Advertisement

Psychometric Assessment of Dysfunction in Learning and Memory

  • K. W. Schaie
  • E. Zelinski
Part of the Bayer-Symposium book series (BAYER-SYMP, volume 7)

Abstract

The research literature concerned with the psychometric assessment of older adults, whether well-functioning, or with cognitive impairment due to functional or organic causes, has been oriented primarily around the issue of ability and personality variables (see Schaie and Schaie, 1977a; Schaie, 1979, for recent reviews). Yet it is clear that particularly under circumstances where only a single assessment point is available, information about the current level of function may not suffice for many clinical judgments. Since we ordinarily do not know whether an individual has either declined from a previous level of function or has never performed more successfully than is currently seen, it may be necessary in addition, to obtain concrete evidence on how well a person is going to acquire and retain information. In other words, learning and memory becomes of interest to the clinician not only because of the intrinsic importance of these dimensions, but also because intraindividual differences in learning and memory may help us understand the nature of the individual’s dysfunctions.

Keywords

Free Recall Elderly Subject Semantic Memory Psychometric Assessment Everyday Memory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albert, M.S., Kaplan, E.: Organic deficits implicated by neurophysical testing of the elderly. In: Proceedings of the G.A. Talland Memorical Conference on Memory and Aging. Fozard, J., Poon, L. (eds.). Hillsdale, N.Y.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 1979 (in press)Google Scholar
  2. Arenberg, D.: Input modality and short-term retention in old and young adults. J. Gerontol. 23, 462–465 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bahrick, H.: Maintenance of knowledge over long time periods. In: Age-related differences in human memory. Smith, A.D. (chair). Symposium presented at the 85th Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco 1977Google Scholar
  4. Bahrick, H., Bahrick, P.O., Wittlinger, R.P.: Fifty years of memory for names and facts: A cross-sectional approach. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 104, 54–75 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Botwinick, J., Storandt, M.: Memory, related functions, and age. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas 1974Google Scholar
  6. Bransford, J.D., Franks, J.J.: The Abstraction of linguistic ideas. Cog. Psychol. 2, 331–350 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buschke, H.: Two stages of learning by children and adults. Bull. Psychol. Soc. 2, 392–394 (1974)Google Scholar
  8. Butters, N.: Testing and intervention. Proceedings of the George A. Talland Memorial Conference on Memory and Aging. Fozard, J., Poon, L. (eds.). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 1979 (in press)Google Scholar
  9. Canestrari, R.E.: The effects of commonality on paired-associate learning in two age groups. J. Genet. Psychol. 108, 3–7 (1966)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Canestrari, R.E.: Age changes in acquisition. In: Human aging and behavior. Talland, G.A. (ed.), pp. 169–187. New York: Academic Press 1968Google Scholar
  11. Craik, F.I.M.: Short-term memory and the aging process. In: Human aging and behavior. Talland, G.A. (ed.), pp. 131–168. New York: Academic Press 1968Google Scholar
  12. Craik, F.I.M.: Two components in free recall. J. Verb. Learn. Ver. Beth. 7, 996–1004 (1968b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Craik, F.I.M.: Age differences in recognition memory. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 316–323 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Craik, F.I.M.: Age differences in human memory. In: Handbook of the psychology of aging. Birren, J.E., Schaie, K.W. (eds.), pp. 384–420. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold 1977Google Scholar
  15. Craik, F.I.M., Lockhart, R.S.: Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. J. Verb. Learn. Verb. Beh. 11, 671–684 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Erber, J.T.: Age differences in recognition memory. J. Gerontol. 29, 177–181 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Erickson, R.C., Scott, M.L.: Clinical memory testing: A review. Psychol. Bull., 1130–1149 (1977)Google Scholar
  18. Eysenck, M.W.: Age differences in incidental learning. Dev. Psychol. 10, 936–941 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eysenck, M.W.: Retrieval from semantic memory as a function of age. J. Gerontol. 30, 174–181 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Fozard, J.L., Waugh, N.C.: Proactive inhibition of prompted items. Psychol. Sci. 17, 67–69 (1969)Google Scholar
  21. Gilbert, J.G.: Memory loss in senescence. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 36, 73–86 (1941)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gordon, S.K.: Organization and recall of related sentences by elderly and young adults. Exp. Aging Res. 1, 71–80 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gordon, S.K., Clark, W.C.: Application of signal detection theory to prose recall and recognition in elderly and young adults. J. Gerontol. 29, 64–72 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Harwood, E., Naylor, G.F.K.: Recall and recognition in elderly and young subjects. Aust. J. Psychol. 21, 251–257 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Howell, S.C.: Familiarity and complexity in perceptual recognition. J. Gerontol. 27, 364–371 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hulicka, I.M., Grossman, J.L.: Age group comparisons for the use of mediators in paired associates learning. J. Gerontol. 22, 46–51 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hulicka, I.M., Weiss, R.: Age differences in retention as a function of learning. J. Consult. Psychol. 29, 125–129 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hultsch, D.F.: Adult age differences in the organization of free recall. Dev. Psychol. 1, 673–678 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hultsch, D.F.: Adult age differences in free classification and free recall. Dev. Psychol. 4, 338–342 (1971a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hultsch, D.F.: Organization and memory in adulthood. Hum. Dev. 14, 16–29 (1971b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hurlbut, N.L.: Adult age differences in sentence memory: An investigation of constructive memory. Presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society, 1977Google Scholar
  32. Jones, H.E.: Psychological studies of motion pictures: Observation and recall as a function of age. Univ. Calif. Pub. Psychol. 3, 225–243 (1928)Google Scholar
  33. Kausler, D.H., Lair, C.V.: Associative strength and paired-associate learning in elderly subjects. J. Gerontol. 21, 278–280 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kapnick, P.L.: Relognition memory of verbal material of varying lengths as a function of age. Unpublished Doctorial Dissertation, Washington University, St. Louis, 1971Google Scholar
  35. Kay, H.: Theories of learning and aging. In: Handbook of aging and the individual. Birren, J.E. (ed.), pp. 614–654. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1959Google Scholar
  36. Lair, C.V., Moon, W., Kausler, D.H.: Associative interference in the paird associate learning of middle aged and old subjects. Dev. Psychol. 1, 548–552 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Laurence, M.W.: A developmental look at the usefulness of list categorization as an aid to free recall. Can. J. Psychol. 21, 153–165 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Laurence, M.W., Trotter, M.: Effect of acoustic factors and list organization in multitrial free recall learning of college age and elderly adults. Dev. Psychol. 5, 202–210 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mason, S.E., Smith, A.D.: Imagery in the aged. Exp. Aging Res. 3, 17–32 (1977)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Moenster, P.A.: Learning and memory in relation to age. J. Gerontol. 27, 361–363 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Nebes, R.D.: Verbal-pictorial recoding in the elderly. J. Gerontol. 31, 421–427 (1976)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Nebes, R.D., Andrews-Kulis, M.E.: The effect of age on the speed of sentence formation and incidental learning. Exp. Aging Res. 2, 315–331 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Perlmutter, M.: What is memory aging the aging of? Dev. Psychol. 14, 330–346 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Raymond, B.: Free recall among the aged. Psychol. Rep. 29, 1179–1182 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reese, H.W.: The development of memory: Life-span perspectives. In: Advances in child development and behavior. Reese, H.W. (ed.), Vol. 11, pp. 189–212. New York: Academic Press 1976Google Scholar
  46. Rowe, E.J., Schnore, M.M.: Item concreteness and reported strategies in paired-associate learning as a function of age. J. Gerontol. 26, 470–475 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Rozin, P.: The psychobiological approach to human memory. In: Neurological basis of learning and memory. Rosenzweig, M.R., Bennett, E.L. (eds.), pp. 3–46. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press 1976Google Scholar
  48. Schaie, K.W.: Intelligence and problem solving. In: Handbook of mental health and aging. Birren, J.E., Sloane, R.B. (eds.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979 (in press)Google Scholar
  49. Schaie, J.P., Schaie, K.W.: Psychological evaluation of the cognitively impaired elderly. In: Cognitive and emotional disturbances in the elderly: Clinical issues. Eisdorfer, C., Friedel, R.O. (eds.), pp. 55–73. New York: Year Book Medical 1977aGoogle Scholar
  50. Schaie, K.W., Schaie, J.P.: Clinical assessment and aging. In: Handbook of the psychology of aging. Birren, J.E., Schaie, K.W. (eds.), pp. 692–723. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold 1977bGoogle Scholar
  51. Scheidt, R.J., Schaie, K.W.: A situational taxonomy for the elderly: Generating situational criteria. J. Gerontol. 33, 848–857 (1978)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Schonfield, D.: Memory changes with age. Nature 208, 918 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schonfield, D.: Theoretical advances and practical old questions: The psychology of aging. Can. Psychol. 13, 252–266 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schonfield, D., Robertson, B.A.: Memory storage and aging. Can. J. Psychol. 20, 228–236 (1966)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Smith, A.D.: Adult age differences in cued recall. Dev. Psychol. 13, 326–331 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Squire, L.R., Slater, P.C.: Forgetting in very long-term memory as assessed by an improved questionnaire technique. J. Exp. Psychol. 104, 50–54 (1975)Google Scholar
  57. Taub, H.A.: Mode of presentation, age, and short-term memory. J. Gerontol. 30, 56–59 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Thorndyke, P.W.: Cognitive structures in comprehension and memory of narrative discourse. Cog. Psychol. 9, 77–110 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Thornesbury, C., Lachman, J., Lachman, R.: Age and the feeling of knowing phenomenon. Presented at the 30th annual meeting of the Gerontological Society, 1977Google Scholar
  60. Treat, N.J., Reese, H.W.: Age, pacing, and imagery in paired-associate learning. Dev. Psychol. 12, 119–124 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Thurstone, L.L., Thurstone, T.G.: Examiner Manual for the SRA Primary Mental Abilities Test. Chicago: Science Research Associates 1949Google Scholar
  62. Tulving, E.: Episodic and semantic memory. In: Organization of memory. Tulving, E., Donaldson, W. (eds.), pp. 382–403. New York: Academic Press 1972Google Scholar
  63. Walsh, D.A.: Age differences in learning and memory. In: Aging: Scientific perspectives and social issues. Woodruff, D.S., Birren, J.E. (eds.), pp. 125–151. New York: Van Nostrand Company 1975Google Scholar
  64. Walsh, D.A., Baldwin, M.: Age differences in integrated semantic memory. Dev. Psychol. 13, 509–514 (1977a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Walsh, D.A., Baldwin, M.: Age differences in semantic memory. In: Age-related differences in human memory. Smith, A.D. (chair). Symposium presented at the 85th Annual Meeting of the Am. Psychol. Assoc, San Francisco, 1977bGoogle Scholar
  66. Warrington, E.K., Sanders, H.I.: The fate of old memories. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 23, 432–442 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Warrington, E.K., Silberstein, M.: A questionnaire technique for investigating very long-term memory. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 22, 508–512 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Waugh, N.C., Norman, D.A.: Primary memory. Psychol. Rev. 72, 89–104 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wimer, R.E., Wigdor, B.T.: Age differences in retention of learning. J. Gerontol. 13, 291–295 (1958)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Zaretsky, H., Halberstam, J.L.: Age differences in paired-associate learning. J. Gerontol. 23, 165–168 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Zelinski, E.M.: Integrative recall processes and aging. Unpublished Doctorial Dissertation, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1978Google Scholar
  72. Zelinski, E.M., Benyas, P.F., Thompson, L.W.: Orienting task recall as a function of lifestyle in the elderly. J. Soc. Iss. 1979 (in press)Google Scholar
  73. Zelinski, E.M., King, G., Thompson, L.W.: Orienting task recall in the depressed aged. Presented at the 11th International Congress of Gerontology, Tokyo, 1978Google Scholar
  74. Zelinski, E.M., Walsh, D.A., Thompson, L.W.: Orienting task recall effects on EDR and free recall in three age groups. J. Gerontol. 33, 239–245 (1978)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. W. Schaie
  • E. Zelinski

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations