Nephrotoxicity of Drugs, Evaluated by Renal Enzyme Excretion Studies

Part of the Archives of Toxicology book series (TOXICOLOGY, volume 4)


Via various pathways, urinary enzymatic activities are changed by drugs. Nephrotoxic effects may be determined by such investigations. Numerous experimental series have formed the basis for the clinical application of this method. The pertinent data collected with analgesics and antibiotics, alone or in combinations, are discussed in this paper. The data from the literature were compared with personal investigations, in animals as well as in man. It is concluded that — under certain precautions — the nephrotoxicity of drugs can be evaluated by renal enzyme excretion studies.

Key words

Biochemical studies Enzymes in urine Enzymes in kidney Nephrotoxicity of drugs Analgesics Antibiotics Drug combinations Gentamicin Cefazedone 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beck, P., Thomson, R. B., Chaudhuri, A. K. R.: Aminoglycoside antibiotics and renal function: changes in urinary glutamyltransferase excretion. J. Clin. Path. 30, 432–437 (1977)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burchardt, U., Peters, J. E., Mampel, E.: Zum gegenwärtigen Stand der Harnenzymdiagnostik. Z. Ärztl. Fortbildung 69, 619–624 (1975a)Google Scholar
  3. Burchardt, U., Peters, J. E., Gründig, Chr. A.: Der Einfluß therapeutischer Gentamyzindosen auf die Enzymausscheidung im Harn. Z. Ges. Innere Med. 30, 265–268 (1975b)Google Scholar
  4. Burchardt, U., Schinköthe, G., Müller, G., Neef, L., Krosch, H.: Ausscheidungskinetik von Enzymen und Protein mit dem Harn bei Applikation therapeutischer Gentamyeindosen. Schweiz. Med. Wschr. 108, 1541–1545 (1978)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Luft, F. C., Yum, M. N., Kleit, S. A.: Comparative nephrotoxicities of netilmicin and gentamicin in rats. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 10, 845–849 (1976)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Mondorf, A. W.: Vergleichende Untersuchungen tubulotoxischer Wirkungen von Cephalosporinen und Aminoglykosiden. Schweiz. Med. Wschr. 107, 1639 (1977)Google Scholar
  7. Mondorf, A. W.: Investigations on the potential nephrotoxicity of cefazedone and gentamicin and of their combination, in comparison with the combination of cefazolin and cephalothin with gentamicin. Arzneimittelforsch. 29 (I) 2a, 449–452 (1979)Google Scholar
  8. Plummer, D. T., Leathwood, P. D., Blake, M. E.: Urinary enzymes and kidney damage by aspirin and phenacetin. Chem. Biol Interactions 10, 277–284 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Prescott, L. F.: Effects of acetylsalicylic acid, phenacetin, paracetamol, and caffeine on renal tubular epithelium. Lancet II, 91–96 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Raab, W.: Renal enzyme excretion following analgesics, increased by caffeine. Helv. Med. Acta 35, 290–295 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Raab, W.: Diagnostic value of urinary enzyme determinations. Clin. Chem. 18, 5–25 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Raab, W.: Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Nephrotoxizität einiger Aminoglykosidanti-biotika am Modell der renalen Enzymausscheidung bei Ratten. Adv. Clin. Pharmacol. 15, 91–99 (1978a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Raab, W.: Nephrotoxicity of various aminoglycoside antibiotics, evaluated by renal enzyme excretion studies. Curr. Chemotherapy, Proc. 10th International Congr. Chemother., Zurich, 1977; Vol. 2, 938–939 (1978b)Google Scholar
  14. Raab, W.: Investigations on the action of cefazedone and gentamicin, alone and combined, on renal enzyme excretion in rats. Arzneimittelforsch. 29 (I) 2a, 433–434 (1979)Google Scholar
  15. Raab, W., Moerth, Cl.: Renal enzyme excretion following administration of analgesic and antirheumatic drugs. Acute and chronic experiments. Helv. Med. Acta 37, 73–84 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Raab, W., Moerth, Cl.: Renal effects of gentamicin and cephaloridine. Arzneimittelforschung 26, 377–379 (1976)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Raab, W., Kramar, R., Moerth, Cl.: An experimental study of acute and chronic effects of phenacetin on the rat kidney, using clinical-chemical and biochemical methods. Enzyme 21, 76–84 (1976)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Raab
    • 1
  1. 1.ViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations