Ecosystem Analysis and the Definition of Boundaries in Upwelling Regions

  • R. Boje
  • M. Tomczak


An ecosystem, according to Smith (1970) is “a functional unit with recognizable boundaries and an internal homogeneity”. Ellenberg (1973a) describes an ecosystem as “an interacting system between organisms and their inorganic environment which is open but has to a certain degree the ability of selfregulation.”


Frontal Zone Coastal Upwelling Ekman Layer Upwelling System Upwelling Region 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Boje
  • M. Tomczak

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