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Plasmide; Klonierung von Genen (Genetic engineering)

  • Peter von Sengbusch

Zusammenfassung

Plasmide sind zirkulare, extrachromosomale, sich autonom replizierende DNS-Moleküle (genetische Elemente), die in Bakterienzellen zusätzlich zum Bakterienchromosom vorkommen können. Den Begriff „Plasmid“ prägte Lederberg bereits im Jahre 1952. Man kennt eine Reihe von ihnen. Sie unterscheiden sich voneinander durch ihre Größe und damit durch ihren Informationsgehalt, ihre Zahl pro Bakterienzelle, die Regulation ihrer Replikation und teilweise in der Enzymatik des Replikationsapparates. Dire Molekulargewichte schwanken zwischen 1,0 × 106 und etwa 150–170 × 106. Die obere Grenze ist weniger genau festgelegt. Die kleinen Plasmide tragen die genetische Information für zwei durchschnittlich große Proteine, während die großen bis zu 200 und mehr derartige Proteine codieren können.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter von Sengbusch
    • 1
  1. 1.Fakultät für BiologieUniversität BielefeldBielefeld 1Deutschland

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