Snake Venoms pp 591-628 | Cite as

Liberation of Pharmacologically Active Substances by Snake Venoms

  • A. M. Rothschild
  • Z. Rothschild
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 52)

Abstract

Indirect effects of snake venoms due to the release or formation of pharmacologically highly active autacoids (Douglas, 1975) are an important aspect of snake venom pharmacology. Autacoids like histamine, kinins, slow-reacting substances (SRS), 5-hydroxytryptamine, and anaphylatoxins have been associated with a great number of pathologic processes ranging in severity from mild allergy to anaphylactic or septic shock. However, considerable mystery still surrounds the origin and contribution of each of these compounds to such pathologic reactions. This statement also holds true for many symptoms of snake venom poisoning. Nevertheless, considerable inroads into the field of autopharmacology, especially in its relation to pathology, have resulted from snake venom research and further progress is to be expected. The recognition of the sensitivity of labile histamine reservoirs in tissues to cytolytic agents (Feldberg and Kellaway, 1937 b), of the ability of tissues and blood to generate “slow-reacting” smooth muscle stimulants (Feldberg and Kellaway, 1938; Rocha e Silva et al., 1949), of the relationship of kinins to the kallikrein system (Werle et al., 1950), and of the biochemical relationships of anaphylatoxin-generating venoms (Vogt and Schmidt, 1964) to the complement system (Müller-Eberhard, 1967) are outstanding examples of the contributions which snake venom research has brought to basic biology.

Keywords

Toxicity Heparin Serotonin Fractionation Polypeptide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amorim, D.S., Manço, J. C., Ferreira, S. H., Tanaka, A., Cardoso, S. S.: Hemodynamic effects of bradykinin potentiated by a factor contained in the Bothrops jararaca venom. Comparative results with eledoisin. Acta physiol. lat.-amer. 17, 258–261 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, D.: Pain. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Bradykinin, Kallidin, and Kallikrein, Vol. XXV. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  3. Bagdasarian, A., Talamo, R.C., Coiman, R.W.: Isolation of high molecular weight activators of human plasma prekallikrein. J. biol. Chem. 248, 3456–3463 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ballow, M., Cochrane, G.G.: Two anticomplementary factors in cobra venom: hemolysis of guinea pig erythrocytes by one of them. J. Immunol. 103, 944–952 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Beraldo, W.T., Dias da Silva, W.: Release of histamine by animal venoms and bacterial toxins. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Histamine. Its Chemistry Metabolism and Physiological and Pharmacological Actions, Vol. XVIII. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1966Google Scholar
  6. Bergström, S., Carlson, L.A., Weeks, J.R.: The prostaglandins: a family of biologically active lipids. Pharmacol. Rev. 20, 1–48 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergström, S., Danielsson, H., Samuelsson, B.: The enzymatic formation of prostaglandin E2 from arachidonic acid. Biochim. biophys. Acta (Amst.) 90, 207–210 (1964)Google Scholar
  8. Bhargava, N., Vargaftig, B.B., Vos, C. J. de, Bonta, I. L., Tijs, T.: Dissociation of oedema provoking factor of Agkistrodon piscivorus venom from kininogenase. In: Back, N., Sicuteri, I. (Eds.): Vasopeptides. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Pathophysiology. New York-London: Plenum Press 1972Google Scholar
  9. Birdsey, V., Lindorfer, J., Gewurz, H.: Interaction of toxic venoms with the complement system. Immunology 21, 299–310 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Black, J.W., Duncan, W.A.M., Durant, C.J., Ganellin, C.R., Parsons, E.M.: Definition and antagonism of histamine H2-receptors. Nature (Lond.) New Biol. 236, 358–390 (1972)Google Scholar
  11. Bodammer, G.: Untersuchungen über den Mechanismus der Blutdruckwirkung des Anaphylatoxins bei Katzen und Meerschweinchen. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch.-Pharmak. exp. Path. 262, 197–207 (1969)Google Scholar
  12. Bodammer, G., Vogt, W.: Actions of anaphylatoxin on circulation and respiration of the guinea pig. Int. Arch. Allergy 32, 417–428 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brecher, G.A., Brobmann, G.F.: Effect of kallikrein on the cardiovascular system. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol., Vol. XXV. Bradykinin, Kallidin, and Kallikrein. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  14. Brocklehurst, W. E.: The release of histamine and formation of a slow reacting substance (SRS-A) during anaphylactic shock. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 151, 416–435 (1960)Google Scholar
  15. Chakravarty, N., Uvnäs, B.: Histamine and a lipid-soluble smooth-muscle stimulating principle (“SRS”) in anaphylactic reaction. Acta physiol. scand. 48, 302–314 (1960)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheymol, J., Bourillet, F., Roch-Arveiller, M.: Actions neuromusculaires de venins de serpents. In: Vries, A., de, Kochva, E. (Eds.): Toxins of Animal and Plant Origin, Vol. II. New York-London-Paris: Gordon and Breach 1972Google Scholar
  17. Chiang, T.S., Ho, K.J., Lee, C.Y.: Release of histamine from the rat diaphragm preparation by Formosan snake venoms. J. Formosan med. Ass. 63, 127–132 (1964)Google Scholar
  18. Chopra, R.N., Chowhan, J.S.: Action of the Indian daboia (Vipera russellii) venom on the circulatory system. Indian J. med. Res. 21, 493–506 (1934)Google Scholar
  19. Chopra, R.N., Chowhan, J.S., De, N.N.: An experimental investigation into the action of the venom of E. cannata. Indian J. med. Res. 23, 391–405 (1935)Google Scholar
  20. Chute, A.L., Waters, E.T.: Effect of rattlesnake venom (Crotalin) on plasma histamine of the rabbit. Amer. J. Physiol. 132, 552–554 (1941)Google Scholar
  21. Cochrane, C.G., Müller-Eberhard, H.J.: The derivation of two distinct anaphylatoxin activities from the third and fifth components of human complement. J. exp. Med. 127, 371–386 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cochrane, C.G., Müller-Eberhard, H. J., Aikin, S.: Depletion of plasma complement in vivo by a protein of cobra venom: its effect on various immunologic reactions. J. Immunol. 105, 55 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cohen, I., Zur, M., Kaminsky, E., Vries, A. de: Isolation and characterization of kinin-releasing enzyme of Echis coloratus venom. Biochem. Pharmacol. 19, 785–793 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Collier, H.O., Lee, I. R.: Nocioceptive responses of guinea-pigs to intradermal injections of brady-kinin and kallidin-10. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 21, 155–164 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Condrea, E., Vries, A. de Mager, J.: Hemolysis and splitting of human erythrocyte phospholipids by snake venoms. Biochim. biophys. Acta (Amst.) 84, 60–73 (1964)Google Scholar
  26. Dale, H.H., Laidlaw, P.P.: The physiological action of β-imidazolylethylamine. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 41, 318–344(1910)Google Scholar
  27. Damerau, B., Lege, L., Oldigs, H.-D., Vogt, W.: Histamine release, formation of prostaglandin-like activity (SRS-C) and mast cell degranulation by the direct lytic factor (DLF) and phospholipase A of cobra venom. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 287, 141–156 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Deenen, L.L.M. van, Haas, G.H. de: Phosphoglycerides and phospholipases. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 35, 157–194(1966)Google Scholar
  29. Dorp, D.A. van, Beerthius, R.K., Nugteren, D.H., Vonkeman, H.: The biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Biochim. biophys. Acta (Amst.) 90, 204–207 (1964)Google Scholar
  30. Deutsch, H. F., Diniz, C.R.: Some proteolytic activities of snake venoms. J. biol. Chem. 216, 17 – 25(1955)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Devi, A., Sarkar, N. K.: Cardiotoxic and cardio-stimulating factors in cobra venom. Mem. Inst. Butantan 33, 573–582 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dias da Silva, W., Lepow, I.H.: Complement as a mediator of inflammation. II. Biological properties of anaphylatoxin prepared with purified component of human complement. J. exp. Med. 125, 921–946(1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Douglas, W. W.: Stimulus-secretion coupling: the concept and clues from chromaffin and other cells. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 34, 451–474 (1968)Google Scholar
  34. Douglas, W.W.: Autacoids. In: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 5th Ed. New York: Collier MacMillan 1975Google Scholar
  35. Dragstedt, C.A., Mead, F.B., Eyer, S.W.: Role of histamine in circulatory effects of rattlesnake venom. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 37, 709–710 (1938)Google Scholar
  36. Dutta, N.K., Naranyan, K.G.A.: Release of histamine from rat diaphragm by cobra venom. Nature (Lond.) 169, 1064–1065 (1952)Google Scholar
  37. Edery, H., Lewis, G.P.: Kinin-forming activity and histamine in lymph after tissue injury. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 169, 568–583 (1963)Google Scholar
  38. Efrati, P.: Clinical manifestations of snake bite by Vipera xanthina palestinae (Werner) and their pathophysiological basis. Mem. Inst. Butantan 33, 189–191 (1966)Google Scholar
  39. Erdös, E.G., Yang, H.Y.T.: Kininases. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Bradykinin, Kallidin, and Kallikrein, Vol. XXV. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  40. Erspamer, V.: Occurrence of indolealkylamines in nature. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. 5-Hy-droxytryptamine and Related Indolealkylamines, Vol. XIX. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1966Google Scholar
  41. Fearn, H.J., Smith, C., West, G.B.: Capillary permeability responses to snake venoms. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 16, 79–84 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Feldberg, W.: The action of histamine on the blood vessels of the rabbit. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 63, 211–216(1927)Google Scholar
  43. Feldberg, W.: The action of bee venom, cobra venom and lysolecithin on the adrenal medulla. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 99, 104–118 (1940)Google Scholar
  44. Feldberg, W., Holden, H. F., Kellaway, C. H.: The formation of lysocithin and of a muscle-stimulating substance by snake venoms. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 94, 232–248 (1938)Google Scholar
  45. Feldberg, W., Kellaway, C. H.: The circulatory and pulmonary effects of the venom of the Australian copperhead (Denisonia superba). Aust. J. Biol. med. Sci. 15, 81–95 (1937 a)Google Scholar
  46. Feldberg, W., Kellaway, C.H.: Liberation of histamine from the perfused lung by snake venoms. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 90, 257–279 (1937 b)Google Scholar
  47. Feldberg, W., Kellaway, C.H.: Circulatory effects of the venom of the Indian cobra (N. naja) in cats. Aust. J. Biol. med. Sci. 15, 159–172 (1937c)Google Scholar
  48. Feldberg, W., Kellaway, C.H.: Circulatory effects of the venom of the Indian cobra (N. naja) in dogs. Aust. J. Biol. med. Sci. 15, 441–460 (1937 d)Google Scholar
  49. Feldberg, W., Kellaway, C.H.: Liberation of histamine and formation of lysolecithin-like substances by Cobra venom. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 94, 187–226 (1938)Google Scholar
  50. Ferreira, S. H.: A bradykinin-potentiating factor (BPF) present in the venom of Bothrops jararaca. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 24, 163–169 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Flower, R. J.: Drugs which inhibit prostaglandin biosynthesis. Pharmacol. Rev. 26, 33–67 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fong, J.S.C., Good, R. A.: Prevention of the localized and generalized Schwartzman reaction by an anticomplementary agent, cobra venom factor. J. exp. Med. 134, 642–655 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Fredholm, B., Haegermark, Ö.: Histamine release from rat mast cells induced by a mast cell degranulating factor in bee venom. Acta physiol. scand. 69, 304–1312 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Friedberger, E., Mita, S., Kumagai, T.: Die Bildung eines akutwirkenden Giftes (Anaphylatoxin) aus Toxinen (Tetanus, Diphterie, Schlangengift). Z. Immun.-Forsch. 17, 506–538 (1913)Google Scholar
  55. Gewurz, H., Pickering, R.J., Day, N.K., Good, R.A.: Cobra venom factor-induced activation of the complement system: Developmental, experimental and clinical considerations. Int. Arch. Allergy 40, 47–58(1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Giertz, H.: Pharmacology of anaphylatoxin. In: Movat, H.Z. (Ed.): Cellular and Humoral Mechanisms in Anaphylaxis and Allergy. Basel-New York: Karger 1969Google Scholar
  57. Giertz, H., Hahn, F.: Makromolekulare Histaminliberatoren. C. Das Anaphylatoxin. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol, Vol. XVIII. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1966Google Scholar
  58. Götze, O., Müller-Eberhard, H. J.: The C3-activator system: an alternate pathway of complement activation. J. exp. Med. 134, 905–108 (1971)Google Scholar
  59. Goth, A., Johnson, A. R.: Current concepts on the secretory function of mast cells. Life Sci. 16, 1201–1214(1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Grasset, E., Schwartz, D.E.: Inhibition des principes coagulants de venins de serpents par le sulfate de dextran. Rev. Suisse Pathol. Bacteriol. 17, 38–45 (1954)Google Scholar
  61. Habermann, E.: Zuordnung pharmakologischer und enzymatischer Wirkungen von Kallikrein und Schlangengiften mittels Diisoprophylfluorophosphat und Elektrophorese. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Exp. Pharmakol. 240, 552–572 (1961)Google Scholar
  62. Habermann, E.: Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der Plasmakinine. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 245, 230–253 (1963)Google Scholar
  63. Habermann, E.: Kininogens. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Bradykinin, Kallidin, and Kallikrein, Vol. XXV. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  64. Habermann, E., Neumann, W.: Die Hemmung der Hitzekoagulation von Eigelb durch Bienengift, ein Phospholipase-Effect. Hoppe-Seylers Z. physiol. Chem. 297, 179–189 (1954)Google Scholar
  65. Haddy, F.J., Emerson, T.E., Jr., Scott, J.B., Daugherty, N.M., Jr.: The effect of the kinins on the cardiovascular system. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Bradykinin, Kallidin, and Kallikrein, Vol. XXV. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  66. Halmagyi, D.F.J., Starzecki, B., Horner, G.J.: Mechanism and pharmacology of shock due to rattlesnake venom in sheep. J. appl. Physiol. 20, 709–718 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hamberg, U., Rocha e Silva, M.: On the release of bradykinin by trypsin and snake venoms. Arch. int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 110, 222–238 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Henriques, O.B., Evseeva, L.: Proteolytic, esterase, and kinin-releasing activities of some soviet snake venoms. Toxicon 6, 205–209 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Henriques, O. B., Fichman, M., Beraldo,W.T.: Bradykinin-releasing factor from Bothrops jararaca venom. Nature (Lond.) 187, 414–415 (1960)Google Scholar
  70. Henriques, O.B., Gapanhuk, E., Kauritcheva, A., Budnitskaya, B.: Methionyl-lysyl bradykinin release from plasma kininogen by plasmin. Biochem. Pharmacol. 18, 1788–1790 (1969)Google Scholar
  71. Henriques, O.B., Picarelli, Z.P., Ferraz de Oliveira, M.C.: Partial purification of the plasma substrate for the bradykinin-releasing enzyme from the venom of Bothrops jararaca. Biochem. Pharmacol. 11, 707–713 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Henson, P.M.: Interaction of cells with immune complexes, adherence, release of constituents, and tissue injury. J. exp. Med. 134, 114s—135s (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Henson, P.M., Cochrane, C.G.: Antigen-antibody complexes, platelets, and increased vascular permeability. In: Movat, H.Z. (Ed.): Cellular and Humoral Mechanisms of Anaphylaxis and Allergy. Basel: Karger 1969Google Scholar
  74. Hilton, S.M.: The physiological role of glandular kallikreins. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol., Vol. XXV. Bradykinin, Kallidin, and Kallikrein. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  75. Högberg, B., Uvnäs, B.: The mechanism of the disruption of mast cells produced by compound 48/80. Acta physiol. scand. 41, 345–369 (1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Holtz, P., Raudonat, H. W.: Über Beziehungen zwischen proteolytischer Aktivität und blutcoagu-lierender sowie bradykinin-freisetzender Wirkung von Schlangengiften. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 229, 113–122 (1956)Google Scholar
  77. Hunsicker, L.G., Ruddy, S., Austen, K.F.: Alternate complement pathway factors involved in cobra venom factor (CVF) activation of the 3rd component of complement (C3). J. Immunol. 11, 128 (1973)Google Scholar
  78. Ishida, Y., Yamashita, S., Ohsaka, A., Takahashi, T., Omori-Satoh, T.: Abstracts 4th International Symposium on Animal, Plant, and Microbial Toxins. Tokyo 1974Google Scholar
  79. Iwanaga, S., Sato, T., Mizushina, Y., Suzuki, T.: Studies on snake venoms. XVII. Properties of the bradykinin releasing enzyme in the venom of Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 58, 123–129 (1965)Google Scholar
  80. Johnson, A.R., Hugli, T.E., Müller-Eberhard, H.J.: Release of histamine from rat mast cells by the complement peptides C3a and C5a. Immunology 28, 1067–1080 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Kadowitz, P.J., Joiner, P.D., Hyman, A.L.: Physiological and pharmacological roles of prostaglandins. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 15, 285–306 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kaiser, E., Kramer, R., Lambrechter, R.: The action of direct lytic agents from animal venoms on cells and isolated cell fractions. In: de Vries, A., Kochva, E. (Eds.): Toxins of Animal and Plant Origin, Vol. II. New York-London-Paris: Gordon and Breach 1972Google Scholar
  83. Kaliner, M., Austen, K. F.: A sequence of biochemical events in the antigen-induced release of chemical mediators from sensitized human lung tissue. J. exp. Med. 138, 1077–1094 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kaplan, A.P., Austen, K.F.: A prealbumin activator of prekallikrein. J. Immunol. 105, 802–812 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Keele, C.A., Armstrong, D.: Substances Producing Pain and Itch. London: Edward Arnold 1964Google Scholar
  86. Kellaway, C.H., Trethewie, E.R.: The liberation of a show-reacting smooth-muscle-stimulating substance in anaphylaxis. Quast. J. exptl. Physiol. 30, 121–145 (1970)Google Scholar
  87. Keller, R.: Voraussetzungen für das Zustandekommen eines zytolysierenden Effektes durch Phosphatidase A. Helv. physiol. pharmacol. Acta 22, 76C—78C (1964)Google Scholar
  88. Klein, P.G., Wellensiek, H. J.: Multiple nature of the third component of guinea pig complement. I. Separation and characterization of three factors a, b, and c, essential for hemolysis. Immunology 8, 590–603 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kleine, I., Poppe, B., Vogt, W.: Functional identity of anaphylatoxin preparations obtained from different sources and by different activation procedures. I. Pharmacological experiments. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 10, 398–403 (1970)Google Scholar
  90. Kocholaty, W.F., Ledford, E.B., Daly, J.G., Billings, T.A.: Toxicity and some enzymatic properties and activities in the venoms of crotalidae, elapidae, and viperidae. Toxicon 9, 131–138 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kochwa, S., Perlmutter, C., Gitter, S., Rechnic, J., Vries, A. de: Studies on Vipera palestinae venom. Fractionation by ion exchange chromatography. Amer. J. trop. Med. 9, 374–380 (1960)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Laure, J. C.: Die Primärstruktur des Crotamins. Hoppe-Seylers Z. physiol. Chem. 356, 213–215 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Lefron, G., Michaud, V.: Contribution a l’étude de l’action des antihistaminiques dans le traitement des envenimations par mordures de serpents. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot. 49, 936–946 (1956)Google Scholar
  94. Lepow, I.H., Willms-Kretschmer, K., Patrick, R.A., Rosen, F.S.: Gross and ultrastructural observation on lesions produced by intradermal injection of human C3a in man. Amer. J. Path. 61, 13–24(1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Magalhães, A., Souza, G.J., Diniz, C.R.: Proteases de serpentes brasilieras. I. Separação de enzima coagulante (Clotase) do veneno de Lachesis mutus. Symposium: Application of Snake Venom in Pharmacology and Cell Biochemistry. Biological Society of Ribeirão Preto 1972. Ciência Cultura 25, 863–874 (1973)Google Scholar
  96. Mahler, F., Maglietta, M., Hugli, T.E., Johnson, A.R.: Influences of C3a anaphylatoxin compared to other vasoactive agents on the microcirculation of the rabbit omentum. Microvasc. Res. 9, 345–356 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Maillard, J.L., Zarco, R.M.: Decomplémentation par un facteur extrait du venin de cobra. Effect sur plusieurs reactions immunes des cobayes et du rat. Ann. Inst. Pasteur (Paris) 114, 756 – 774(1968)Google Scholar
  98. Margolis, J., Bruce, S., Starzecki, B., Horner, G.J., Halmagyi, D.F.J.: Release of bradykinin-like substance (BKLS) in sheep by venom of Crotalus atrox. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 43, 237 – 245 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Markwardt, F., Barthel, W., Glusa, E., Hoffmann, A.: Über die Freisetzung biogener Amine aus Blutplättchen durch tierische Gifte. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 252, 297–304 (1966 a)Google Scholar
  100. Markwardt, F., Barthel, W., Glusa, E., Hoffmann, A., Walsmann, P.: Über eine aminfreisetzende Komponente des Crotalus terrificus-Giftes. Biochem. Z. 346, 351–356 (1966 b)Google Scholar
  101. May, B., Holler, C., Westermann, E.: Über die Bedeutung der Phospholipase A für die histamin-freisetzende Wirkung des Cobragiftes. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch.-Pharmak. exp. Path. 256, 237–256(1967)Google Scholar
  102. Mebs, D.: Vergleichende Enzymuntersuchungen an Schlangengiften unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer caseinspaltenden Proteasen. Hoppe-Seylers Z. physiol. Chem. 349, 1115 – 1125(1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Mebs, D.: A comparative study of enzyme activities in snake venoms. Int. J. Biochem. 1, 335–342 (1970)Google Scholar
  104. Middleton, E. Jr., Phillips, G.B.: Distribution and properties of anaphylactic and venom-induced slow-reacting substance and histamine in guinea pigs. J. Immunol. 93, 220–227 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Minton, S. A. Jr.: Venom Diseases. Springfield: Thomas 1974Google Scholar
  106. Mohamed, A. H., El-Serougi, M.S., Hamed, R.M.: Effects of Naja nigricollis venom on blood and tissue histamine. Toxicon 9, 169–172 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Mohamed, A.H., Kamel, A., Ayobe, M.H.: Effects of Echis carinatus venom on tissue and blood histamine and their relations to local tissue reactions and eosinophil changes. Toxicon 6, 51–54(1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Mohamed, A.H., Khaled, L.Z.: Effect of Cerastes cerastes venom on blood and tissue histamine and on arterial blood pressure. Toxicon 6, 221–223 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Mohamed, A.H., Zaki, O.: Effect of Egyptian black snake toxin on histamine of blood and its relation to blood eosinophils. Amer. J. Physiol. 190, 113–116 (1957 a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Mohamed, A.H., Zaki, O.: The Walterinnesia toxin as a liberator of histamine from tissues. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 60, 275–280 (1957 b)Google Scholar
  111. Moran, N.C., Uvnäs, B., Westerholm, B.: Release of 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine from rat mast cells. Acta physiol. scand. 56, 26–41 (1962)Google Scholar
  112. Mota, I.: The mechanism of action of anaphylatoxin: its effect of guinea pig mast cells. Immunology 2, 403–413 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Mota, I.: Release of histamine from mast cells. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Histamine. Its Chemistry, Metabolism and Physiological and Pharmacological Actions, Vol. XVIII. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1966Google Scholar
  114. Moura Gonçalves, J.: Purification and properties of crotamine. In: Buckley, E.E., Porges, N. (Eds.): Venoms, p. 261. Washington, D.C.: Amer. Ass. Advanc. Science 1956Google Scholar
  115. Moura Goncalves, J., Rocha e Silva, M.: Fator de permeabilidade capilar no veneno de Crotalus terrificus crotaminicus. Ciência Cultura (Brazil) 10, 163 (1958)Google Scholar
  116. Müller-Eberhard, H. J.: Mechanism of inactivation of the third component of human complement (C′3) by cobra venom. Fed. Proc. 26, 744 (1967)Google Scholar
  117. Müller-Eberhard, H. J.: Complement. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 44, 697–724 (1975)Google Scholar
  118. Müller-Eberhard, H. J., Fjellström, K. E.: Isolation of the anticomplementary protein from cobra venom and its mode of action on C3. J. Immunol. 107, 1666–1672 (1972)Google Scholar
  119. Müller-Eberhard, H. J., Vallota, E.H.: In: Austen, K.F., Becker, E.L. (Eds.): Biochemistry of the Acute Allergic Reactions. Oxford: Blackwell 1971Google Scholar
  120. Orange, R.P., Murphy, R.C., Karnovsky, M.L., Austen, K.F.: The physiochemical characteristics and purification of slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis. J. Immunol. 110, 760–770 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Oshima, G., Sato Omori, T., Suzuki, T.: Distribution of proteinase, arginine ester hydrolase and kinin releasing enzyme in various kinds of snake venoms. Toxicon 7, 229–233 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Osman, O.H., Gumaa, K.A.: Pharmacological studies of snake (Bitis arietans) venom. Toxicon 12, 569–575 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Ouyang, C.H., Shiau, S.Y.: Relationship between pharmacological actions and enzymatic activities of the venom of Trimeresurus gramineus. Toxicon 8, 183–191 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Padawer, J., Gordon, A. S.: Cellular elements in the peritoneal fluid of some mammals. Anat. Rec. 124, 209–222(1956)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Parrat, J.R., West, G.B.: 5-Hydroxytryptamine and tissue mast cells. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 137, 169–178(1957)Google Scholar
  126. Paton, W. D. M.: Histamine release by compounds of simple chemical structure. Pharmacol. Rev. 9, 269–328(1957)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Pickering, R. J., Wolfrom, M.R., Good, R. A., Gewurz, H.: Passive hemolysis by serum and cobra factor: a new mechanism inducing membrane damage by complement. Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 62, 521–527(1969)Google Scholar
  128. Ratnoff, O., Miles, A.A.: The induction of permeability-increasing activity in human plasma by activated Hageman factor. Brit. J. exp. Path. 45, 328–338 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Rocha e Silva, M.: Autofarmacologia e venenos animais. Arq. Inst. Biol. (Sao Paulo) 19, 1–22 (1949)Google Scholar
  130. Rocha e Silva, M.: Action of histamine upon the circulatory apparatus. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Histamine. Its Chemistry, Metabolism and Physiological and Pharmacological Actions, Vol. XVIII. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1966Google Scholar
  131. Rocha e Silva, M., Beraldo, W.T., Rosenfeld, G.: Bradykinin, a hypotensive and smooth muscle stimulating principle released from plasma globulin by snake venoms and by trypsin. Amer. J. Physiol. 156, 261–273 (1949)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Rocha e Silva, M., Essex, H. E.: The effects of animal poisons (rattle-snake venom and trypsin) on blood histamine of guinea pigs and rabbits. Amer. J. Physiol. 135, 372–377 (1942)Google Scholar
  133. Rocha e Silva, M., Rothschild, A.M.: Experimental design for bioassay of a material inducing strong tachyphylactic effect (anaphylatoxin). Brit. J. Pharmacol. 11, 252–263 (1956)Google Scholar
  134. Rosa, A.T., Rothschild, Z., Rothschild, A.M.: Fibrinolytic activity evoked in the plasma of normal and adrenalectomized rats by cellulose sulphate. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 45, 470–475 (1972)Google Scholar
  135. Rosen, M., Gitter, S., Edery, H.: Histamine release and formation of a bradykinin-like substance by Vipera palestinae snake venom. Harokeach Haivri 10, 333 (1964)Google Scholar
  136. Rosenberg, P.: Use of phospholipases in studying nerve structure and function. In: Vries, A. de, Kochva, E. (Eds.): Toxins of Animal and Plant Origin, Vol. I. New York-London-Paris: Gordon and Breach 1972Google Scholar
  137. Rothschild, A.M.: Fatores liberadores de histamina de venenos crotálico e de abelha. Ciência Cultura 15, 278–279 (1963)Google Scholar
  138. Rothschild, A.M.: Histamine release by bee venom phospholipase A and melittin in the rat. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 25, 59–66 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Rothschild, A.M.: Mechanism of histamine release by animal venoms. Mem. Inst. Butantan 33, 467–476 (1966 a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Rothschild, A.M.: Histamine release by basic compounds. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Histamine. Its Chemistry, Metabolism and Physiological and Pharmacological Actions, Vol. XVIII. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1966bGoogle Scholar
  141. Rothschild, A.M.: Chromatographic separation of phospholipase A from a histamine releasing component of Brazilian rattlesnake venom. Experientia (Basel) 23, 741–742 (1967)Google Scholar
  142. Rothschild, A.M.: Pharmacodynamic properties of cellulose sulfate, a bradykininogen-depleting agent in the rat. Brit. J. Pharm. 33, 501–511 (1968)Google Scholar
  143. Rothschild, A.M.: Mechanisms of histamine release by compound 48/80. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 38, 253–262 (1970)Google Scholar
  144. Rothschild, A.M., Almeida, J.A.: Role of bradykinin in the fatal shock induced by Bothrops jararaca venom in the rat. In: Vries, A. de, Kochva, E. (Eds.): Toxins of Animal and Plant Origin, Vol. II. New York-London-Paris: Gordon and Breach 1972Google Scholar
  145. Rothschild, A.M., Cordeiro, R.S.B., Castania, A.: Lowering of kininogen in rat blood by catecholamines. Involvement of non-eosinophil granulocytes and selective inhibition by Trasylol. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 282, 323–327 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Rothschild, A. M., Rocha e Silva, M.: Activation of a histamine-releasing agent (anaphylatoxin) in normal rat plasma. Brit. J. exp. Path. 35, 507–518 (1954)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Rothschild, A.M., Rothschild, Z.: Enzimas proteolíticas e liberação de histamina. Ciência Cultura 23, 481–485 (1971)Google Scholar
  148. Ruddy, S., Gigli, I., Austen, K. F.: The complement system of man. New Engl. J. Med. 287, 489 – 495 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Saeki, K.: Effects of compound 48/80, chymotrypsin and anti-serum on isolated mast cells under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Jap. J. Pharmacol. 14, 375–390 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Sasaki, J.: Mechanism of histamine release by α-chymotrypsin from isolated rat mast cells. Jap. J. Pharmacol. 25, 311–324 (1975)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Sato, T., Iwanaga, S., Mizushima, Y., Suzuki, T.: Studies on Snake Venoms. XV. Separation of arginine ester hydrolase of Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii venom into three enzymatic entities: bradykinin-releasing, clotting, and permeability-increasing. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 57, 380–391 (1965)Google Scholar
  152. Schachter, M.: Vasodilatation in the submaxillary gland of the cat, rabbit, sheep. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Bradykinin, Kallidin, and Kallikrein, Vol. XXV. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  153. Schenberg, S.: Geographical pattern of crotamine distribution in the same rattlesnake species. Science 129, 1361–1363 (1959)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Schoenmakers, J.G.G., Matze, R., Haanen, C., Zilliken, F.: Hageman factor, a novel sialoglyco-protein with esterase activity. Biochem. biophys. Acta (Amst.) 101, 166–173 (1965)Google Scholar
  155. Schöttler, W.H.A.: Antihistamine, ACTH, cortisone, hydrocortisone, and anesthetics in snake bites. Amer. J. trop. Med. 3, 1083–1091 (1954)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Schröder, E.: Structure-activity relationships of kinins. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Bradykinin, Kallidin, and Kallikrein, Vol. XXV. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  157. Schütz, R. M., Vogt, W.: Über die Natur der durch Cobragift in durchströmten Meerschweinchenlungen freigesetzten “Slow Reacting Substance”. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 240, 540–513 (1961)Google Scholar
  158. Seba, R.A.: Efeitos vasculares do veneno de B. atrox: sua inibição pela rutina e um antihistaminico. Rev. Flumin. Med. 14, 179–188 (1949)Google Scholar
  159. Slotta, K.H., Vick, J.A., Ginsberg, N.J.: Enzymatic and toxic activity of phospholipase A. In: Vries, A. de, Kochva, E. (Eds.): Toxins of Animal and Plant Origin, Vol. I. New York-London-Paris: Gordon and Breach 1972Google Scholar
  160. Smith, D.E.: Nature of secretory activity of the mast cell. Amer. J. Physiol. 193, 573–580 (1958)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Smith, D.E., Lewis, Y.S.: Preparation and effects of an anti-mast cell serum. J. exp. Med. 113, 683–692(1961)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Snyder, R.: Snake bite. Am. J. Dis. Child. 103, 85–96 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Somani, P., Arora, R.B.: Mechanism of increased capillary permeability induced by saw scaled viper (E. carinatus) venom. A possible new approach to the treatment of viperine snake poisoning. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 14, 394–395 (1964)Google Scholar
  164. Suzuki, T., Iwanaga, S.: Snake Venoms. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Bradykinin, Kallidin, and Kallikrein, Vol. XXV. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  165. Trautschold, I.: Assay methods in the kinin system. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Bradykinin, Kallidin, and Kallikrein, Vol. XXV. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  166. Treloar, M.P., Pyle, H.A., Fuller, P.J., Movat, H.Z.: Guinea pig prekallikrein activator. In: Back, N., Sicuteri, F. (Eds.): Vasopeptides, Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Pathophysiology. New York-London: Plenum Press 1972Google Scholar
  167. Trethewie, E.R.: Comparison of hemolysis and liberation of histamine by two Australian snake venoms. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 17, 145–156 (1939)Google Scholar
  168. Tu, A. T., James, G. P., Chua, A.: Some biochemical evidence in support of the classification of venomous snakes. Toxicon 3, 5–8 (1965)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Vallota, E.H., Müller-Eberhard, H. J.: Formation of C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins in whole human serum after inhibition of the anaphylatoxin inactivator. J. exp. Med. 137, 1109–1123 (1973)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Vargaftig, B. B.: Search for common mechanism underlying the various effects of putative inflammatory mediators. In: Ramwell, P. W. (Ed.): The Prostaglandins, Vol. II. New York-London: Plenum Press 1972Google Scholar
  171. Vargaftig, B.B., Dao, N.: Antagonism by anti-inflammatory drugs of tissue slow reacting substance C. Pharmacol. Res. Commun. 2, 149–157 (1970)Google Scholar
  172. Vargaftig, B.B., Dao, N.: Inhibition by sulfhydryl reagents of the effects of bradykinin, arachidonic acid and “slow reacting substance C”. In: Back, N., Sicuteri, F. (Eds.): Vasopeptides. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Pathophysiology. New York-London: Plenum Press 1972Google Scholar
  173. Vital Brazil, O., Prado-Franceschi, J., Laure, J. C.: On the nature of some effects caused by crotamine on skeletal muscle. Abstr. Comm. V. Intern. Congr. Pharmacol., S. Francisco, 1972, p. 243Google Scholar
  174. Vogt, W.: Pharmacologically active substances formed in egg yolk by cobra venom. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 136, 131–147(1957)Google Scholar
  175. Vogt, W.: Slow reacting substances. In: Movat, H.Z. (Ed.): Cellular and Humoral Mechanisms in Anaphylaxis and Allergy, pp. 187–195. Basel-New York: Karger 1969Google Scholar
  176. Vogt, W.: Activation, activities, and pharmacologically active products of complement. Pharmacol. Rev. 26, 125–169 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Vogt, W., Dieminger, L., Lynen, R., Schmidt, G.: Alternate pathway to complement activation in human serum: formation and composition of the complex with cobra venom factor which cleaves the third component of complement. Hoppe-Seylers Z. physiol. Chem. 355, 171–183 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Vogt, W., Meyer, U., Kunze, H., Luft, E., Babilli, S.: Entstehung von SRS-C in der durchströmten Meerschweinchenlunge durch Phospholipase A. Identifizierung mit Prostaglandin. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmak. exp. Path. 262, 124–134 (1969 b)Google Scholar
  179. Vogt, W., Schmidt, G.: Abtrennung des anaphylatoxin-bildenden Prinzips aus Cobragift von anderen Giftkomponenten. Experientia (Basel) 20, 207–208 (1964)Google Scholar
  180. Vogt, W., Zeman, N., Garbe, G.: Histaminunabhängige Wirkungen von Anaphylatoxin auf glatte Muskulatur isolierter Organe. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch.-Pharmak. exp. Path. 262, 399 – 404 (1969 a)Google Scholar
  181. Vries, A. de, Rechnic, Y., Moroz, Ch., Moav, B.: Prevention of Echis colorata venom-induced afibrinogenemia by heparin. Toxicon 1, 241–242 (1963)Google Scholar
  182. Vugman, I., Rocha e Silva, M.: Biological determination of histamine in living tissues and body fluids. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Histamine. Its Chemistry, Metabolism, and Physiological and Pharmacological Actions, Vol. XVIII. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1966Google Scholar
  183. Walaszek, E.J.: The effect of bradykinin and kallidin on smooth muscle. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Bradykinin, Kallidin, and Kallikrein, Vol. XXV. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  184. Ward, P.A.: Chemotactic factors for neutrophils, eosinophils, mononuclear cells and lymphocytes. In: Austen, K.F., Becker, E.L. (Eds.): Biochemistry of the Acute Allergic Reactions. Oxford: Blackwell 1971Google Scholar
  185. Ward, P.A., Chapitis J., Conroy, M.C., Lepow, I.H.: Generation by bacterial proteinases of leukotactic factors from human serum and human C3 and C5. J. Immunol. 110, 1003–1013 (1973)Google Scholar
  186. Webster, M.E.: Recommendations for Nomenclature and Units. In: Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. Bradykinin, Kallidin, and Kallikrein, Vol. XXV. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1970Google Scholar
  187. Webster, M. E., Pierce, J. V.: The nature of the kallidins released from human plasma by kallikreins and other enzymes. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 104, 91–107 (1963)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Weeks, J.R.: Prostaglandins. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 12, 317–336 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Werle, E., Forrel, M.M., Maier, L.: Zur Kenntnis der blutdrucksenkenden Wirkung des Trypsins. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 225, 369–380 (1955)Google Scholar
  190. Werle, E., Kehl, R., Koebke, K.: Über Bradykinin, Kallidin und Hypertensin. Biochem. Z. 320, 372–383 (1950)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Werle, E., Zach, P.: Verteilung von Kininogen in Serum und Geweben bei Ratten und anderen Säugetieren. Z. klin. Chem. klin. Biochem. 8, 186–189 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Westermann, E., Klapper, W.: Untersuchungen über die Kreislaufwirkung des Kobragiftes. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Path. Pharmak. 239, 68–80 (1960)Google Scholar
  193. Wilhelm, D.L.: The mediation of increased vascular permeability in inflammation. Pharmacol. Rev. 14, 251–280(1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1979

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. Rothschild
  • Z. Rothschild

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations