• Walter Tranquillini
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 31)


In mountains, the upper limit to the distribution of forests, i.e., the alpine timberline, separates as a fairly sharp discontinuity the usually closed forest from the treeless alpine heath-grassland. In principle there are three possible causes for the upper survival limit of trees on mountains with seasonally fluctuating climates, i.e., outside the tropics:
  1. 1)

    Negative carbon balance

  2. 2)

    Arrested phenological cycle

  3. 3)

    Inadequate resistance to deleterious factors



Frost Damage Shoot Primordia Cuticular Layer Cuticular Transpiration Shoot Extension 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Tranquillini
    • 1
  1. 1.Außenstelle für subalpine WaldforschungForstliche BundesversuchsanstaltHofburg, InnsbruckAustria

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