Features of Human Spontaneous Vasculitis Reproduced Experimentally in Animals. Effects of Antiglobulins, C-Reactive Protein and Fibrin

  • W. E. Parish
Part of the Bayer-Symposium book series (BAYER-SYMP, volume 6)


Much of our knowledge of spontaneous vasculitis in man is based on studies of the Arthus reaction in experimental animals. The Arthus reaction results from local formation of aggregates of precipitating antibody and antigen in the lumen of blood or lymphatic vessels, and in tissue spaces. The acute lesion is a neutrophil-infiltrated vasculitis. Similar lesions can be induced by preformed antigen-antibody complexes which activate complement, if these are deposited in vessel walls from the blood, which gives rise to serum sickness, now termed immune complex disease (ICD).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aaronson, A.L., Kaplan, M.A., Goldin, A., Libretti, A., Goldman, B.: Creactive protein in bronchial asthmatic patients; further evaluation. Ann. Allergy 13, 586 (1955)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, H.C., McCarty, M.: The occurrence in the rabbit of an acute phase protein analogous to human C-reactive protein. J. exp. Med. 93, 25 (1951)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chakrabarti, R., Hocking, E.D., Fearnley, G.R.: Reaction pattern to three stresses — electroplexy, surgery, and myocardial infarction — of fibrinolysis and plasma fibrinogen. J. clin. Path. 22, 659 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cochrane, C.G., Aiken, B.S.: Polymorphonuclear leucocytes in immunologic reactions. The destruction of vascular basement membrane in vivo and in vitro. J. exp. Med. 124, 733 (1966)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cochrane, C.G., Weigle, W.O., Dixon, F.J.: The role of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the initiation and cessation of the Arthus vasculitis. J. exp. Med. 110, 481 (1959)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cream, J.J., Bryceson, A.D.M., Ryder, G.: Disappearance of immunoglobulin and complement from the Arthus reaction and its relevance to studies of vasculitis in man. Brit. J. Derm. 84, 106 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cunliffe, W.J.: An association between cutaneous vasculitis and decreased blood-fibrinolytic activity. Lancet 1968 I, 1226Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cunliffe, W.J., Dodman, B., Holmes, R.L., Forster, R.A.: Local fibrinolytic activity in patients with cutaneous vasculitis. Brit. J. Derm. 84, 420 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cunliffe, W.J., Menon, I.S.: The association between cutaneous vasculitis and decreased blood fibrinolytic activity. Brit. J. Derm. 84, 99 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dumonde, D.C, Glynn, L.E.: The production of arthritis in rabbits by an immunological reaction to fibrin. Brit. J. exp. Path. 43, 373 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dumonde, D.C, Glynn, L.E.: The reaction of guinea pigs to autologous and heterologous fibrin implants. J. Path. Bact. 90, 649 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fehr, K., LoSpalluto, J.: Exposure of hidden antigenic determinants in human IgG by digestion with spleen proteases. J. Immunol. 107, 814 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ganrot, P.O., Kindmark, C.-O.: A simple two-step procedure for isolation of C-reactive protein. Biochim. biophys. Acta (Amst.) 194, 443 (1969)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gell, P.G.H., Hinde, I.T.: Observations on the histology of the Arthus reaction and its relation to other known types of skin hypersensitivity. Int. Arch. Allergy 5, 23 (1954)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Glynn, L.E.: Pathology, pathogenesis, and aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. rheum. Dis. 31, 412 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hedlund, P.: The appearance of acute phase protein in various diseases. Acta med. scand., Suppl. 196, 579 (1947)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hedlund, P.: Clinical and experimental studies on C-reactive protein (acute phase protein). Acta med. scand., Suppl. 361, 7 (1961)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hill, A.G.S.: C-reactive protein in chronic rheumatic diseases. Lancet 1951 II, 807Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hullinger, L., Blazkovec, A.A.: A simple and efficient method of separating peripheral-blood leucocytes for in vitro studies. Lancet 1967 I, 1304Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hurley, J.V.: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 116, 918 (1964)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Innes, D., Sevitt, S.: Coagulation and fibrinolysis in injured patients. J. clin. Path. 17, 1 (1964)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Isacson, S., Linell, F., Müller, H., Nilsson, I.M.: Coagulation and fibrinolysis in chronic panniculitis. Acta derm.-venereol. (Stockh.) 50, 213 (1970)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johannson, B.C., Kindmark, C.-O., Treil, E.Y., Wollheim, F.A.: Sequential changes of plasma proteins after myocardial infarction. Scand. J. clin. Lab. Invest., Suppl. 29, 117 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaplan, M.H., Volanakis, J.E.: Interaction of C-reactive protein complexes with the complement system. 1. Consumption of human complement associated with the reaction of C-RP with pneumococcal C-polysaccharide and with the choline phosphatides lecithin, and sphingomyelin. J. Immunol. 112, 2135 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kay, A.B., Pepper, D.S., McKenzie, R.: The identification of fibrinopeptide B as a chemotactic agent derived from human fibrinogen. Brit. J. Haemat. 27, 669 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kindmark, C.-O.: Stimulating effect of C-reactive protein on phagocytosis of various species of phagogenic bacteria. Clin. exp. Immunol. 8, 941 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kroop, I.C, Shackman, N.H.: Level of C-reactive protein as a measure of acute myocardial infarction. Proc. Soc. exp. Med. (N.Y.) 86, 95 (1954)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kushner, I., Kaplan, M.H.: Studies of acute phase protein. I. An immunohistochemical method for the localization of Cx-reactive protein in rabbits. Association with necrosis in local inflammatory lesions. J. exp. Med. 114, 961 (1961)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Marder, V.J., Matchett, M.O., Sherry, S.: Detection of serum fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products. Comparison of six technics using purified products and application in clinical studies. Amer. J. Med. 51, 71 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Menon, I.S.: Fibrinolysis in citrated and oxalated blood. Lancet 1967 I, 116Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nam, D.: Estimation of fibrinogen-fibrin related antigen by continuous flow analysis. J. immunol. Methods 6, 309 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Niemetz, J.: Coagulant activity of leukocytes tissue factor activity. J. clin. Invest. 51, 307 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nilsson, L.-A.: Comparative testing of precipitation methods for quantification of C-reactive protein in blood serum. Acta path. Microbiol, scand. 73, 129 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Osmand, A.P., Mortenson, R.F., Siegal, J., Gewurz, H.: Interaction of C-reactive protein with the complement system. III. Complement-dependent passive haemolysis initiated by CRP. J. expo Med. 142, 1065 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pandolfi, M., Nilsson, I.M., Robertson, B., Isacson, S.: Fibrinolytic activity of human veins. Lancet 1967 II, 127Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Parish, W.E.: Effects of neutrophils on tissues. Experiments on the Arthus reaction, the flare phenomenon, and post-phagocytic release of lysosomal enzymes. Brit. J. Derm. 81, Suppl. 3, 28 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Parish, W.E.: Complexes of bacterial antigens with IgG or IgM antibodies in cutaneous vasculitis. In: Immune Complex Diseases. Bonomo, L., Turk, J.L. (eds.). Milan: Carlo Erba Foundation: 1970, p. 98Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Parish, W.E.: Studies on vasculitis. I. Immunoglobulins, ß1C, C-reactive protein, and bacterial antigens in cutaneous vasculitis lesions. Clin. Allergy 1, 97 (1971a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Parish, W.E.: Studies on vasculitis. II. Some properties of complexes formed of antibacterial antibodies from persons with or without cutaneous vasculitis. Clin. Allergy 1, 111 (1971b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Parish, W.E.: Studies on vasculitis. III. Decreased formation of antibody to M protein, group A polysaccharide and to some exotoxins, in persons with cutaneous vasculitis after streptococcal infection. Clin. Allergy 1, 295 (1971c)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Parish, W.E.: Studies on vasculitis. IV. The low incidence of antibacterial anaphylactic antibodies in the sera of persons with cutaneous vasculitis following bacterial infection. Clin. Allergy 1, 433 (1971d)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Parish, W.E.: Cutaneous vasculitis: antigen-antibody complexes and prolonged fibrinolysis. Proc. roy. Soc. Med. 65, 276 (1972a)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Parish, W.E.: Eosinophilia III. The anaphylactic release from isolated basophils of a substance that selectively attracts eosinophils. Clin. Allergy 2, 381 (1972b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Parish, W.E., Rhodes, E.L.: Bacterial antigens and aggregated gamma globulin in the lesions of nodular vasculitis. Brit. J. Derm. 79, 131 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Phillips, J.M., Kaklamanis, P., Glynn, L.E.: Experimental arthritis associated with auto-immunization to inflammatory exudates. Ann. rheum. Dis. 25, 165 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rowe, D.S.: Radioactive single radialdiffusion: a method for increasing the sensitivity of immunochemical quantification of proteins in agar gel. Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 40, 613 (1969)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sams, W.M., Claman, H.N., Kohler, P.F., McIntosh, R.M., Small, P., Mass, M.F.: Human necrotizing vasculitis: immunoglobulins and complement in vessel walls of cutaneous lesions and normal skin. J. invest. Derm. 64, 441 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schroeter, A.L., Copeman, P.W.M., Jordon, R.E., Sams, W.M., Winkelmann, R.K.: Immunofluorescence of cutaneous vasculitis associated with systemic disease. Arch. Derm. 104, 254 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Scott, D.G., Rowell, N.R.: Preliminary investigations of arteritic lesions using fluorescent antibody techniques. Brit. J. Derm. 77, 211 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Siegal, J., Osmand, A.P., Wilson, M.F., Gewurz, H.: Interactions of C-reactive protein with the complement system. II. C-reactive protein — mediated consumption of complement by poly-L-Lysine polymers and other polycations. J. expo Med. 142, 709 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Spector, W.G., Heesom, W.: The production of granulomata by antigen-antibody complexes. J. Path. Bact. 98, 31 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stecher, V.J., Sorkin, E.: The chemotactic activity of fibrin lysis products. Int. Arch. Allergy 43, 879 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stringa, S.G., Bianchi, C., Casala, A.M., Bianchi, O.: Allergic vasculitis. Gougerot-Ruiter syndrome. Arch. Derm. 95, 23 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stringa, S.G., Bianchi, C., Zingale, S.B.: Nodular vasculitis: immunofluorescent study 7S gamma-globulin and complement (ß1C + globulin) in lesions of nodular vasculitis. J. invest. Derm. 46, 1 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Thomas, D.P., Niewiarowski, S., Myers, A.R., Bloch, K.J., Colman, R.W.: A comparative study of four methods for detecting fibrinogen degradation products in patients with various diseases. New Engl. J. Med. 283, 663 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tibbutt, D.A., Chesterman, C.N., Allington, M.J., Williams, E.W., Faulkner, T.: Measurement of fibrinogen-fibrin-related antigen in serum as aid to diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in outpatients. Brit. Med. J. 1975 I, 367Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Volanakis, J.E., Kaplan, M.H.: Interaction of C-reactive protein complexes with the complement system. II. Consumption of guinea pig complement by CRP complexes: requirement for human Clq. J. Immunol. 113, 9 (1974)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Willoughby, D.A., Coote, E., Turk, J.L.: Complement in acute inflammation. J. Path. Bact. 97, 295 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Willoughby, D.A., Giroud, J.P.: The role of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in acute inflammation in agranulocytic rats. J. Path. Bact. 98, 53 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Willoughby, D.A., Ryan, G.B.: Evidence for a possible endogenous antigen in chronic inflammation. J. Path. Bact. 101, 233 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wood, H.F.: Effect of C-reactive protein on normal human leucocytes. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) Med. 76, 843 (1951)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. E. Parish

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations