Advertisement

Endocrine Responses to Malnutrition in Man

  • K. S. Jaya Rao
Conference paper
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)

Abstract

Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) continues to be one of the major nutritional and public health problems that confront the developing countries today. In view of the high nutrient demands of growth, children between 1 and 4 years of age, generally referred to as pre-school children, are most vulnerable to the ravages of malnutrition. The primary and the characteristic response to PCM is retardation of growth, the degree of which in any child depends on the extent of calorie and protein deficiency, its duration, the age of weaning, weaning practices, exposures to infections and their severity, etc. Hence PCM does not manifest itself as a single syndrome, but comprises a wide spectrum with varying degrees of retardation of growth. At the extreme end of this spectrum, the two clinically characteristic pictures of marasmus and kwashiorkor stand out as striking testimonies to a continuing human tragedy. Nearly 80%-90% of the pre-school children in India suffer from mild and moderate forms of malnutrition, whereas 2%-3% suffer from kwashiorkor and marasmus.

Keywords

Growth Hormone Plasma Cortisol Adrenal Cortex Growth Hormone Secretion Growth Hormone Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ABBASSY, A.S., MIKHAIL, M., ZEITOUN, M.M., RAGAB, M.: The suprarenal cortical function as measured by the plasma 17-hydroxysteroid level in malnourished children. J. Trop. Pediat. 13, 87–95 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. ABBASSY, A.S., MIKHAIL, M., ZEITOUN, M.M., RAGAB, M.: The suprarenal cortical function as measured by the plasma 17-hydroxysteroid level in malnourished children. J. Trop. Pediat. 13,154–162 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. ALLEYNE, G.A.O., YOUNG, V.H.: Adrenal function in malnutrition. Lancet 1, 911–912 (1966)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ALLEYNE, G.A.O., YOUNG, V.H.: Adrenocortical function in children with severe protein-calorie malnutrition. Clin. Sci. 33, 189–200 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. BEAS, F., CONTRERAS, I., MACCIONI, A., ARENAS, S.: Growth hormone in infant malnutrition: the arginine test in marasmus and kwashiorkor. Brit. J. Nutr. 26, 169–175 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BEAS, F., MONCKEBERG, F., HORWITZ, I.: The response of the thyroid gland to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in infants with malnutrition. Pediatrics 38, 1003–1008 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. BEHAR, M., VITERI, F., BRESSANI, R., ARROYAVE, G., SQUIBB, R.L., SCRIMSHAW, N. S.: Principles of treatment and prevention of severe protein malnutrition in children. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 69, 954–968 (1958)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. BEITINS, I.Z., KOWARSKI, A., MIGEON, C.L., GRAHAM, G.G.: Adrenal function in normal infants and in marasmus and kwashiorkor. J. Pediat. 86, 302–308 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. BLODGETT, F.M., BURGIN, L., IEZZONI, D., GRIBETZ, D., TALBOT, N.B.: Effects of prolonged cortisone therapy on the statural growth, skeletal maturation and metabolic status of children. New Engl. J. Med. 254, 636–641 (1956)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. EDOZIEN, J.C., PHILLIPS, E.J., COLLIS, W.R.F.: The free amino acids of plasma and urine in Kwashiorkor. Lancet 1, 615–618 (1960)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. GOPALAN, C.: Kwashiorkor and marasmus. Evolution and distinguishing features. In: Calorie Deficiencies and Protein Deficiencies. McCance, R.A., Widdowson, E.M. (eds.). London: J. & A. Churchill, 1968, pp. 49–58Google Scholar
  12. GRAHAM, G.G., BAERTL, J.M., CLAEYSSEN, G., SUSKIND, R., GREENBERG, A.H., THOMPSON, R.G., BLIZZARD, R.M.: Thyroid hormonal studies in normal and severely malnourished infants and small children. J. Pediat. 83, 321–331 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. INGENBLEEK, Y., DE NAYER, PH., DE VISSCHER, M.: Thyroxine binding globulin in infant protein-calorie malnutrition. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metabi 39, 178–180 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. JAYA RAO, K.S.: Kwashiorkor and marasmus. Blood sugar levels and response to epinephrine. Am. J. Dis. Chil. 519–522 (1965)Google Scholar
  15. JAYA RAO, K.S.: Evolution of kwashiorkor and marasmus. Lancet 1, 709–711 (1974)Google Scholar
  16. JAYA RAO, K.S., KHAN, L.: Basal energy metabolism in protein calorie malnutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27, 892–896 (1974)Google Scholar
  17. JAYA RAO, K.S., PRASAD, P.S.K.: Serum triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids in kwashiorkor. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 19, 205–209 (1966)Google Scholar
  18. JAYA RAO, K.S., RAGHURAMULU, N.: Insulin secretion in kwashiorkor. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 35, 63–66 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. JAYA RAO, K.S., SRIKANTIA, S.G., GOPALAN, C.: Plasma Cortisol levels in protein-calorie malnutrition. Arch. Dis. Childh. 43, 365–367 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. LEWIS, B., HANSEN, J.D.L., WITTMAN, W., KRUT, L.H., STEWART, F.: Plasma free fatty acids in kwashiorkor and the pathogenesis of the fatty liver. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 15, 161–168 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. LUNN, P.G., WHITEHEAD, R.G., BAKER, B.A., AUSTIN, S.: The effect of cortisone acetate on the course of development of experimental protein-energy malnutrition in rats. Brit. J. Nutr. 36, 537–550 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. LUNN, P.G., WHITEHEAD, R.G., HAY, R.W., BAKER, B.A.: Progressive changes in serum Cortisol, insulin and growth hormone concentrations and their relationship to the distorted amino acid pattern during the development of kwashiorkor. Brit. J. Nutr. 29, 399–422 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. MCLAREN, D.S.: A fresh look at protein-calorie malnutrition. Lancet 1, 485–488 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. MILNER, R.D.G.: Metabolic and hormonal responses to glucose and glucagon in patients with infantile malnutrition. Peadiat. Res. 5, 33–39 (1971a)Google Scholar
  25. MILNER, R.D.G.: Metabolic and hormonal responses to oral amino acids in infantile malnutrition. Arch. Dis. Childh. 46, 301–305 (1971b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. MONCKEBERG, F., BEAS, F., HORWITH, I., DABANCENS, A., GONZALEZ, M.: Oxygen consumption in infant malnutrition. Pediatrics 33, 554–561 (1964)Google Scholar
  27. MULINOS, M.G., POMERANTZ, L.: Pseudohypophysectomy. J. Nutr. 19, 493–504 (1940)Google Scholar
  28. MUNRO, H.N.: General aspects of the regulation of protein metabolism by diet and by hormones. In: Mammalian Protein Metabolism. Vol. I. Munro, H.N., Allison, J.B. (eds.). New York-London: Academic Press, 1964, pp. 381–481Google Scholar
  29. NOUY, L. DU: Human Destiny. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1947Google Scholar
  30. PARRA, A., GARZA, C., KLISH, W., GARCIA, G., ARGOTE, R.M., CANSECO, L., CUELLAR, A., NICHOLS, B.L.: Insulin-growth hormone adaptations in marasmus and kwashiorkor as seen in Mexico. In: Endocrine Aspects of Malnutrition. Gardner, L.I., Amacher, P. (eds.). Santa Ynez (Calif.): Kroc Foundation, 1973, pp. 31–43Google Scholar
  31. PECILE, A., MULLER, E.: Suppressive action of corticosteroids on the secretion of growth hormone. J. Endocrinol. 36, 401–408 (1966)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. PERLOFF, W.H., LASCHE, E.M., NODINE, J.H., SCHNEEBERG, N.G., VIEILLARD, C.B.: The starvation state and functional hypopituitarism. J. Am. Med. Assn. 155, 1307–1313 (1954)Google Scholar
  33. PIMSTONE, B.L., BARBEZAT, G., HANSEN, J.D.L., MURRAY, P.: Studies on growth hormone secretion in protein-calorie malnutrition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 21, 482–487 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. RAGHURAMULU, N., JAYA RAO, K.S.: Growth hormone secretion in protein-calorie malnutrition. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 38, 176–180 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. ROBINSON, H., COCKS, T., KERR, D., PICOU, D.: Fasting and postprandial levels of plasma insulin and growth hormone in malnourished Jamaican children, during catchup growth and after clinical recovery. In: Endocrine Aspects of Malnutrition.Google Scholar
  36. GARDNER, L.I., AMACHER, P. (eds.). Santa Ynez (Calif.): Kroc Foundation, 1973, pp. 45–72Google Scholar
  37. SAMUEL, A.M., DESHPANDE, U.R.: Growth hormone levels in protein-calorie malnutrition. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 35, 863–867 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. SELYE, H.: The Story of the Adaptation Syndrome. Montreal, Canada: Acta Inc. Medical Publishers, 1952Google Scholar
  39. WATERLOW, J.C.: Observations on the mechanism of adaptation to low protein intakes. Lancet 2, 1091–1097 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. WATERLOW, J.C., ALLEYNE, G.A.O.: Protein malnutrition in children. Advances in knowledge in the last ten years. Adv. Prot. Chem. 25, 11–7–241 (1971)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Jaya Rao

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations