Advertisement

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Adriani, J.: The pharmacology of anesthetic drugs. 5. Aufl. S. 32, 64, 65, 104, Springfield III.: Ch. C. Thomas 1973Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alvarez, W.C.: An introduction to gastroenterology. 3. Aufl. New York (1941) 280Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alvarez, W.C.: The mechanics of the digestive tract 3. Aua New York (1922) 7 ff.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson, N.: Changes in intragastric pressure following the administration of suxamethonium. Br. J. Anaesth. 34, 363 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson, H.N., May, K.J., Steinmetz, G.P., Ofstun, M., Harrison, H.G., Leyse, R.M., Dillard, D.H.: The lower esophageal intrinsic sphincter and the mechanism of reflux: experimental observations supporting a new concept. Ana Surg. 166, 102 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Appiani, L., Tiengo, M.: Azione anti-acetilcolinica del “Fluothane”. Min. anaesth. 25, 429 (1959)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Babka, L.J., Hager, G.W., Castell, D.O.: The effect of body position on lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Digestive Diseases 18, 441 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bannister, W.K., Sattilaro, A.J.: Vomiting and aspiration during anesthesia. A review. Anesthesiology 23, 251 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bannister, W.K., Sattilaro, A.J., Otis, R.D.: Therapeutic aspects of aspiration Pneumonitis in experimental animals. Anesthesiology 22, 440 (1961)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barth, L., Meyer, M.: Moderne Narkose. 2. Aufl. S. 100, Stuttgart: Fischer (1965)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baumgarten, H.G., Lange, W.: Adrenergic innervation of the Oesophagus in the cat (Felix Domestica) and rhesus monkey (Macacus Rhesus). Z. Zellforsch. 95, 529 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Beiles, B., Picker, S.: The effect of intragastric aluminium hydroxide on lower oesophageal sphincter pressures. S. Afr. Med. J. 46, 1387 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bennett, J.R., Stanciu, C.: The effect of metoclopramide on gastrooesophageal reflux. Postgrad. Med. J. July Suppl. (1973) 65Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berson, W., Adriani, J.: “Silent” regurgitation and aspiration during anesthesia. Anesthesiology 15, 644 (1954)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bettarello, A., Tuttle, S. G., Grossmann, M.I.: Effect of autonomic drugs on gastrooesophageal reflux. Gastroenterology 39, 340 (1960)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Blitt, C.D., Gutman, H.L., Cohen, D., Weisman, H., Dillon, J.B.: “Silent” regurgitation and aspiration during general anaesthesia. Anesth. Anaig. (Cleve) 49, 707 (1970)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bombeck, C.T., Aoki, T., Nyhus, L.M.: Anatomie etiology and operative treatment of peptic esophagitis: An experimental study. Ann. Surg. 165, 752 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bombeck, C.T., Dillard, D.H., Nyhus, L.M.: Muscular anatomy of the gastro-oesophageal junetion and role of phrenoesophageal ligament. Ann. Surg. 164, 643 (1966)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Botha, G.S.M.: Mucosal folds at the cardia as a component of the gastro-oesophageal closing mechnism. Br. J. Surg. 45, 569 (1958)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Botha, G.S.M.: Gastro-oesophageal junetion: clinical applications to esophageal and gastriesurgery. Boston: Little Brown 1962Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bourne, J.G.: Anaesthesia and the vomiting hazard. Anaesthesia 17, 379 (1962)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brand, G., Albert, H., Kothe, W., Walther, J., Splith, G., Nowotny, K., Engel, C.: Elektrische und motorische Aktivität des Magens nach Vagotomie und während elektrischer Vagusreizung beim narkotisierten Hund. Zschr. inn. Med. 27, 464 (1972)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brand, W.: Die Innervation des Magens. F. Ang. Anat. 5, 302 (1920)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Burn, H.J., Epstein, H.G.: Hypotension due to Halothan. Br. J. Anaesth. 31, 199 (1959)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Butterfield, G.D., Struthers, J.E., Showalter, Ph.: A test of gastro-oesophageal sphincter competence. The common cavity test Dig. Dis. 17, 415 (1972)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Callum, Mc.R., Kline, M., Curry, N., Sturdevant, R.: Comparative effects of metoclopramide and urecholine on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in reflux patients. Gastroenterology 66, 742 (1974)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cameron, J.L., Zuidema, G.D.: Aspiration pneumonia: Magnitude and frequency of the problem. J. Amer. Med. Ass. 219, 1194 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carson, I.W., Moore, J., Balmer, J.P., Dundee, J.W., Nabb, Mc., T.G.: Laryngeal competence with ketamine and other drugs. Anesthesiology 38, 128 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Castell, D.O., Harris, L.D.: Hormonal control of gastrooesophageal-sphincter strength. N. Engl. J. Med. 282, 886 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Clarke, S.D., Penry, J.B., Ward, P.: Oesophageal reflux after abdominal vagotomy. Lancet 2, 824 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Clifton, B.S., Hotten, W.I.T.: Deaths associated with anaesthesia. Br. J. Anaesth. 35, 250 (1963)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Code, C.F., Creamer, B., Schlegel, J.F., Olsen, A.M., Donoghue, F. E., Andersen, H.A.: An atlas of esophageal motility in health and disease. 1. Aufl S. 65, 80, 105 Springfield III: Ch. C. Thomas (1958)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Code, C.F., Schlegel, J.F.: The pressure profile of the gastro-oesophageal sphincter in man: an improved method of dedection. Proc. Mayo. Clin. 33, 406 (1958)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cohen, S., Harris, L.D.: The adaptive response of the lower esophageal sphincter. Clinical Research 17, 300 (1969)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cohen, S., Harris, L.D.: Lower esophageal sphincter pressure as an index of lower esophageal sphincter strength. Gastroenterology 58, 157 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cohen, S., Harris, L.D.: Does hiatus hernia effect competence of the gastro-oesophageal sphincter? N. Engl J. Med. 284, 1053 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cohen, S., Harris, L.D.: The lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 63, 1066 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cohen, S., Lipschutz, W.: Hormonal regulation of human lower esophageal sphincter competence: interaction of gastrin and secretin. J. Clin. Invest. 50, 449 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Crawford, J.S.: The anaesthetist’s contribution to maternal mortality. Br. J. Anaesth. 42, 70 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Crispin, J.S., Mc Iver, D.K., Lind, J.F.: Manometric study of the effect of vagotomy on the gastrooesophageal sphincter. Canad. J. Surg. 10, 299 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Culver, G.A., Makel, H.P., Beecher, H.K.: Frequency of aspiration of gastric contents during anesthesia and surgery. Ann. Surg. 133, 289 (1951)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Demos, N.B., Timmes, J.J., Ri Bianco, J.: Experimental study of a new Operation for the treatment of reflux esophagitis. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 54, 832 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dennish, G.W., Castell, D.O.: Inhibitory effect of smoking on the lower esophageal sphincter. N. Engl J. Med. 284, 1136 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dick, W., Hofmann, S.: Der Einfluß von Dehydrobenzperidol, Fentanyl und Ketamine auf die Darmmotilität bei Hundesäuglingen. Anaesthesist 19, 205 (1960)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dilaward, J.B., Misiwicz, J.J.: Action of oral metoclopramide on the gastro-oesophageal junction in man. Gut 14, 380 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Dillard, D.H., Anderson, H.N.: A new concept of the mechanism of sphincteric failure in sliding esophageal hiatal hernia. Surg. GynecoL Obstet. 122, 1030 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Dilaward, J.B., Misiwicz, J.J.: Does oral-metoclopramide increase cardiac sphincter pressure? The Britisch Society of Gastroenterology, VoL 6/856 (1973)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dines, D.E., Baker, W.G., Scantland, W.A.: Aspiration Pneumonitis - Mendelsonssyndrome. J. Amer. Med. Ass. 176, 229 (1961)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dinnick, O.P.: Hiatus hernia - an anaesthetic hazard. Lancet 1, 470 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dinnick, O.P.: Death associated with anaesthesia. Observation on 600 cases. J. Amer. Med. Ass. 176, 229 (1961)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Domschke, W., Lux, G., Mitznegg, P., Rösch, W., Domschke, S., Bloom, S.R., Wünsch, E., Demling, L.: Endogenous motilin and lower esophageal sphincter pressure in man: Clue to an Association. Acta Hepato-Gastroenterol. 23, 274 (1976)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Doenicke, A.: Muskelrelaxantien. In: Lehrbuch der Anaesthesiologie und Wiederbelebung. Frey, R., Hügin, W., Mayrhofer, O., (Hrsg.) 2. Aufl. S. 151, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1971Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Douma, J.H., Laros, C.D.: A device for platting volume pressure curves of esophageal ballons in situ in a clinic set up. Bull Physio. Path. resp. 7, 215 (1971)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dowdy, E.G., Kaya, K.: Studies of the mechanism of cardiovascular responses to CJ-581. Anaesthesiologyh 29, 931 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Earlam, R.J., Schlegel, J.F., Ellis, F.H. jr.: Effect of ischemia of lower esophagus and esophagastric junction on canine esophageal motor function. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 54, 822 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Edwards, D.A.W.: Sphincter mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract. Am. J. Dig. Dis. 12, 267 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Edwards, G., Morton, H.J.V., Pask, E.A., Wylie, W.D.: Death associated with anaesthesia report on 1000 cases. Anaesthesia 11, 194 (1956)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Elebute, E., Kelley, M.L., Schwartz, S.I.: Pressure effects of transabdominal supradiaphragmatic vagotomy on the inferior esophageal sphincter of dogs. Surg. GynecoL Obstet. 123, 326 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    El-Hawary, M.B., Mossad, B., El-Wahed, A.S., Tolba, H.M.: Effect of Ketamine hydrochloride on the tracheobronchial tree. M. E. J. Anaesth. 3, 445 (1972)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Elliot, C.J.R.: A study in regurgitation. Anaesthesia 18, 324 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Farrell, R.L., Roling, G.T., Cristell, D.O.: Cholinergic therapy of chronic heartburn. A controlled trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 80, 573 (1974)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Farrell, R.L., Roling, G.T., Castell, D.O.: Stimulation of the incompetent lower esophageal sphincter. A possible advance in therapy of heartburn. Dig. Dis. 18, 646 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Förster, Ch.F., Weihrauch, T.R.: Diagnostik bei Hiatushernie und Refluxkrankheit. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 101, 824 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Frey, R., Hügin, W., Mayrhofer, O.: Lehrbuch der Anaesthesiologie, Reanimation und Intensivtherapie. 3. Aufl. S. 124, 132, 133, 159, 160, 162, 279, 521. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1973Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fyke, F.E., Code, Ch.F., Schlegel, J.F.: The gastrooesophageal sphincter in healthy human beings. Gastroenterology 86, 135 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gardner, A.M.N.: Aspiration of food and vomit. Quart J. Med. 27, 227 (1958)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gauer, O.H., Gienapp, E.: A miniature pressure-recording device. Science 112, 404 (1950)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chemiewerk Homburg: Gastroenterologische Akzente - Chemiewerk Homburg Nr. 11 (1974) Die Gastrin StoryGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Giles, R., Mason, M.C., Humphries, C., Clark, C.G.: Action of Gastrin in the lower oesophageal sphincter in man. GUT 10, 730 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Giles, G.R., Roszkowski, A.: Der Einfluß von Hormonen auf den unteren Oesophagussphincter beim Menschen. In: Refluxkrankheiten der Speiseröhre. S. 21. Otteqann, R. (Hrsg.), Baden-Baden, Brüssel: Witzstrock 1973Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Goldberg, H.M., Lond, M.B.: Role of the fundus in prevention of gastrooesophageal regurgitation. Lancet 1, 613 (1960)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71a.
    Golenhofen, R., Weiser, F.: Persönliche Mitteilung 1976Google Scholar
  73. 72.
    Gonnermann, B.J.: Beeinflussung der Drucke und der Motilität des Intestinaltraktes durch Plexus-Solaris-Blockade beim Hund. Diss. Mainz (1974) 16-17Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Goodman, L.S., Gilman, A.: The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 4. Aufl. S. 85, 93-96, 245, 606–616. London, New York, Toronto: Macmillan 1970Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    Goyal, R.K., Rattan, S.: Mechanism of the lower esophageal sphincter relaxation: Action of Postaglandin El and Theophylline. J. Clin. Invest. 52, 337 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Graff, T.H.D., Phillips, O.C., Benson, D.W., Kelley, E.: Baltimore anaesthesia study committee: Factors in pediatric anaesthesia mortality. Anesth. Anaig. (Cleve) 43, 407 (1964)Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    Grechiskins, L.L.: Effects of some central neurotropic agents to nondigestive gastric motor activity. FarmakoL i. Toksikol. 26, 36 (1963)Google Scholar
  78. 77.
    Greenan, J.: The cardio oesophageal junetion. Br. J. Anaesth. 33, 432 (1961)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Greenwood, R.K., Schlegel, J.F., Code, C.F., Ellis, F.H.: The effect of sympathectomy, vagotomy and oesophageal interruption on the canine gastrooesophageal sphincter. Thorax 17, 310 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Grossmann, M.J.: What is physiological? Gastroenterology 65, 994 (1973)Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    Grossmann, M.J.: What is physiological? Gastroenterology 66, 766 (1974)Google Scholar
  82. 81.
    Habibulla, K.S., Ellis, F.H., Leighs, J.: Intraluminal pressure, transmucosal potential difference and pH-studies in the Oesophagus of patients before and after Collis repair of a hiatal hernia. Thorax 28, 342 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Haddad, J.K.: Relation of gastro-oesophageal reflux to yeld sphincter pressures. Gastroenterology 58, 175 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Hall, A.W., Moossa, A.R., Clark, J., Cooley, C.R., Skinner, B.D.: The effects of premedikation drugs on the lower oesophageal high pressure zone and reflux status of rhesus monkeys and man. GUT 16, 347 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Harris, L.D., Pope II, Ch.E.: “Squeeze” vs. resistance: an evaluation of mechanism of sphincter competence. J. Clin. Invest. 43, 2272 (1964)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Harris, L.D., Winans, Ch.S., Pope II, Ch.E.: Determination of yield pressures: a method for measuring anal sphincter competence. Gastroenterology 50, 754 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Haussmann, W., Lunt, R.L.: Problem of the treatment of peptic aspiration pneumonia following obstetric anesthesia (Mendelson’s Syndrome). J. Obstet Gynecol. Br. Commonw. 62, 509 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Heitmann, P.: Der gastro-oesophageale Verschlußmechanismus bei Hiatusgleithernien. Internist 10, 249 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Heitmann, P.: Die funktionellen Grundlagen des gastro-oesophagealen Refluxes bei Hiatushernien. In: Refluxkrankheiten der Speiseröhre. S. 29, Otteqann, R. (Hrsg.), Baden-Baden, Brüssel: Witzstrock 1973Google Scholar
  90. 89.
    Heitmann, P., Möller, N.: The effect of metoclopramide on the gastrooesophageal junctional zone and the distale Oesophagus in man. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 5, 621 (1970)Google Scholar
  91. 90.
    Heitmann, P., Möller, N.: Intraluminale Druckmessungen an der gastrooesophagealen Übergangszone und am distalen Oesophagus bei gesunden Erwachsenen. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 95, 1963 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Henschel, W.F.: Die Neuroleptanalgesie. In: Lehrbuch der Anaesthesiologie und Wiederbelebung. S. 277. Frey, R., Hügin, W., Mayrhofer, O. (Hrsg.), 2. Aufl. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1971Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Hensel, I., Braun, U., Kettler, D., Knoll, D., Martel, J., Paschen, K.: Untersuchungen über Kreislauf und Stoffwechselveränderungen unter Ketamine-Narkose. Anaesthesist 21, 44 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Hensel, I., Braun, U., Kettler, D., Knoll, D., Martel, J., Paschen, K., Bretschneider, H.J.: Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen zur Frage der Katecholaminaktivität unter Ketaminnarkose. Anaesthesiologie und Wiederbelebung 69, 63 (1973)Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    Higgs, B., Ellis, F.H.: The effect of bilateral supranodosal vagotomy on canine esophageal function. Surgery 58, 826 (1965)Google Scholar
  96. 95.
    Hilloowala, R.A.: Double intubation technique to prevent aspiration. J. Natl. Med. Assoc. 63, 283 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Hookmann, P., Fleischer, J.: Cholinergic alteration of lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Gastroenterology 56, 1169 (1969)Google Scholar
  98. 97.
    Imdahl, H.: Der terminale Oesophagus. 1. Aufl. S. 24, Stuttgart, New York: Schattauer 1963Google Scholar
  99. 98.
    Imdahl, H.: Erworbene Hiatusbrüche, Refluxerkrankungen und Therapiet. Med. Welt 25, 841, 906 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Ingelfinger, F.J.: The sphincter, that is a sphinxt. N. Engl J. Med. 284, 1095 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Ingelfinger, F.J.: Esophageal motüity. Physiol. Rev. 38, 533 (1958)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Jakob, G., Niemann, H.: Oesophagomanometrische Befunde beim Mensch nach intravenöser Gabe eines Spasmolytikums. Aizneim. Forschung 22, 1499 (1972)Google Scholar
  103. 102.
    r Jennewein, H.M., Bauer, R., Hummelt, H., Lepsin, G., Siewert, R., Waldeck, F.: Motilin effects on gastrointestinal motility and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure in dogs. Scand. J. Gastroenterol 11, Suppl. 39, 63–65 (1976)Google Scholar
  104. 103.
    Jennewein, H.M., Siewert, R., Waldeck, F., Weiser, F.: Zur Beeinflussung des unteren Oesophagussphincters von Mensch und Hund durch Caerulein. Dtsch. Med. Wschr. 98, 322 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Jennewein, H.M., Waldeck, F.: Oesophagusmanometrie mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Pharmakologie des unteren Oesophagussphinkters. Anaesthesiologisches Colloquium, Mainz, 22. Oktober 1975Google Scholar
  106. 105.
    Jennewein, H.M., Waldeck, F.: Pharmakologie des unteren Oesophagussphinkters. In: Funktionsstörungen der Speiseröhre. S. 53. Siewert, R., Blum, A.L., Waldeck, F. (Hrsg.), Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1976Google Scholar
  107. 106.
    Jennewein, H.M., Waldeck, F., Prabl, K.: Zur Beeinflussung des unteren Oesophagussphinkters durch gastrointestinale Hormone beim Hund. Leber, Magen, Darm 2, 17 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Jennewein, H.M., Waldeck, F., Siewert, R., Weiser, F.: The effect of gastrointestinal hormones on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in man and dog. In: Function of the esophagus. Stensen, H.R., Jepsen, O., Pedersen, S.A. (Hrsg.), Odense: University Press 1973Google Scholar
  109. 108.
    Jennewein, H.M., Waldeck, F., Siewert, R., Weiser, F., Thimm, R.: The interaction of glucagon and petagastrin on the lower oesophageal sphincter in man and dog. GUT 14, 861 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Johnson, H.: Pulmonary aspiration of gastric acid: Mendelson Syndrome. J. Amer. Med. Ass. 179, 900 (1962)Google Scholar
  111. 110.
    Johnson, L.F., Demeester, T.R.: Twenty four-hour pH monitoring of the distal esophagus. Am. J. Gastroenterol 62, 325 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Kantrowitz, P.A., Siegel, C.J., Strong, M.J., Hendrix, T.R.: Response of the human Oesophagus to d-tubocurarine and atropine. GUT 11, 47 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Karas, L.M., Stern, H., Bloom, D., Binder, H.J., Pondexter, R., Thayer, W., Spiro, H.M.: The gastrooesophageal junetion in the monkey and its relation to reflux. J. Surg. Res. 6, 469 (1966)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Kaye, M.D., Mrcp.M.A.Dm.: Dysfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter in disorders other than achalasia. Digestive Diseases 18, 734 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Kaye, M.D., Showalter, J.P.: Normal deglutitive responses of the human lower oesophageal sphincter. GUT 13, 352 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Kawaja, A.A.: A rapid intubation technique for prevention of aspiration during induetion of anesthesia. Br. J. Anaesth. 43, 980 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Kim, K.Y.: Influence of changes of pH on intestinal motility. J. Korean. Surg. Soc. 4, 397 (1962)Google Scholar
  118. 117.
    Kopriva, C.J., Eltringham, R.J., Siebert, P.E.: A comparsion of the effekts of intravenous innovar and topical spray on the laryngeal colsure reflex. Anesthesiology 40, 597 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 118.
    Kralik, J.: Die Physiologie und Pathophysiologie der Speiseröhre im Bild der Manometrie. Wien. Klin. Wschr. 81, 857 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Krebs, R., Kersting, F.: Zur Ursache der haemodynamischen Nebenwirkungen einiger Narkotika. Anaesthesist 21, 153 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 120.
    Krebs, R.: Die Pharmakologie von Dehydrobenzperidol und Fentanyl. In: Die Neuroleptanalgesie. Bilanz einer Methode. S 11–17. Rügheimer, E., Heitmann, D. (Hrsg.), Stuttgart: Thieme 1975Google Scholar
  122. 121.
    Kreuscher, H.: Ethrane. Neue Ergebnisse in Forschung und Klinik. 1. Aufl. S. 12, 73, 76, Stuttgart, New York: Schattauer 1975Google Scholar
  123. 122.
    Kreuscher, H.: Ketamine. In: Lehrbuch der Anaesthesiologie und Wiederbelebung. 2. Aufl., S. 280. Frey, R., Hügin, W., Meyrhofer, O. (Hrsg.), Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1971Google Scholar
  124. 123.
    Kunath, U.: Ein neues Verfahren zur Druckmessung in Sphinkterzonen und im Speiseröhrenverschluß segment. Münch. Med. Wschr. 117, 809 (1975)Google Scholar
  125. 124.
    Kuschinsky, G., Lüllmann, H.: Kurzes Lehrbuch der Pharmakologie. 6. Aufl. S 1–43, Stuttgart: Thieme 1974Google Scholar
  126. 125.
    Larrain, O., Uribe, P., Wunkhaus, R.: Evalucation manometrica de la accion de la metoclopramide en pacientes portadores de reflujo gastrooesofagio. Rev. Med. Chile 101, 129 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 126.
    Lehmann, C.: Das Ultrakurznarkotikum Methohexital. Anaesthesiologie und Wiederbelebung, Bd. 57, S. 38, 43, 47, 90, Springer 1972Google Scholar
  128. 127.
    Leighton, K.M., Koth, B.: Some aspects of the clinical pharmacology of nitrous oxide. Can. Anaesth. Soc. J. 20, 94 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 128.
    Lester, C.M. et al. : Aspiration of gastric contents during anesthesia. New York State J. Med. 1, 1783 (1965)Google Scholar
  130. 129.
    Liebchen, G.: Die Wirkung der intravenösen Narkotika Etomidate, Propanidid, Methohexital und der Inhalationsnarkotika Lachgas, Halothan und Ethrane auf den unteren Oesophagussphinkter (Untersuchungen zum Problem der Regurgitation unter Narkosebedingungen). Diss. Heidelberg (1975)Google Scholar
  131. 130.
    Lincoln, M.W.: Aspiration of gastric contents under anesthesia. Calif. Med. 87, 403 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    Lind, J.F., Crispin, J.S., Mc.Iver, D.K.: The effect of atropine on the gastro-esophageal sphincter. Cand. J. Phys. Pharm. 46, 233 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    Lind, J.F., Warrian, W.G., Wankling, W.J.: Responses of the gastroesophageal junctional zone to increases in abdominal pressure. Canad. J. Surg. 9, 32 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    Lind, J.F., Cotton, D.J., Blanchard, R., Crispin, J.S., Dimopolos, G.E.: Effect of the thoracic displacement and vagotomy on the canine gastroesophageal junctional zone. Gastroenterology 56, 1078 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Lipschutz, W.H., Gaskins, R.D., Lukash, W.M., Sode, J.: Pathogenesis of lower esophageal sphincter incompetence. N. Engl. J. Med. 289, 182 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 135.
    Lorenz, W., Doenicke, A.: Biochemie und Pharmakologie der Histaminfreisetzung durch intravenöse Narkosemittel und Muskelrelaxantien. In: Intravenöse Narkose mit Propanidid. Zindler, M., Yamamura, H., Wirth, W. (.Hrsg.), Anaesthesiologie und Wiederbelebung, Bd. 74, S. 199. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1974Google Scholar
  137. 136.
    Mc Laurin, C.: The intrinsic sphincter in the prevention of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Lancet 2, 801 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 137.
    Mann, C.V., Greenwood, R.K., Ellis, F.H. jr.: The esophagastric junetion. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 118, 853 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 138.
    Marchand, P.: The gastroesophageal sphincter and mechanism of regurgitation. Br. J. Surg. 42, 504 (1955)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 139.
    Marchand, P.: A study of the forces productive of gastroesophageal regurgitation and herniation through the diaphragmatic hiatus. Thorax 12, 189 (1957)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 140.
    Marshall, B.M., Gordon, R.A.: Vomiting, regurgitation and aspiration in anaesthesia. Can. Anaesth. Soc. J. 5, 438 (1958)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 141.
    Marshall, F.N., Pittinger, C.B., Long, J.P.: Effects of halothane on gastrointestinal motility. Anesthesiology 22, 363 (1961)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 142.
    Mazur, J.M., David, B., Skinner, D.B., Jones, E.L., Zuidema, G.D.: Effect of transabdominal vagotomy on the human gastroesophageal high-pressure zonet. Surgery 73, 818 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 143.
    Mendelson, C.L.: The aspiration of stomach contents into the lungs during obstetric anaesthesia. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 52, 191 (1946)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 144.
    Menges, E., Cardan, E., Ejeilat, S.: Selective bronchial lavage in Mendelson’s Syndrome. Anaesthesist 21, 245 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 145.
    Meyer-Burgdorff, Ch., Seidel, G., Stoffregen, J.: Anaphylaktoide Reaktionen in Narkose. Abstracts: Gemeins. Tagung der deutsch, schweizer, u. oesterr. Ges. für Anaesthesiologie, Linz (1973) 182Google Scholar
  147. 146.
    Miller, R.D.: Inhibition of succinylcholine - induced intragastric pressure by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants - Abstracts of Scientific Papers, Am. Soc. of Anesthesiologists, Annual Meeting (1969)Google Scholar
  148. 147.
    Miesiwicz, J.J.: Symposium of gastroesophageal Reflux and its complications. GUT 14, 243 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 148.
    Montel, H., Starke, K., Schumann, H.J.: Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen zum Mechanismus der Pulsfrequenz und blutdrucksteigernden Wirkung des Ketamins. Anaesthesiologie und Wiederbelebung 69, 77 (1973)Google Scholar
  150. 149.
    Morton, H.J.V., Wylie, W.D.: Anaesthetic deaths due to regurgitation or vomiting. Anaesthesia 6, 190 (1951)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 150.
    Moore, J.L., Fräser, J.G.: The füll stomach. J. Natl. Med. Ass. 63, 16 (1971)Google Scholar
  152. 151.
    O’Mullane, E.J.: Vomiting and regurgitation during anaesthesia. Lancet 1, 1209 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 152.
    Müller, G.: Funktionelle Anatomie des Oesophagus und seiner Übergänge. In: Funktionsstörungen der Speiseröhre. S. 3. Siewert, R., Blum, A.L., Waldeck, F. (Hrsg.), Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1976Google Scholar
  154. 153.
    Nebel, O.T., Castell, D.O.: Lower esophageal sphincter pressure changes after food ingestition. Gastroentrology 63, 778 (1972)Google Scholar
  155. 154.
    Niemann, H., Jakob, G.: Die Testung von Spasmolytika mittels der Oesophagusmanometrie beim Menschen. Arzneim. Forsch. 21, 1217 (1971)Google Scholar
  156. 155.
    Niemann, H., Jakob, G.: Oesophagomanometrische Befunde beim Menschen nach intravenöser Applikation eines neuen Cholinolytikums (H Sp 2986), von Atropin und Scopolaminbutylbromid. Arzneim. Forsch. 21, 1220 (1971)Google Scholar
  157. 156.
    Nueten van, J.M.: Etomidate, a short non barbiturate hypnotic. Study on cardiac tissues and on smooth muscle preparatiöns in vitro. Janssen Research products information service, serial number: R 26 490/6 (1974) 3-10Google Scholar
  158. 157.
    Olsen, A.M., Schlegel, J.F., Payne, W.S.: The hypotensive gastroesophageal sphincter. Mayo Clin. Proc. 48, 1965 (1973)Google Scholar
  159. 158.
    Pedersen, S.A., Nielsen, P.A., Soerensen, H.R.: The effect of atropine and hexamethonium in combination on the LES. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. Suppl. 9, 43 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 159.
    Peiper, H.J., Siewert, J.R.: Aktuelle Aspekte in der Chirurgie der Hiatusherniet. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 98, 1131 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 160.
    Peskett, W.G.: Antacide before obstetric anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 28, 509 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 161.
    Peters, P.M.: Closure mechanism of the cardia with special reference to the diaphragmaticoesophageal elatic ligament. Thorax 10, 27 (1955)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 162.
    Pope, C.E.: A dynamic test of sphincter strength; its application to the lower esophageal sphincter. Gastroenterology 52, 799 (1967)Google Scholar
  164. 163.
    Raymond, L., Parrell, L., Roling, G.T., Castell, D.O.: Stimulation of the incompetent lower esophageal sphincter. A possible advance in therapie of heartburn. Disgestive Diseases 18, 646 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 164.
    Reicherts, M.: Druckverhalten im distalen Oesophagus, unteren Oesophagussphinkter und Magen unter Einwirkung von Inhalationsanaesthetika, intravenösen Anaesthetika und Muskelrelaxantien. Diss. Mainz (1976)Google Scholar
  166. 165.
    Richman, H., Abrahamson, S.F.: Mendelson’s Syndrome, diagnosis, therapy and prevention. Am. J. Surg. 120, 531 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 166.
    Rinaldo, J.A., Levey, J.F.: Corelation of several methods for recording esophageal sphincteral pressures. Am. Jur. of Digestive Diseases 13, 882 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 167.
    Roberts, R.B., Shirley, M.A.: Reducing the risk of acid aspiration during cesarean section. Anesth. Anaig. (Cleve) 53, 859 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 168.
    Robson, J.G., Welt, P.: Regurgitation in anaesthesia: a report on some exploratory work with animals. Can. Anaesth. Soc. J. 6, 4 (1959)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 169.
    Roe, R.B.: The effect of suxamethonium on intragastric pressure. Anaesthesia 17, 179 (1962)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 170.
    Roggenkämper, R., Wilckens, I.: Vergleichende Untersuchungen des Brenzkatecholaminspiegels bei der Anwendung von Methohexital und Thiopental. In: Das Ultrakurznarkotikum Methohexital. Lehmann, Ch. (Hrsg.), Anaesthesiologie und Wiederbelebung Bd. 57, S. 43. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  172. 171.
    Roling, G.T., Burke, E.L., Castell, D.O., Egelston, T.A.: The esophago-gastric junetion as evaluated by gastroscopy, esophageal manometry, and roentgenology. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 18, 63 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 172.
    Roman, C.: Die nervöse Kontrolle der Oesophagusmotilität. In: Funktionsstörungen der Speiseröhre. S. 42. Siewert, R., Blum, A.L., Waldeck, F. (Hrsg.), Berlin, Heidelberg. New York: Springer 1976Google Scholar
  174. 173.
    Rosetti, M.: Die Refluxkrankheit des Oesophagus. S. 19. Stuttgart: Hippokrates 1966Google Scholar
  175. 174.
    Rosetti, M.: Anatomie und Physiologie der Cardia. S. 19. Stuttgart: Hippokrates 1966Google Scholar
  176. 175.
    Ruggerini, R.: The interference with intestinal motor activity by preanesthetic and general anesthetic agents. Min. Anesth. 34, 363 (1968)Google Scholar
  177. 176.
    Salem, M.R., Sellick, B.A., Elam, J.O.: The historical background of cricoid pressure in anesthesia and resuscitation. Anesth. Anaig. (Cleve) 53, 230 (1974)Google Scholar
  178. 177.
    Salem, M.R., Wong, A.Y., Collins, V.J.: The pediatric patient with the füll stomach. Anesthesiology 39, 435 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 178.
    Slater, R.H.: Lower oesophageal sphincter therapeutic implications. Lancet 1, 347 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 179.
    Säuberli, H., Meyer, V.: Oesophagusmanometriet. Therapeutische Umschau 30, 831 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 180.
    Saxena, P.R., Bonta, I.L.: Specific blockade of cardiac muscarinic reeeptors by paneuronium bromide. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 189, 411 (1971)Google Scholar
  182. 181.
    Schulz, H.: Die Beeinflussung des intraluminalen Druckes im distalen Oesophagus, unteren Oesophagussphinkter und Magen durch Praemedikationssubstanzen. Diss. Mainz (1976)Google Scholar
  183. 182.
    Sehhati, Gh., Frey, R., Reicherts, M., Schulz, H.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Wirkung von N20/02-Halothan im distalen Oesophagus, UÖS und Magen. Der Anaesthesist (in Druck)Google Scholar
  184. 183.
    Sehhati, Gh., Frey, R., Bisdorf, J., Bisdorf, S.: Les effets de l’atropine des anesthésiques inhalatores usuels et des relaxants sur le sphincter du bas oesophage. Chiers D’Anesthésiologie Tome 25 No I, 93–99 (1977)Google Scholar
  185. 184.
    Sehhati, Gh., Gerbershagen, H.U., Frey, R.: Refluxbegünstigung durch Inhalationsnarkotica - Halothan bei nicht leerem Magen. In: 20 Jahre Fluothane. Kirchner, E.: Anaesthesiologie und Intensivmedizin, Bd. 109. S. 252. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1978Google Scholar
  186. 185.
    Sehhati, Gh., Frey, R., Gerbershagen, H.U., Reicherts, M., Schulz, H.: Influence of i.v.-narcotics of the lower esophageal sphincter as a Regurgitationsbarrier. International Congress on Emergency and Critical Care Medicine in Pittsburgh/Pennsylvania/USA, May 4.-8. 1976 (4. May Nr. 7)Google Scholar
  187. 186.
    Sehhati, Gh., Frey, R., Gerbershagen, H.U., Reicherts, M., Schulz, H.: Beeinflussung des unteren Oesophagussphinkters (UÖS) als Regurgitationsbarriere durch die i.v.-Narkotika. VI. Weltkongreß der Anaesthesiologie in Mexico, 24.-30.4.1976 (28. April, Nr. 481)Google Scholar
  188. 187.
    Sehhati, Gh., Gerbershagen, H.U., Frey, R., Reicherts, M., Schulz, H.: Refluxbegünstigung durch Inhalationsanaesthetika Halothan bei nicht leerem Magen. VI. Weltkongreß der Anaesthesiologie in Mexico, 24.-30.4.1976 (28. April, Nr. 480)Google Scholar
  189. 188.
    Sehhati, Gh., Koller, S., Wermuth, N., Reicherts, M., Schulz, H.: Ruhetonusminderung des UÖS durch die intravenösen Narkotika. The 3rd Symposium of Isfahan, 18. bis 20.11.1975 (20. Nov., Nr. 4)Google Scholar
  190. 189.
    Sellick, B.A.: Cricoid pressure to control regurgitation of stomach contents during induetion of anaesthesia. Lancet 2, 404(1961)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 190.
    Shepherd, J.K., Diamant, N.E.: Msecolyl Test: Comparsion of balloon kymography and intraluminal pressure measurement. Gastroenterology 63, 558 (1972)Google Scholar
  192. 191.
    Siegenthaler, W.: Klinische Pathophysiologie. 2. Aufl., S. 694, 695, 700, 701. Stuttgart: Thieme 1974Google Scholar
  193. 192.
    Siewert, J.R.: Experimentelle und klinische Untersuchung zur Funktion und Rekonstruktion (Fundiplicatio) des unteren Oesophagussphinkters (unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Oesophagusmanometrie). Habilitationsschrift, Göttingen (1972)Google Scholar
  194. 193.
    Siewert, J.R., Jennewein, H.M., Waldeck, F., Pieper, H.J.: Experimentelle und klinische Untersuchungen zum Wirkungsmechanismus des Fundiplicatio. Langenbecks Arch. Klin. Chir. 333, 5 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 194.
    Siewert, J.R., Jennewein, H.M., Waldeck, F.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Funktion des unteren Oesophagussphinkters nach Intrathorakalverlagerung, Myotomie und zirkulärer Myektomie. Brun’s Beitr. klin. Chir. 220, 818 (1973)Google Scholar
  196. 195.
    Siewert, J.R., Koch, A., Stuhler, Th., Jennewein, H.M.: Kardiafunktion und gastrooesophagaler Reflux nach distaler Magenresektion. Gastroenterology 12, 583 (1974)Google Scholar
  197. 196.
    Siewert, J.R., Waldeck, F., Pieper, H.J.: Gastrointestinale Hormone und unterer Oesophagussphinkter. Chirurg 45, 28 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 197.
    Siewert, J.R., Weiser, F., Jennewein, H.M., Waldeck, F.: Clinical and manometric investigations of the lower oesophageal sphincter and its reactivity to Pentagastrin in patients with hiatus hernia. Digestion 10, 287 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 198.
    Siewert, R., Weiser, F., Waldeck, F.: Klinische Anwendung der Oesophagusmanometrie. In: Funktionsstörungen der Speiseröhre. A. 120. Siewert, R., Blum, A.L., Waldeck, F. (Hrsg.), Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1976Google Scholar
  200. 199.
    Simmendinger, H.J.: Klinische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Wirkung verschiedener Narkotika auf den unteren Oesophagussphinkter (zum Problem der Regurgitation als Narkosekomplikation). Habilitationsschrift, Heidelberg (1975)Google Scholar
  201. 200.
    Simmendinger, H.J., Buschmann, L., Gabelmann, J.: Die Wirkung intravenöser Narkotika auf den unteren Oesophagussphinkter (UÖS). Internat Anaesthesie Kongreß Madrid (1974) 143 Nr. 329Google Scholar
  202. 201.
    Sinclair, R.N.: The oesophageal cardia and regurgitation. Br. J. Anaesth. 31, 15 (1959)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 202.
    Skinner, D.B., Camp, Th.F.: Relation of esophageal reflux to lower esophageal sphincter pressure decreased by atropine. Gastroenterology 54, 543 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 203.
    Snedecor, G.W., Cochran, J.G.: Statistical methods. 6. Aufl. Ames. (1967)Google Scholar
  205. 204.
    Snow, R.G., Nunn, J.F.: Induction of anaesthesia in the footdown position for patients with a füll stomach. Br. J. Anaesth. 31, 493 (1959)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 205.
    Sodeman, W.A.: Pathologie physiology, mechanisms of disease. 5. Aufl., S. 698. Philadelphia-London-Toronto: Saunders 1974Google Scholar
  207. 206.
    Soehring, K., Frahm, M.: Spezieller Teil In: Lehrbuch der Anaesthesiologie und Wiederbelebung. 2. Aufl., S. 119. Frey, R., Hügin, W., Mayrhofer, O. (Hrsg.), Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1971Google Scholar
  208. 207.
    Speden, R.N.: The effect of some volatile anaesthetics on the transmurally stimulated guinea-pigileum. Br. J. Pharmacol. 25, 104 (1965)Google Scholar
  209. 208.
    Speight, T.M., Avery, G.S.: Pancuronium-bromide: a review of its pharmacological properties and criticalapplications. Drugs 4, 163(1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 209.
    Stanciu, C., Bennett, J.R.: Smoking and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Brit med. J. 3, 793 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 210.
    Stef, J.J., Dodds, W.J., Hogan, W.J., Linchan, J.H., Steward, E.T.: Intraluminal esophageal manometry: an analysis of variables affecting recording fidelity of peristaltic pressures. Gastroenterology 67, 221 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 211.
    Stelzner, F.: Der Verschluß der therminalen Speiseröhre. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 93, 1678 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 212.
    Stelzner, F., Lierse, W.: Der angiomuskuläre Dehnverschluß der terminalen Speiseröhre. Langenbecks Arch. Klin. Chir. 321, 64 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 213.
    Stept, W.J., Safar, P.: Rapid induetion/intubation for prevention of gastric content aspiration. Anesth. Anaig. (Cleve) 49, 633 (1970)Google Scholar
  215. 214.
    Stöcker, L.: Narkose. Eine Einführung. 2. Aufl., S. 110. Stuttgart: Thieme 1969Google Scholar
  216. 215.
    Talbott, J.H.: A biographical history of medicine. 1. Aufl., S. 656. New York, London: Grüne & Stratton 1970Google Scholar
  217. 216.
    Taylore, E.S.: Beck’s Obstetric Practice. 9. Aufl., S. 607. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins 1971Google Scholar
  218. 217.
    Taylor, G., Pryse-Davies, J.P.: The prophylactic use of antacids in the prevention of the acid pulmonary aspiration Syndrome (Mendelson’s Syndrome). Lancet 1, 288 (1966)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 218.
    Teuchmann, J.K., Schiesinski, K.: Comparative studies on the effect of certain drugs used in general anaesthesia on the rumen and small intestine movement in cattle. Pol. Arch. Wet. 15, 59 (1972)Google Scholar
  220. 219.
    Thomas, P.A., Earlam, R.J.: Electrical activity of the isolated perfused canine gastro-esophageal junction. Gastroenterology 62, 821 (1972)Google Scholar
  221. 220.
    Thurer, R.L., Demeester, R.T., Johnson, L.F.: The distal esophageal sphincter and its relationship to gastro-esophageal reflux. J. Surg. Res. 16, 418 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 221.
    Traber, D.L., Wilson, R.D., Prinao, L.L.: A detail study of the cardiopulmonary response to ketamine and its blockade by atropine. Sth. med. J. 63, 1077 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 222.
    Turnbull, K.W.: A usefull manoeuvre for prevention of aspiration during “crash” inductions. Canad. Anaesth. Soc. J. 19, 105 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 223.
    Turndorf, H., Rodis, I.D., Clark, T.S.: “Silent” regurgitation during general anaesthesia. Anesth. Anaig. (Cleve) 53, 700 (1974)Google Scholar
  225. 224.
    Tuttle, S.G., Grossmann, M.I.: Detection of gastro-esophageal reflux by simultaneous measurements of intraluminal pressure and pH. Proc. Soc. Exp. BioL Med. 98, 225 (1958)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 225.
    Uleri, G., Ruggerini, R.: Alterations in intestinal motility caused by anaesthesia. Ann. Anaesth. Fr. 9, 135 (1968)Google Scholar
  227. 226.
    Vandertroll, D.J., Ellis, H.P., Schlegel, J.F., Code, Sh.F.: An experimental study of the role of gastric esophageal muscle in gastro-esophageal competence. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 122, 579 (1969)Google Scholar
  228. 227.
    Vanlerenberghe, J., Robelet, A., Milbled, G.: Effect of some malonylurea dervatives on isolated smooth muscular flber (gall bladder and intestine). Relation of activity structure. Therapie 11, 1137 (1956)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 228.
    Van Liere, E.J., Srickney, J.C., Northup, D.W.: Comparative study of anesthetic agents on propulsive motility of the small intestine. Gastroenterology 8, 82 (1974)Google Scholar
  230. 229.
    Vantrappen, G., Helleman, J.: Diseases of the esophagus. In: Handbuch der inneren Medizin, Band 3, Teil 1, S. 45. Schwiegk, H. (Hrsg.), Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1974Google Scholar
  231. 230.
    Vela, A.R., Baiart, L.A.: The clinical value of esophageal intraluminal manometry. Amer. Surgeon 34, 39 (1968)Google Scholar
  232. 231.
    Vourc’h, M.G., Viors, P.: Neuroleptics. In: General Anaesthesia, Bd. 1, S. 553, 3. Aufl. Gray, C.T., Nunn, J.F. (Hrsg.), London: Butterworths 1971Google Scholar
  233. 232.
    Waldeck, F.: A new procedure for functional analysis of the lower esophageal sphincter. Pflügers Arch. 335, 74 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 233.
    Waldeck, F.: Grundlagen der Oesophagusmanometrie. In: Funktionsstörungen der Speiseröhre. S. 109. Siewert, R., Blum, A.L., Waldeck, F. (Hrsg.), Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1976Google Scholar
  235. 234.
    Waldeck, F.: Physiologie des oesophago-gastralen Transportes. In: Funktionsstörungen der Speiseröhre. S. 34. Siewert, R., Blum, A.L., Waldeck, F. (Hrsg.), Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer 1976Google Scholar
  236. 235.
    Waldeck, F., Jennewein, H.M., Graubner, P.: Methodische Untersuchungen zur Druckmessung im Oesophagus. Leber-Magen-Darm 2, 14 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 236.
    Waldeck, F., Jennewein, H.M., Siewert, R.: A continous withdrawal method for the quantitative analysis of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) in humans. Europ. Clin. J. Invest. 3, 331 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 237.
    Waldeck, F., Siewert, R.: Zur Problematik der Funktionsanalyse des unteren Oesophagussphinkters. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 99, 2587 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 238.
    Waldeck, F., Siewert, R., Jennewein, H.M., Weiser, F.: Das Druckprofil im unteren Oesophagussphinkter beim Menschen und seine Beeinflussung durch Gastrin, Calcitonin und Glucagon. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 98, 1059 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 239.
    Waldeyer, A.: Anatomie des Menschen, 2. Teil, S. 566, 6. Aufl. Berlin: De Gruyter 1970Google Scholar
  241. 240.
    Weiss, W.A.: Regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents during inhalation anaesthesia. Anaesthesia 11, 102 (1950)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 241.
    Wetterer, E.: Eine neue manometrische Sonde mit elektrischer Transmission. Z. Biol. 101, 332 (1943)Google Scholar
  243. 242.
    Whayne, T.F.J.R., Smith, N.T., Eger, E.I., Stoelting, R.L., Whitcher, C.E.: The effects of halothane anesthesia on reflex cardiovascular responses stimulated diving and the valsalva maneuver. Anesthesiology 34, 262 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 243.
    Winans, C.S.: Alteration of lower esophageal sphincter characteristics with respiration and proximal esophageal balloon distention. Gastroenterology 61, 380 (1972)Google Scholar
  245. 244.
    Winans, C.S., Harris, L.D.: Quantitation of lower esophageal sphincter competence. Gastroenterology 52, 733 (1967)Google Scholar
  246. 245.
    Wood-Smith, F.G., Stewart,, H.C., Vickers, M.D.: Drugs in anaesthetic practice. 3. Aufl., S. 70, 116. London: Butterworths 1968Google Scholar
  247. 246.
    Wylie, W.D.: Anesthesia in obstetric emergencies. Brit. Med. J. 27, 224 (1957)Google Scholar
  248. 247.
    Wylie, W.D., Churchill-Davidson, H.C.: A practice of Anaesthesia. 3. Aufl., S. 1298. London: Lloyd-Luke 1972Google Scholar
  249. 248.
    Zauder, H.L.: Clinical anesthesia. Pharmacology of adjuvant drugs. S. 12. Philadelphia: Davis 1973Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gholam Sehhati-Chafai
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für AnaesthesiologieKlinikum der Johannes Gutenberg-UniversitätMainzGermany

Personalised recommendations