More than two decades ago, C.D. LaRue (1954) of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA, conceived the idea of culturing pollen (gametophytes) of higher plants in order to explore their growth potential under in vitro conditions. He carried out extensive investigations with the male and female gametophytes of a number of gymnosperms in aseptic media and showed that these were capable of unusual growth by repeated mitotic divisions of the pollen or the ovular nucellus. The nucellar tissue regenerated roots and shoots. In spite of their sporophytic appearance, these structures were haploid. Similar studies with angiosperms, however, did not succeed.


Anther Culture Haploid Plant Triploid Plant Haploid Induction Pollen Division 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Narayanaswamy
  • L. George

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