Advertisement

Electron Microscopic Studies on Membranes

  • K. Mühlethaler
Conference paper
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)

Abstract

In the discussions on membrane structure the electron microscopic contributions are of some importance because only with this technique can a direct image of these cell structures be obtained. The first observations were based on fixed and sectioned material and led to the so-called “unit membrane concept”, postulated by-Robertson in 1960. In the same year, work was going on in our laboratory to develop an alternative method for specimen preparation in the frozen state (Moor et al., 1961).

Keywords

Chloroplast Thylakoid Granum Thylakoid Tonoplast Membrane Unsaturated Fatty Acid Chain Fluid Mosaic Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arnitzen, C. J., Dilley, R.A., Crane, F.L.: A comparison of chloroplast membrane surfaces visualized by freeze-etch and negative staining techniques; an ultrastructural characterization of membrane fractions obtained from digitonin-treated spinach chloroplasts. J. Cell Biol. 43, 16–31 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berzborn, R.J., Kopp, F., Mühlethaler, K.: Mobility of chloroplast coupling factor 1 (CF1) at the thylakoid surface as revealed by freeze-etching after antibody labeling. Z. Naturforsch. 29c, 694–699 (1974)Google Scholar
  3. Blodgett, K.B., Langmuir, I.: Built-up films of barium stearate and their optical properties. Phys. Rev. 51, 964–982 (1937)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Branton, D., Bullivant, S., Gilula, N.B., Karnovsky, M.J., Moor, H., Mühlethaler, K., Northcote, D.H., Packer, L., Satir, B., Satir, P., Speth, V., Staehelin, L.A., Steere, R.C., Weinstein, R.S.: Freeze-etching nomenclature. Science 190, 54–56 (1975)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Branton, D., Moor, H.: Fine structure in freeze-etched Allium cepa L. root tips. J. Ultrastr. Res. 11, 401–411 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deamer, D.W., Leonard, R., Tardieu, A., Branton, D.: Lamellar and hexagonal lipid phases visualized by freeze-etching. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 219, 47–60 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Glauert, A.M.: Electron microscopy of lipids and membranes. J. Roy. Micros. Soc. 88, 49–70 (1968)Google Scholar
  8. Gross, H., Bas, E., Kübier, O., Moor, H.: An experimental system for freeze-fracturing in ultra high vacuum at temperatures to -196°C. 6th Europ. Congr. Electron Microscopy Jerusalem, 1976. Vol. 1, p. 402, Brandon, D.G. (ed.), T.A.L.L. Intern. Publ. Co.Google Scholar
  9. Gulik-Krzywicki, T.: Structural studies of the associations between biological membrane components. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (MR) 415, 1–28 (1975)Google Scholar
  10. Harrick, N.J.: Internal Reflection Spectroscopy. New York: Interscience, 1967Google Scholar
  11. Höchli, M.: Entwicklung einer neuen Druck-Gefriertechnik und ihre Anwendung in der Elektronenmikroskopie. Diss. ETH Nr. 5304 (1974)Google Scholar
  12. Kopp, F., Fringeli, U.P., Mühlethaler, K., Günthard, Hs.H.: Instability of Langmuir-Blodgett layers of barium stearate, cadmium arachidate and tripalmitin, studied by means of electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Biophys. Struct. Mechanism 1, 75–96 (1975a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kopp, F., Fringeli, U.P., Mühlethaler, K., Günthard, Hs.H.: Spontaneous rearrangement in Langmuir-Blodgett layers of tripalmitin studied by means of ATR infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Z. Naturforsch. 30c, 711–717 (1975b)Google Scholar
  14. Miller, K.R., Staehelin, A.: Analysis of the thylakoid outer surface. J. Cell Biol. 68, 30–47 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Moor, H.: Die Gefrier-Fixation lebender Zellen und ihre Anwendung in der Elektronenmikroskopie. Z. Zellforsch. 62, 546–580 (1964)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Moor, H., Mühlethaler, K.: Fine structure in frozen-etched yeast cells, J. Cell Biol. 17, 609–628 (1963)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Moor, H., Mühlethaler, K., Waldner, H., Frey-Wyssling, A.: A new freezing ultramicrotome. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 10, 1–13 (1961)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mühlethaler, K., Moor, H., Szarkowski, J.W.: The ultrastructure of the chloroplast lamellae. Planta 67, 305–323 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mühlethaler, K., Wehrli, E., Moor, H.: Double fracturing methods for freezeetching. 7th Congr. Electron Microscopy, Grenoble. Favard, P. (ed.). Vol. I, pp. 449–450 (1970)Google Scholar
  20. Murakami, S., Packer, L.: Protonation and chloroplast membrane structure. J. Cell Biol. 47, 332–351 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Niedermeyer, W.: The elasticity of the tonoplast membrane related to its ultrastructure and chemical composition. Diss. ETH Nr. 5649, 1976Google Scholar
  22. Parish, G.R.: Seasonal variation in the membrane structure of differentiating shoot cambial-zone cells demonstrated by freeze-etching. Cytobiology 9, 131–143 (1974)Google Scholar
  23. Riehle, U.: Über die Vitrifizierung verdünnter wässriger Lösungen. Diss. ETH Nr. 4271 (1968)Google Scholar
  24. Robertson, J.D.: A molecular theory of cell membrane structure. Proc. 4th Intern. Congr. Electron Microscopy, Bd. 2, 159–171, 1960, Vol. II, pp. 159–171Google Scholar
  25. Singer, S., Nicolson, G.: The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes. Science 175, 720–731 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Verkleij, A.J.: Architecture of biological and artificial membranes as visualized by freeze-etching. Diss. Utrecht 1975Google Scholar
  27. Wehrli, E.: Struktur der Thylakoidmembran. Eine Gefrierätz- und Doppel-Abdruckstudie. Diss. ETH Nr. 5571 (1975)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Mühlethaler

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations