U—Th—Pb Dating of Minerals

  • D. Gebauer
  • M. Grünenfelder


Natural U consists of two radioactive parent-isotopes, 238U and 235U, the half-lives of which fall into the range of geologic time. Outside this range is the half-life of 232Th, which represents the only natural isotope of Th.


Detrital Zircon Concordia Diagram Zircon Population Metamorphic Overprint French Central Massif 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abde1-Monem, A.A.: U-Pb dating of detrital zircon from Egypt. Twenty-first progress report, for 1974–1976. M.LT. Geochronology Laboratory, 1977, pp. 79–87Google Scholar
  2. Ahrens, L.H.: The convergent lead ages of the oldest monazites and uraninites (Rhodesia, Manitoba, Madagascar, Transvaal). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 7, 294–300 (1955a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahrens, L.H.: Implications of the Rhodesian age patterns. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 8,1–15 (1955b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allègre, C.J. Albarède, F., Grünenfelder, M., Köppel, V.: 238U/206Pb-235U/207Pb-232 Th/ 2(5 8Pb zircon geochronology in Alpine and non-Alpine environment. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 43, 163–194 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, T.H., Silver, L.T.: U-Pb isotope ages of granitic plutons near Cananea, Sonora. Econ. Geol. 72, 827–836 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baadsgaard, H., Lambert, R.St.J., Krupicka, J.: Mineral isotopic age relationships in the polymetamorphic Amitsoq gneisses, Godthaab District, West Greenland. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40, 513–527 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowes, D.R., Hopgood, A.M., Pidgeon, R.T.: Source ages of zircons in an Archean quartzite, Rona, Inner Hebrides, Scotland. Geol. Mag. 111,545–552 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burger, A.J., Von Knorring, O, Clifford, T.N.: Mineralogical and radiometric studies of monazite and sphene occurrences in the Namib Desert, South West Africa. Mineral. Mag. 35,519–528 (1965)Google Scholar
  9. Catanzaro, E.J., Kulp, J.L.: Discordant zircons from the Little Belt (Montana), Beartooth (Montana) and Santa Catalina (Arizona) Mountains. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 28,87–124 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Davis, G.L., Hart, S.R., Tilton, G.R.: Some effects of contact metamorphism on zircon ages. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 5, 27–34 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farquharson, R.B., Richards, J.R.: Whole-rock U-Th-Pb and Rb-Sr ages of the Sybella microgranite and pegmatite, Mount Isa, Queensland. J. Geol. Soc. Aust. 17, 53–62 (1970)Google Scholar
  12. Gaudette, H.E., Hurley, P.M., Fairbairn, H.W., Lajmi, T.: Source area for the Numidian flysch of Tunisia determined by U-Pb zircon ages. 21st progress report for 1974–1976, M.I.T. Geochronology Laboratory, 1977, pp. 35–41Google Scholar
  13. Gebauer, D.: Rb-Sr Gesamtgesteins- und Mineralsysteme sowie U-Pb Systeme in Zirkonen während der progressive Gesteinsmetamorphose. Ph.D. thesis, ETH Zürich, 1975, unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gebauer, D., Bernard-Griffiths, J., Krebs, O., Griinenfelder, M.: U-Pb zircon and monazite dating of metagabbros, eclogites and garnet-peridotites as well as their country rocks. Example: The mafic to ultramafic massive of Sauviat-sur-Vige (French Central Massif). In Preparation for Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (1979)Google Scholar
  15. Gebauer, D., Grünenfelder, M.: U-Pb zircon and Rb-Sr systems during progressive metamorphism. Fortschr. Mineral. 50, 76–78 (1973a)Google Scholar
  16. Gebauer, D., Grünenfelder, M.: Vergleichende Ub- und Rb/Sr-Altersbestimmungen im bayerischen Tell des Moldanubikums. Fortschr. Mineral. 50, Beih. 34, 4(1973b)Google Scholar
  17. Gebauer, D., Grünenfelder, M.: Comparative studies of U-Pb systems in zircons and monazites as well as Rb-Sr systematics in minerals and whole-rocks during the anatexis of a polymetamorphic paragneiss (crystalline basement of NE-Bavaria). Internat. meeting for geochronology, cosmochronology and isotope geology, Paris abstracts, 1974Google Scholar
  18. Gebauer, D., Grünenfelder, M.: U-Pb zircon and Rb-Sr whole-rock dating of low-grade metasediments. Example: Montagne Noire (Southern France). Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 59,13–32 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gebauer, D., Grünenfelder, M.: U-Pb Zirkondatierungen mafischer und ultramafischer Gesteine. Arbeitstagung der OG gemeinsam mit der SMPG. (Abstract), Salzburg 1977aGoogle Scholar
  20. Gebauer, D., Grünenfelder, M.: U-Pb systematics of detrital zircons from some unmetamorphosed to slightly metamorphosed sediments of Central Europe. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 65, 29–37 (1977b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gebauer, D., Griinenfelder, M.: U-Pb zircon and Rb-Sr mineral dating of eclogites and their country rocks. Example: Miinchberg Gneiss Massive, NE-Bavaria. To be published in Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (1978)Google Scholar
  22. Goldich, S.S., Hedge, C.E., Stern, T.W.: Age of the Morton and Montevideo Gneisses and related rocks, Southern Minnesota. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 81, 3671–3696 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goldich, S.S., Mudrey, Jr.: Dilatancy model for discordant U-Pb zircon ages. In Contrib. to recent geochemistry and analytical chemistry (Vinogradov volume). Moscow: Nauka Publ. Office, 1972, pp. 415–418Google Scholar
  24. Grauert, B.: U-Pb systematics in heterogeneous zircon populations from the Precambrian basement of the Maryland Piedmont. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 23, 238–248 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grauert, B., Arnold, A.: Deutung diskordanter Zirkonalter der Silvretta Decke und des Gotthardmassivs (Schweizer Alpen). Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 20, 34–56 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Grauert, B., Hänny, R., Soptrajanova, G.: Age and origin of detrital zircons from the Pre-Permian basements of the Bohemian Massif and the Alps. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 40,105–130 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grauert, B., Hänny, R., Soptrajanova, G.: Geochronology of a polymetamorphic and anatectic gneiss region: the Moldanubicum of the area Lam-Deggendorf, Eastern Bavaria, Germany. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 45,37–63 (1974a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grauert, B., Hofmann, A.: Effects of progressive regional metamorphism and magma formation on U-Pb systems in zircon. Third European Colloquium of Geochronology, Cosmochronology and Isotope Geology (abstract) Oxford, 1973Google Scholar
  29. Grauert, B., Seitz, M.G., Soptrajanova, G.: Uranium and lead gain of detrital zircon studied by isotopic analyses and fission track mapping. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 21, 389–399 (1974b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grauert, B., Wagner, M.E.: Age of the granulite-facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, Delaware-Pennsylvania Piedmont. Am. J. Sci. 275, 683–691 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grünenfelder, M.: Heterogenität akzessorischer Zirkone und die petrogenetische Deutung ihrer Uranlei-Zerfallsalter. I. Der Zirkon des Granodioritgneisses von Acquaca1da (Lukmanierpass). Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 43,235–257 (1963)Google Scholar
  32. Grünenfelder, M., Hanson, G.N., Brunner, G.O., Eberhard, E.: U-Pb discordance and phase unmixing in zircons. In: Abstracts for 1966 Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 101,80 (1968)Google Scholar
  33. Grünenfelder, M., Hofmänner, F., Grögler, N.: Heterogenität akzessorischer Zirkone und die petrogenetische Deutung ihrer Uranlei-Zerfallsalter. II. Präkambrische Zirkonbildung im Gotthardmassiv. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 44, 543–558 (1964)Google Scholar
  34. Grünenfelder, M., Silver, T.: Radioactive age dating and its petrologic implications for some Georgia granites (abstract). Bull. Ge Soc. Am. 69,1574 (1958)Google Scholar
  35. Gulson, B., Krogh, T.E.: Old lead component in the young Bergell Massif, South-east Swiss Alps. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 40, 239–252 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gulson, B.L., Krogh, T.E.: Evidence of multiple intrusion, possible resetting of U-Pb ages, and new crystallization of zircons in the post-tectonic intrusions (‘Rapakivi granites’) and gneisses from South Greenland. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 39, 65–82 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gulson, B.L., Rutishauser, H.: Granitization and U-Pb studies of zircons in the Lauterbrunnen Crystalline Complex. Geochem. J. 10, 13–23 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hänny, R., Grauert, B., Soptrajanova, G.: Palaeozoic migmatites affected by highgrade Tertiary metamorphism in the Central Alps (Valle Bodengo, Italy). Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 51, 173–196 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hart, S.R., Davis, G.L.: Zircon U-Pb and whole-rock Rb-Sr ages and early crustal development near Rainy Lake, Ontario. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 80, 595–616 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Higgins, M.W., Sinha, A.K., Zartman, R.E., Kirk, W.S.: U-Pb zircon dates from the central Appalachian Piedmont: A possible case of inherited radiogenic lead. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 88,125–132 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hurst, R.W., Farhat, J.: Geochronologic investigations of the Sudbury Nickel Irruptive and the Superior Province granites north of Sudbury. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41, 1803–181 5 (1977)Google Scholar
  42. Jaffey, A.H., Flynn, K.F., Glendenin, L.E., Bentley, W.C., Essling, A.M.: Precision measurements of half-lives and specific acitivities of 235 U and 238 U. Phys. Rev. C. 4,1889–1906 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Köppel, V.: Isotopic U-Pb ages of monazites and zircons from the crust-mantle transition and adjacent units of the Ivrea and Ceneri zones (Southern Alps, Italy). Contrib. Mineral Petrol. 43,55–70 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Köppel, V., Grünenfelder, M.: A study of inherited and newly formed zircon from paragneisses and granitised sediments of the Strona-Ceneri-Zone (Southern Alps). Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 51, 385–409 (1971)Google Scholar
  45. Köppel, V., Grünenfelder, M.: Concordant U-Pb ages of monazites from the Central Alps and the timing of the high temperature Alpine metamorphism, a preliminary report. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 55 (1975)Google Scholar
  46. Kouvo, O., Tilton, G.R.: Mineral ages from the Finnish Precambrian J. Geol. 74, 421–442 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Krogh, T.E.: A low-contamination method for decomposition of zircon and extraction of U and Pb for isotopic age determinations. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37, 485–494Google Scholar
  48. Krogh, T.E., Davis, G.L., Harris, N.B.W., Ermanovics, I.F.: Isotopic ages in the Eastern Lac Seul region of the English River gneiss belt. Carnegie Inst. Washington Yearb. 74, 623–625 (1975a)Google Scholar
  49. Krogh, T.E., Davis, G.L.: Alteration in zircons and differential dissolution of altered and metamict zircon. Carnegie Inst. Washington Yearb. 74,619–623 (1975)Google Scholar
  50. Krogh, T.E., Mysen, B.O., Davis, G.L.: A Palaeozoic age for the primary minerals of a Norwegian eclogite. Carnegie Inst. Washington Yearb. 73,575 (1975b)Google Scholar
  51. Lancelot, J., Vitrac, A., Allègre, C.J.: Uranium and lead isotopic dating with grain by grain zircon analysis: a study of complex geological history with a single rock. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 29, 357–366 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ledent, D., Patterson, C., Tilton, G.R.: Ages of zircon and feldspar concentrates from Northern American beach and river sands. J. Geol. 72, 112–122 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Le Roux, L.J., Glendenin, L.E.: Half-life of 232 Th. Proc. Nat. Meet. Nucl. Energy, Pretoria, South Africa 83–94 (1963)Google Scholar
  54. Michard-Vitrac, A., Lancelot, J., Allègre, C.J.: U-Pb ages on single zircons from the Early Precambrian rocks of West Greenland and the Minnesota River Valley. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 35, 449–453 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Michot, J., Deutsch, S.: U/Pb zircon ages and polycyclism of the gneiss de Brest and the adjacent formations (Brittany). Eclogae geol. Helv. 63, 215–227 (1970)Google Scholar
  56. Michot, J., Pasteels, P.: The prospects of the Rb-Sr and the U-Pb methods for an advanced geochronological investigation of the Precambrian of Southern Norway. Nor. Geol. Unders. 258, 17–26 (1969)Google Scholar
  57. Moorbath, S., O’Nions, R.K., Pankhurst, R.J.: The evolution of Early Precambrian crustal rocks at Isua, West Greenland geochemical and isotopic evidence. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 27, 229–239 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Naylor, R.S., Steiger, R.H., Wasserburg, G.J.: U-Th-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics in 2.700 x 106 year old plutons from the southern Wind River Range, Wyoming: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 34,1133–1159 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nicolayson, L.O.: Solid diffusion in radioactive minerals and the measurement of the absolute age. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 11,41–59 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nunes, P.D., Steiger, R.H.: A U-Pb zircon, and Rb-Sr and U-Th-Pb whole-rock study of a polymetamorphic terrane in the Central Alps, Switzerland. Contrib. Mineral.Petrol. 47,255–280 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nunes, P.D., Tilton, G.R.: Uranium-lead ages of minerals from the Stillwater Complex and associated rocks, Montana. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 82, 2231–2250 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. O’Nions, R.K., Baadsgaard, H.: A radiometric study of polymetamorphism in the Bamble Region, Norway. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 34, 1–21 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Oversby, V.M.: Lead isotopic systematics and ages of Archean acid intrusions in the Kalgoorlie-Norseman area, Western Australia. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 39, 1107–1125 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Overstreet, W.C.: The geologic occurrence of monazite. Prof. Pap. U.S. Geol. Surv. 530 (1967)Google Scholar
  65. Pankhurst, R.J., Pidgeon, R.T.: Inherited isotope systems and the source region prehistory of early Caledonian granites in the Dalradian series of Scotland. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 31,55–68 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pasteels, P., Michot, J.: Geochronologic investigation of the metamorphic terrain of Southwestern Norway. Nor. Geol. Tidsskr. 55,111–134 (1975)Google Scholar
  67. Peterman, Z.E., Goldich, S.S., Hedge, C.E., Yardley, D.H.: Geochronology of the Rainy Lake Region, Minnesota-Ontario. Mem. Geol. Soc. Am. 135, 193–215 (1972)Google Scholar
  68. Pidgeon, R.T.: Zircon U-Pb ages from the Galway granite and the Dalradian, Connemara, Ireland. Scott. J. Geol. 5,375–392 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pidgeon, R.T., Aftalion, M.: The geochronological significance of discordant U-Pb ages of oval-shaped zircons from a Lewisian gneiss from Harris, Outer Hebrides. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 17, 269–274 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pidgeon, R.T., Bowes, D.R.: Zircon U-Pb ages of granulites from the Central Region of the Lewisian, northwestern Scotland. Geol. Mag. 109, 247–258 (1972)Google Scholar
  71. Pidgeon, R.T., Köppel, V., Grünenfelder, M.: U-Pb isotopic relationship in zircon suites from a para- and orthogneiss from the Ceneri zone, Southern Switzerland. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 26, 1–11 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pidgeon, R.T., Hopgood, A.M.: Geochronology of Archean gneisses and tonalites from north of the Frederikshabs isblink, Southwest Greenland. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 39, 1333–1346 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pidgeon, R.T., Johnson, M.R.W.: A comparison of zircon U-Pb and whole-rock Rb-Sr systems in three phases of the Carn Chuinneag granite, Northern Scotland. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 24, 105 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pidgeon, R.T., O’Neil, R.J., Silver, L.T.: Observations on the crystallinity and the U-Pb system of a metamict Ceylon zircon under experimental hydrothermal conditions. Fortschr. Mineral. 50,118 (1973)Google Scholar
  75. Pidgeon, R.T., Raheim, A.: Geochronological investigation of the gneisses and minor intrusive rocks from Kristiansund, West Norway. Nor. Geol. Tidsskr. 52, 241–256 (1972)Google Scholar
  76. Rosholt, J.N., Bartel, A.J.: U-Th-Pb and Rb-Sr ages in granite reference from southwestern Saskatchewan. Can. J. Earth Sci. 7, 184–187 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Saxena, S.K.: Evolution of zircons in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Sedimentology 6,1–13 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shestakov, G.I.: Diffusion of lead in monazite, zircon, sphene and apatite. Trans. Geokhimiya 10, 1197–1202 (1972)Google Scholar
  79. Shields, W.R.: Comparison of Belgian Congo and Synthetic “Normal” Samples. Table 6 in Appendix A, Report No.8, National Bureau of Standards Meeting of the Advisory Committee for Standard Materials and Methods of Measurement, May 17 and 18, 1960, 37 pp, unpublished, 1960Google Scholar
  80. Shukolyukov, Y.A.: Interpretation of discordant ages calculated from the isotopic ratios: 206Pb/238U and 207Pb/235U. Geochem. Int. 5, 843–852 (1964)Google Scholar
  81. Silver, L.T., Deutsch, S.: Uranium lead variations in zircon: a case study. J. Geol.71,747–758 (1963)Google Scholar
  82. Silver, L.T., McKinney, C.R., Deutsch, S., Bolinger, J.: Precambrian age determinations in the western San Gabriel mountains, Calif. J. Geol. 71, 196–214 (1963)Google Scholar
  83. Sinha, A.K.: U-Th-Pb systematics and the age of the Onverwacht Series, South Africa. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 16, 219–227 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sommerauer, J.: Trace element distribution patterns and the mineralogical stability of zircon–an application for combined electron microprobe techniques. Proc. Vol. 4. Electron Microscopy Soc. of Southern Afria (1974)Google Scholar
  85. Sommerauer, J.: Die chemisch-physikalische Stabilität natürlicher Zirkone und ihr U-(Th)-Pb System. Ph.D. thesis ETH Zürich, 1976, unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  86. Steiger, R.H., Harnik-Soptrajanova, G., Zimmermann, E., Henriksen, N.: Isotopic age and metamorphic history of the banded gneiss at Danmarkshavn, East Greenland. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 57,1–24 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Steiger, R.H., Wasserburg, G.J.: Systematics in the Pb208-Th232, Pb207-U235, and Pb206-U238 systems. J. Geophys. Res. 71,6065–6090 (1966)Google Scholar
  88. Steiger, R.H., Wasserburg, G.J.: Comparative U-Th-Pb systematics in 2.7 x 109 year plutons of different geologic histories. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 33, 1213–1232 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stern, T.W., Goldich, S.S., Newell, M.F.: Effects of weathering on the U-Pb ages of zircon from the Morton gneiss, Minnesota. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 1, 369–371 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tatsumoto, M., Patterson, C.: Age studies of zircon and feldspar concentrates from the Franconia sandstone. J. Geol. 72,232–242 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tilton, G.R.: Volume diffusion as a mechanism for discordant lead ages. J. Geophys. Res. 65,2933–2945 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tilton, G.R., Grünenfelder, M.: Sphene, uranium-lead ages. Science 159,1458–1461 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tilton, G.R., Steiger, R.H.: Mineral ages and isotopic composition of primary lead at Manitouwadge, Ontario. J. Geophys. Res. 74,2118–2132 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Van Schmus, W.R.: Geochronologic comparison of Early Proterozoic events in Southern Finland and in the Lake Superior Area, North America. Fourth European Colloquium of Geochronology, Cosmochronology and Isotope Geology, Amsterdam 1976, volume of abstracts, 1976Google Scholar
  95. Vinogradov, A.P.: Comparison of data on the age of rocks obtained by different methods and geological conclusions. Geokhimiya 5, 3–17 (1956)Google Scholar
  96. Vitrac-Michard, A., Allègre, C.J.: 238U-206pb, 235U-207 Pb, systematics on Pyrenean basement. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 51,205–212 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wasserburg, G.J.: Diffusion processes in lead-uranium systems. J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4823–4846 (1963)Google Scholar
  98. Wetherill, G.S.: An interpretation of the Rhodesia and Witwatersrand age patterns. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 9,290–292 (1956a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wetherill, G.S.: Discordant uranium-lead ages, I. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 37, 320–326 (1956b)Google Scholar
  100. Wetherill, G.S.: Discordant uranium-lead ages, II. Discordant ages resulting from diffusion of lead and uranium. J. Geophys. Res. 68, 2957–2965 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Williams, I.S.: The Berridale batholith: a lead and strontium isotopic study. Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University, 1977, unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  102. Zhirova, V.V., Zykov, S.I., Tugarinov, AJ.: Ages of zircons from ancient formations in the Kola Peninsula. Geokhimiya 4 (1961)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Gebauer
  • M. Grünenfelder

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations