General Features of the Upper Timberline

  • Walter Tranquillini
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 31)


In many parts of the earth there are natural barriers to the spread of forests. In subpolar regions it is cold temperatures, in the subtropics it can be drought, and in temperate zones it may be extreme soil conditions, such as salinity and water logging, or on sea coasts and on the tops of isolated hills it can be fierce winds which halt the forest (Ellenberg, 1966).


Transition Zone Closed Forest Subpolar Region Dense High Stand Closed Stand 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Tranquillini
    • 1
  1. 1.Außenstelle für subalpine WaldforschungForstliche BundesversuchsanstaltHofburg, InnsbruckAustria

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