Acid-Base Balance During Eggshell Formation

  • P. Mongin
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)


One of the two main metabolic factors involved in the eggshell formation is the acid-base balance. Under normal physiological conditions the shell deposition induces metabolic acidosis regulated at the pulmonary level by hyperventilation to reduce the blood \({\text{P}}_{{\text{CO}}_{\text{2}} }\) and at the kidney level by an increase of the titratable acidity in the urine. From the data obtained by different experimental disturbances of the acid-base status it is concluded that a chronic decrease of the blood bicarbonate level reduces the calcium carbonate deposition on the eggshell and vice versa.

Besides the lungs and the kidneys, other organs are implicated in the acid-base balance such as shell gland, skeleton, and the glandular stomach. Following different acid-base status the composition of uterine fluid and of the egg albumen is given. A working model is also presented for the shell gland mucosa based upon new results on the intracellular composition. Finally a general survey tempts to make some connections between shell gland physiology and that of glandular stomach.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, R.S.: Acid base changes in the excreta of the laying hens. Vet. Rec. 80, 314–315 (1967)Google Scholar
  2. Angelucci, L., Linari, G.: The action of caerulein on gastric secretion of the chicken, Europ. J. Pharmacol. 11, 204–216 (1970)Google Scholar
  3. Bernstein, R.J., Nevalcrinen, T., Schraer, R., Schraer, H.: Intracellular distribution and role of carbonic anhydrase in the avian shell gland mucosa. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 159, 367–376 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Burckhardt, H.: Der Einfluß einiger Säuren auf den Ca-P und N Stoffwechsel und das Säuren-Basegleichgewicht bei Hühnern. Rep. Versuchsanstalten Liebefed Bern. Nutr. Abstr. Rev. 3, 1094 (1933)Google Scholar
  5. Calder, W.A., Schmidt-Nielsen, K.: Evaporative cooling and resporatory alcalosis in the pigeon. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. US 55, 730–756 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Common, R.H.: Observations of the mineral metabolism of pullets. V. Acide base equilibrium and reproductive activity. J. Agr. Sci. 31, 281–294 (1941)Google Scholar
  7. Drori, D., Volcani, R., Feige, Y., Shalmon, E., Passy, M.: Factors affecting the Ca45 and Sr89 transfer in the laying hen. Poultry Sci. 43, 486–491 (1964)Google Scholar
  8. El Jack, M.H., Lake, P.L.: The content of the principal inorganic ions and carbondioxide in uterin fluids of domestic fowl. J. Reprod. Fert. 13, 127–132 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Franck, F.R., Burger, R.E.: The effect of carbon dioxide inhalation and sodium bi-carbonate ingestion on egg shell deposition. Poult. Sci. 44, 1604–1606 (1965)Google Scholar
  10. Gay, C.V., Schraer, H.: Autoradiographic localization of calcium in the mucosal cells of the avian oviduct. Calc. Tiss. Res. 7, 201–211 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gutowska, M.S., Mitchell, C.A.: Carbonic anhydrase in the calcification of the egg shell. Poultry Sci. 24, 159–168 (1945)Google Scholar
  12. Hall, K.N., Helbacka, N.V.: Improving albumen quality. Poultry Sci. 38, 111–114 (1959)Google Scholar
  13. Helbacka, N.V., Casterline, J.L., Smith, C.J.: The effect of high CO2 atmosphere on the laying hen. Poultry Sci. 42, 1082–1084 (1963)Google Scholar
  14. Heller, V.G., Pursell, L.: Repartition of chloride in red blood cells and plasma. J. Biol. Chem. 118, 549 (1937)Google Scholar
  15. Hodges, R.D.:Changes in blood pO2 and pH during the formation of the egg shell in laying hens. Proc. 13th World’s Poultry Sci. Cong. Kiev, 314–319 (1962)Google Scholar
  16. Hunt, J.R., Aitken, J.R.: The effect of ammonium and chloride ions in the diet of hens on shell quality. Poultry Sci. 41, 434–438 (1962)Google Scholar
  17. Kaplan, E.L., Peskin, G.W., Jaffe, B.M.: The effects of acute metabolic acid-base changes on secretion of gastrin and parathyroid hormone. Surgery 72, 53–59 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Leonard, E.: The transmural potentials in the functional oviduct of the hen. J.Physiol. (London) 203, 83–84 (1969)Google Scholar
  19. Keeping laying hens in co2 enriched atmosphere.Action on production and egg shell quality. Eur. Poultry Congr. Proc. 565 (1968)Google Scholar
  20. Mongin, P.: Physiologie de la formation de la coquille de l’oeuf chez les oiseaux. R61e de l’équilibre acido-basique. Thèse de doctorat d’Etat, Paris, 1969Google Scholar
  21. Mongin, P.: Composition of crop and gizzard contents in the laying hens. Brit. Poultry Sci. 17, 499–507 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mongin, P., Carter, N.W.: Studies of the avian shell gland during egg formation. I. The extracellular space of laying hens. Ann. Biol. Anim. Bioch. Biophys. 16, 649–654 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mongin, P., Carter, N.W.: Studies of the avian shell gland during egg formation. U. Aqueous and electrolytic composition of the mucosa. Brit. Poultry Sci. 18, 337–349 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mongin, P., Carter, N.W.: Studies of the avian shell gland during egg formation. III. Intracellular pH of the mucosa. Brit. Poultry Sci. 18, in press (1977)Google Scholar
  25. Mongin, P., Lacassagne, L.: 2. Physiologie de la formation de la coquille de l’oeuf de poule et équilibre acido-basique du sang. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 258, 3093–3094 (1964)Google Scholar
  26. Mongin, P., Lacassagne, L.: 3. Physiologie de la formation de la coquille de l’oeuf de poule et ventilation pulmonaire. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 261, 4228–4230 (1965)Google Scholar
  27. Mongin, P., Lacassagne, L.: 4. Equilibre acido-basique du sang et physiologie de la formation de la coquille de l’oeuf. Ann. Biol. Anim. Biochim. Biophys. 6, 93–199 (1966)Google Scholar
  28. Mongin, P., Lacassagne, L.: 5. Rythmes respiratoire et physiologie de la formation de la coquille de l’oeuf. Ann. Biol. Anim. Biochim. Biophys. 6, 93–199 (1966)Google Scholar
  29. Mongin, P., Sauveur, B.: Composition du liquide utérin et de l’albumen durant le séjour de l’oeuf dans l’utérus chez la poule domestique. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 270, 1715–1718 (1970)Google Scholar
  30. Mongin, P., Sauveur, B., Amin, M.: Alcalose hypochlorémique chez la poule pondeuse. Ann. Biol. Anim. Biochim. Biophys. 12, 57–67 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mueller, W.J., Brubaker, R.L., Caplan, M.D.: Egg shell formation and bone respiration in laying hens. Federation Proc. 28, 1851–1856 (1969)Google Scholar
  32. Ojha, K.N., Ahmed, Q.: The inhibitory effect on some thiazide diuretics and acetazolamide on the histamine induced gastric secretory response in pigeons. Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 11, 53–61 (1967)Google Scholar
  33. Reeder, D.D., Conlee, J.L., Thompson, J.C.: Calcium carbonate antiacid and serumgastrin concentration in duodenal ulcer. Surgical Forum 22, 308–320 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Reichcut, E., Lasbernes, F.: Influence de l’hypercapnie sur la secrétion gastriquechez le rat. Rev. Eur. Etudes Clin. Biol. 16, 818–821 (1971)Google Scholar
  35. Sauveur, B.: Acidoses métaboliques expérimentales chez la poule pondeuse. I. Action sur l’équilibre acido-basique du sang et l’excrétion rénale des électrolytes. Ann. Biol. Anim. Biochim. Biophys. 91, 379–391 (1969)Google Scholar
  36. Sauveur, B., Mongin, P.: Etude comparative du fluide utérin et de l’albumen de l’oeufin utero chez la poule. Ann. Biol. Anim., Biochim. Biophys. 11, 213–224 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sauveur, B., Mongin, P.: Contribution d l’étude de l’hypercapnie aiguë et chroniquechez la poule. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 41A, 869–875 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Siegmund, P., Dulce, H.J.: Zur Biochemie der Knochenauflösung. I. Einfluß des Carboanhydratase-inhibitors (Diamox) auf den Calciumstoffwechsel von Legehennen. Hoppe Seyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 320, 149–159 (1960)Google Scholar
  39. Simkiss, K.: Calcium metabolism and avian reproduction. Biol. Rev. 36, 321–367 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Simkiss, K.: Intracellular pH during calcification. Biochem. J. 111, 647–652 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Solum, A.S., Shuster, M.: Without title. Tiernährung 6, 515 (1934)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Mongin
    • 1
  1. 1.Station de Recherches AvicolesInstitut National de la Recherche AgronomiqueMonnaieFrance

Personalised recommendations