

Vibrational Energy Vibrational State Detailed Balance Polyatomic Molecule Vibrational Excitation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avinoam Ben-Shaul
    • 1
  • Yehuda Haas
    • 1
  • Raphael D. Levine
    • 1
  • Karl Ludwig Kompa
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Physical ChemistryThe Hebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Max-Planck-Institut für LaserforschungGarchingFed. Rep. of Germany

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