Studies of Immune Reactions in Multiple Sclerosis by Active T-Rosette Test, Immunofixation, and Myelinotoxicity of Lymphocytes in the Rabbit Eye

  • H. Link
  • S. Kam-Hansen
  • K. Kristensson
  • M. Laurenzi
  • A. Frydén
  • B. Roström
Conference paper

Abstract

The rapid development of new or improved techniques in immunology has, during the last few years, considerably increased our understanding of the basis of immune reactions and broadened our knowledge regarding the importance and influence of these reactions in human pathology. However, application of new techniques to functional studies of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in MS have hitherto not given any conclusive evidence indicating a derangement in cell-mediated immunity outside the CNS. Efforts to study the function of lymphocytes within the CNS have been hampered by the highly cell-consuming techniques in relation to the low lymphocyte numbers obtainable from CSF and by the increased fragility of these cells. The application of technical modifications and microtechniques has, however, enabled studies of CSF lymphocytes compared with PBL regarding B and T lymphocyte distribution and response on mitogen stimulation. Decreased B and elevated T lymphocyte values in CSF compared with blood have thus been reported [11, 26], and CSF lymphocytes have been shown to be poor or nonreactive to the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM), while PBL proliferate normally on mitogen stimulation [12, 15].

Keywords

Cellulose Migration Filtration Albumin Agar 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bornstein MB (1973) The immunopathology of demyelinative disorders examined in organotypic cultures of mammalian central nervous system tissue. In: Zimmerman HM (ed) Progress in Neuropathology, vol 2. Grune & Stratton, New York, pp 69–90Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brosnan CF, Stoner GL, Bloom BR, Wisniewski HM (1977) Studies on demyelination by activated lymphocytes in the rabbit eye. II. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated demyelination. J Immunol 118:2103–2110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Frydén A (1977) B and T lymphocytes in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in acute aseptic meningitis. Scand J Immunol 6:1283–1288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frydén A, Link H (1978) Mitogen stimulation of cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytes in aseptic meningitis. Acta Neurol Scand 57:8–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frydén A, Link H (1979) Predominance of oligoclonal IgG type lambda in CSF in aseptic meningitis. Arch Neurol 36:478–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frydén A, Link H, Möller E (1978) Demonstration of cerebrospinal fluid sensitized against virus antigens in mumps meningitis. Acta Neurol Scand 57:396–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goust JM, Chenais F, Carnes JE, Harnes CG, Fudenberg HH, Hogan EL (1978) Abnormal T cell subpopulations and circulating immune complexes in the Guillain-Barré syndrome and multiple sclerosis. Neurology (Minneap) 28:421–425Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hashim GA, Lee DH, Pierce JC, Braun GW, Fitzpatrick HF (1978) Myelin basic protein-stimulated rosette-forming T cells in multiple sclerosis. Neurochem Res 3:37–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Johnson KP, Arrigo SC, Nelson BJ, Ginsberg A (1977) Agarose electrophoresis of cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis. Neurology (Minneap) 27:273–277Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kam-Hansen S (1979) Reduced number of active T cells in cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis. Neurology (Minneap) 29:897–899Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kam-Hansen S, Frydén A, Link H (1978) B and T cells in cerebrospinal fluid and blood in multiple sclerosis and acute mumps meningitis. Acta Neurol Scand 58:95–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kam-Hansen S, Link H, Frydén A, Möller E (1979) Reduced in vitro response of CSF lymphocytes to mitogen stimulation in multiple sclerosis. Scand J Immunol 10:161–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kam-Hansen S, Kristensson K, Link H (1979) Observations on the effect of injection of lymphocytes from multiple sclerosis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in the rabbit eye model. J Neurol Sci 42:283–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim SE, Murray MR, Tourtellotte WW, Parker JA (1970) Demonstration in tissue culture of myelinotoxicity in cerebrospinal fluid and brain extracts from multiple sclerosis patients. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 29:420–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kinnman J, Link H, Möller E, Norrby E (1978) Influence of measles virus antigen on leucocyte migration in multiple sclerosis and controls. Acta Neurol Scand 58:148–156Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kristensson K, Wisniewski HM (1977) Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 39:189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Laurenzi M, Link H (1978) Comparison of agarose gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing in the demonstration of oligoclonal immunoglobulins in CSF and serum. Acta Neurol Scand 58:148–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Link H (1967) Immunoglobulin G and low molecular weight proteins in human cerebrospinal fluid. Chemical and immunological characterization with special reference to multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand [Suppl] 43:1–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Link H (1972) Oligoclonal immunoglobulin G in multiple sclerosis brains. J Neurol Sci 16:103–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Link H (1973) Comparison of electrophoresis on agar gel and agarose gel in the evaluation of gammaglobulin abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in multiple sclerosis. Clin Chim Acta 46:383–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Link H, Laurenzi M (1979) Immunoglobulin class and light chain type of oligoclonal bands in CSF in multiple sclerosis determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and immunofixation. Ann Neurol 6:107–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Link H, Müller R (1971) Immunoglobulins in multiple sclerosis and infections of the nervous system. Arch Neurol 25:326–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Link H, Wahren B, Norrby E (1979) Pleocytosis and immunoglobulin changes in cerebrospinal fluid and herpes virus serology in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. J Clin Microbiol 9:305–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Link H, Zettervall O (1970) Multiple sclerosis: disturbed kappa: lambda chain ratio of immunoglobulin G in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Exp Immunol 6:435–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ritchie RF, Smith R (1976) Immunofixation I. General principles and application to agarose gel electrophoresis. Clin Chem 22:497–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sandberg-Wollheim M, Tuesson I (1975) Lymphocyte subpopulations in the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood in patients with multiple sclerosis. Scand J Immunol 4:831–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stendahl-Brodin L, Link H, Kristensson K (1979) Myelinotoxic activity of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with optic neuritis on the tadpole optic nerve. Neurology (Minneap) 29:882–886Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stoner GL, Brosnan CF, Wisniewski HM, Bloom BR (1977) Studies on demyelination by activated lymphocytes in the rabbit eye. I. Effects of a mononuclear cell infiltrate induced by products of activated lymphocytes. J Immunol 118:2094–2102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tabira T, Webster H, Wray S (1976) Multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid produces myelin lesions in tadpole optic nerves. N Engl J Med 295:644–649PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tabira T, Webster H, Wray S (1977) In vivo test for myelinotoxicity of cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Res 120:103–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tibbling G, Link H, Öhman S (1977) Principles of albumin and IgG analyses in neurological disorders. I. Establishment of reference values. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 37:385–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vandvik B (1977) Oligoclonal IgG and free light chains in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and infectious diseases of the central nervous system. Scand J Immunol 6:913–922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vandvik B, Norrby E, Nordal H, Degret N (1976) Oligoclonal measles virus specific IgG antibodies isolated by virus immunoabsorption of cerebrospinal fluids, brain extracts, and sera from patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and multiple sclerosis. Scand J Immunol 5:979–992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wybran J, Fudenberg HH (1973) Thymus-derived rosette-forming cells in various human disease states: Cancer, lymphoma, bacterial and viral infections, and other diseases. J Clin Invest 52:1026–1032PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Link
  • S. Kam-Hansen
  • K. Kristensson
  • M. Laurenzi
  • A. Frydén
  • B. Roström
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity HospitalLinköpingSweden

Personalised recommendations