Snake Venoms pp 956-977 | Cite as

Symptomatology, Pathology and Treatment of the Bites of Viperid Snakes

  • P. Efrati
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 52)


The present chapter deals with clinical problems concerning bites of certain viperid snakes, often included in the subfamily of Viperinae, such as Atractaspis, Bitis, Cerastes, Echis, and Vipera. Bites by crotalid snakes are discussed in Chapter 27.


Disseminate Intravascular Clotting Snake Venom Snake Bite Anti Venom General Manifestation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahuja, M.L., Singh, G.: Snakebite in India. In: Venoms, pp. 341–351. Washington, D.C.: Amer. Ass. Advanc. Sci. 1956Google Scholar
  2. Allon, N., Kochva, E.: The quantities of venom injected into prey of different size by Vípera palestinae in a single bite. J. exp. Zool. 138, 71–75 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ameratunga, B.: Middle cerebral occlusion following Russell’s viper bite. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 75, 95–97 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold, R.E.: Results of treatment of Crotalus envenomation. Amer. Surg. 41, 643–647 (1975)Google Scholar
  5. Barnes, J. M., Trueta, J.: Absorption of bacterial toxin and snake venoms from the tissues. Lancet 1941, 623–626Google Scholar
  6. Biran, H., Stern, J., Dvilansky, A.: Impaired platelet aggregation after Echis colorata bite in man. (Letter to the editor). Israel J. med. Sci. 8, 1257 (1972)Google Scholar
  7. Chajek, T., Rubinger, D., Alkan, M., Melmed, R.M., Gunders, A.E.: Anaphylactoid reaction and tissue damage following bite by Atractaspis engaddensis. Trans. roy. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 68, 333–337 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapman, D.S.: The Symptomatology, pathology, and treatment of the bites of venomous snakes of Central ans Southern Africa. In: Biicherl, W., Buckley, E., Denlofen, V. (Eds.): Venomons Animals and Their Venoms, Vol. I, pp. 463–527. New York: Academic Press 1968Google Scholar
  9. Chugh, K.S., Aikat, B.K., Sharma, B.K., Dash, S.C., Matthew, M. Th., Dash, K.C.: Acute renal failure following snakebite. Amer. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 24, 692–697 (1975)Google Scholar
  10. Corkill, N.L.: Snake poisoning in the Sudan. In: Buckley, E., Porges, N. (Eds.): Venoms, pp. 331–339, Washington, D.C.: Amer. Ass. Adv. Sci. 1956Google Scholar
  11. Corkill, N.S., Jonides, Jr., C., Pitma, C. R. S.: Biting and poisoning by the mole vipers of the genus Atractaspis. Trans, roy. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 53, 95–101 (1959)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dvilansky, A., Biran, H.: Hypofibrinogenemia after Echis color ata bite in man. Acta Haemat. 49, 123–127 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Efrati, P.: Observations on 125 cases of viper bite. (In Hebrew). Harefuah 63, 1–10 (1962)Google Scholar
  14. Efrati, P.: Clinical manifestations of snake bite by Vipera xanthina palestinae (Werner) and their pathophysiological basis. Mem. Inst. Butantan 32, 189–191 (1966)Google Scholar
  15. Efrati, P., Reif, L.: Clinical and pathological observations on sixty five cases of viper bite in Israel. Amer. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 2, 1085–1108 (1953)Google Scholar
  16. Ellis, E.F., Smith, R.T.: Systemic anaphylaxis after rattle snake bite. J. Amer. med. Ass. 193, 401 – 402 (1965)Google Scholar
  17. Fainaru, M., Eisenberg, S., Manny, N., Hershko, C.: The natural course of defibrination syndrome caused by Echis colorata venom in man. Thromb. Diathes. hemorrh. (Stuttg.) 31, 420–428 (1974)Google Scholar
  18. Fainaru, M., Manny, N., Hershko, C., Eisenberg, S.: Defibrination following Echis colorata bite in man. Israel J. med. Sci. 6, 720–725 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Glass, Jr., T.G.: Early debridment in pit viper bite. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 136, 774–776 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Goodman, S.S., Gilman, A.: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 5th Ed. New York: Mac Millan 1975Google Scholar
  21. Greenwood, B.M., Warrell, D.A., Davidson, N. Mc.D., Ormerod, S.D., Reid, H.A.: Immunodiagnosis of snake bite. Brit. med. J. 1974VI, 743–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huang, T.T., Lynch, J.B., Larson, D.S., Lewis, S.R.: Management of snakebite. Ann. Surg. 179, 598–607 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kaiser, E., Raab, W.: Liberation of pharmacologically active substances from mast cells by animal venoms. Mem. Inst. Butantan 33, 461–466 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kessler, I.: Personal communication (1976)Google Scholar
  25. Kochva, E.: On the anatomy of the venom apparatus in snakes and venom secretion by Vipera palestinae. Dapin Refuiim (Folia Medica) 21, 593–607 (In Hebrew) (1962)Google Scholar
  26. Leffkowitz, M., Casper, J., Gitter, S., Kochwa, S., deVries, A.: The bite of the Vipera palestinae in Israel. Abstracts of the Sixth Internat. Congress of Int. Med., Basle, 1960, p. 246Google Scholar
  27. Leopold, R.S., Merriam, T.W.: The effectiveness of tourniquet, incision and suction in snake venom removal. Naval Med. Field Res. Lab. 10, 211–240 (1960)Google Scholar
  28. Man, G.: Snake bites in Israel, M.D. Thesis University of Jerusalem (In Hebrew) 1976Google Scholar
  29. Munter, S. (Ed.): Maimonides’ Medical Works. Jerusalem: Rubin Mass 1947Google Scholar
  30. Path, J., Ravid, M.: Aspis cerastes bite—Case report (In Hebrew) Harefuah 81, 85–86 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ravina, A., Lehman, E., Gottfried, J., Stern, J.: Echis colorata bite and treatment with specific antiserum (In Hebrew) Harefuah 69, 309–310 (1965)Google Scholar
  32. Reid, H.A.: Symptomatology and treatment of land snake bites in India and southeast Asia. In: Bucherl, W., Buckley, E., Deulofeu, V. (Eds.): Venomous Animals and Their Venoms, Vol. I, pp. 611–642. New York: Academic Press 1968Google Scholar
  33. Reid, H.A.: Adder bites in Britain. Brit. med. J. 1976 II, 153–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Reif, L.: Snake bite, a pathologic—anatomical study (In Hebrew with English summary). Dapim Refuiim (Folia Medica) 21, 651–654 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Russell, F.E., Quilligan, Jr., J. J.: Snakebite. J. Amer. med. Ass. 195, 596–597 (1966)Google Scholar
  36. Sadan, N., Soroker, B.: Observations on the effects of the bite of a venomous snake on children and adults. J. Pediat. 76, 711–715 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Seeat, J.K., Reddy, J., Edington, D.R.: Acute renal failure due to proliferative nephritis from snake bite poisoning. Nephron 13, 455–463 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shargil, A., Shabaton, D., Rosenthal, T.: Clinical and laboratory findings in Aspis cerastes snake bite (In Hebrew with English summary) Harefuah 85, 504–508 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Shulov, A., Ben Shaul, D., Rosin, R., Nitzan, M.: The efficacy of suction as a method of treatment in snake venom poisoning. Toxicon 7, 15–18 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sitprija, V., Benyajati, C., Boonpucknavig: Further observations of renal insufficiency in snake bite. Nephron 13, 396–403 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sutherland, S. K., Coulter, A. R., Broad, A. J., Hilton, J. M.N., Lane, L.H.D.: Human snake bite victims: the successful detection of circulating snake venom by radioimmunoassay. Med. J. Aust. 1, 27–29 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Vries, A., de Condrea, E., Klibanski, C., Rechnic, J., Moroz, C., Kirschman, C.: Hematological effects of the venoms of two Near Eastern snakes: Vipera palestinae and Echis colorata (In Hebrew with English summary). Dapim Refuiim (Folia Medica) 21, 614–625 (1962)Google Scholar
  43. Vries, A., de Gitter, S.: The action of Vípera xanthina palestinae venom on blood coagulation in vitro. Brit. J. Haemat. 3, 379–386 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Warrell, D.A., Davidson, N.McD., Ormerod, L.D., Pope, H.M., Watkins, B. J., Greenwood, B.M., Reid, H.A.: Bites by the saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis carinatus): Trial of two specific antivenoms. Brit. med. J. 1974IV, 437–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Warrell, D.A., Ormerod, L.D., Davidson, N. McD.: Bites by Puff adder (Bitis arietans) in Nigeria and value of antivenom. Brit. med. J. 1975IV, 697–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Weiss, H. J., Phillips, L.L., Hopewell, W.S., Phillips, G., Christy, N. P., Nitti, J.F.: Heparin therapy in a patient bitten by a saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus), a snake whose venom activates prothrombin. Amer. J. Med. 54, 653–662 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yatziv, S., Manny, N., Ritchie, J., Russell, A.: The indication of afibrinogenemia by Echis colorata snake bite. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 77, 136–138 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Efrati

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations