The Cyclostome Retina

  • Kaj Holmberg
Part of the Handbook of Sensory Physiology book series (SENSORY, volume 7 / 5)


Hagfishes and lampreys are vertebrates classified systematically as Agnatha (jawless) or Cyclostomata (round-mouths). The rest of the vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) belong to the Gnathostomata (jaw-possessing). Most research on retinas of vertebrates has been carried out on species which belong to the gnathostomes and this has in turn led to generalizations which are not always valid for the agnaths.


Retinal Pigment Epithelium Outer Segment Bipolar Cell Outer Nuclear Layer Vitreous Body 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Besharse, J.C., Brandon, R.A.: Postembryonic eye degeneration in the troglobitic salamander Typhlotriton spelaeus. J. Morph. 144, 381–406 (1974).Google Scholar
  2. Brandon, R.A.: Structure of the eye of Haideotriton wallacei, a North American troglobitic salaman-der, J. Morph. 124, 345–352 (1968).Google Scholar
  3. Bruesch, S.R., Arey, L.B.: The number of myelinated and unmyelinated fibres in the optic nerve of vertebrates. J. comp. Neurol. 77, 631–655 (1942).Google Scholar
  4. Cohen, A.I.: Rods and cones. Fuortes, M.G.F. (ed.). In: Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/2. Physiology of Photoreceptor Organs, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag, 1972, pp. 63–110.Google Scholar
  5. Crescitelli, F.: The nature of the lamprey visual pigment. J. gen. Physiol. 39, 423–435 (1956).Google Scholar
  6. Crescitelli, F.: Physiology of vision. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 22, 525–528 (1960).Google Scholar
  7. Ditto, M.: A difference between developing rods and cones in the formation of outer segment mem-branes. Vision Res. 15, 535–536 (1975).Google Scholar
  8. Dowling, J.E.: Organization of vertebrate retinas. Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 655–680 (1970).Google Scholar
  9. Dubin, M.W.: Anatomy of the vertebrate retina. In: The Eye, Vol. VI. Davson, H., Graham, L.T. (eds.) New-York-London: Academic Press, 1974, pp. 227–256.Google Scholar
  10. Duke-Elder, S.: The eye in evolution. In: System of ophthalmology, Vol. I. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1958.Google Scholar
  11. Dücker, M.: über die Augen der Zyklostomen. Jena Z. Med. Naturw. 60, 471-528 (1924).Google Scholar
  12. Eakin, R.M., Brandenburger, J.L.: Osmic staining of amphibian and gastropod photoreceptors. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 30, 619–641 (1970).Google Scholar
  13. Ehinger, B., Holmberg, K., Ohman, P.: Aminergic and indoleamine accumulating neurons in the retina of the river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis). Acta zool. (Stockh.) 58, 117–123 (1977).Google Scholar
  14. Eigenmann, C.H.: Cave vertebrates of America. A study in degenerative evolution. The Carnegie Institution of Washington 104, 1–241 (1909).Google Scholar
  15. Eigenmann, C.H., Denny, W.A.: The eyes of the blind vertebrates of North America. 111. The structure and ontogenetic degeneration of the eyes of the Missouri cave salamander, an account based on material collected with a grant from the Elizabeth Thompson Fund. Biol. Bull. 2, 33–41 (1900).Google Scholar
  16. Fernholm, B., Holmberg, K.: The eyes in three genera of hagfish (Eptatretus, Paramyxine and Myxine). A case of degenerative evolution. Vision Res. 15, 253-259 (1975).Google Scholar
  17. Franz, V.: Auge and Akkommodation von Petromyzon (Lampetra) fluviatilis L. Zool. Jb. (Zool.) 52, 118-178 (1932).Google Scholar
  18. Holmberg, K.: Hagfish eye: ultrastructure of retinal cells. Acta zool. (Stockh.) 50, 179–183 (1969).Google Scholar
  19. Holmberg, K.: The hagfish retina: fine structure of retinal cells in Myxine glutinosa, L., with special reference to receptor and epithelial cells. Z. Zellforsch. 111, 519–538 (1970).Google Scholar
  20. Holmberg, K.: The hagfish retina: electron microscopic study comparing receptor and epithelial cells in the Pacific hagfish, Polistotrema stouti, with those in the Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa. Z. Zellforsch. 121, 249–269 (1971).Google Scholar
  21. Holmberg, K.: Fine structure of the optic tract in the Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa. Acta zool. (Stockh.) 53,165–171 (1972).Google Scholar
  22. Holmberg, K., Öhman, P.: Fine structure of retinal synaptic organelles in lamprey and hagfish photo-receptors. Vision Res. 16, 237–239 (1976).Google Scholar
  23. Holmberg, K., Öhman, P., Dreyfert, T.: ERG-recordings from the retina of the river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis). Vision Res. 17, 715–717 (1977) (in print).Google Scholar
  24. Ishikawa, T., Yamada, E.: The degradation of photoreceptor outer segment within the pigment epithelial cell of rat retina. J. Electron. Microsc. (Tokyo) 19, 85–91 (1970).Google Scholar
  25. Jarvik, E.: Specializations in early vertebrates. Ann. Soc. roy. Zool. Belgique 94, 11–95 (1964).Google Scholar
  26. Jørgensen, J.M., Flock, øA.: The ultrastructure of lateral line sense organs in the adult salamander Ambystoma mexicanum. J. Neurocytol. 2, 133–142 (1973).Google Scholar
  27. Kleerekoper, H.: The sense organs. In: The Biology of Lampreys. Vol. 11. Hardisty, H.W., Potter, I.C. (eds.): London-New York: Academic Press, 1972, pp. 373–404.Google Scholar
  28. Kobayashi, H.: Preliminary report on the action potentials recorded from the rudimentary eye of hagfish, Myxine garmani. Zool. Mag. (Tokyo) 72, 6–12 (1963).Google Scholar
  29. Kobayashi, H.: On the photo-perceptive function in the eye of the hagfish, Myxine garmani Jordan et Snyder. J. Shimonoseki Univ. Fish. 13, 67–83 (1964).Google Scholar
  30. Kohl, C.: Rudimentare Wirbelthieraugen. Zoologica (Stuttg.) 13, 48–51 (1892).Google Scholar
  31. Krause, C.: Die Retina. 11. Die Retina der Fische. Cyclostomata. Int. Mschr. Anat. Histol. 3, 8–21 (1886).Google Scholar
  32. Kühne,W.: In: Untersuchungen aus dem physiologischen Institute der Universitat Heidelberg, pp. 31, 455-456 (1878).Google Scholar
  33. Langerhans, P.: Untersuchungen über Petromyzon planeri. Ber, Verh. dt. naturf. Ges. Freiburg 6, 1–115 (1876).Google Scholar
  34. Laties, A.M., Liebman, P.: Cones of living amphibian eye: selective staining. Science 168, 1475–1477 (1970).Google Scholar
  35. Marshall, J., Ansell, P.L.: Membranous inclusions in the retinal pigment epithelium: phagosomes and myeloid bodies. J. Anat. (Lond.) 110, 91–104 (1971).Google Scholar
  36. Müller, H.: Anatomisch-physiologische Untersuchungen uber die Retina bei Menschen und Wirbelthieren. Z. wiss. Zool. A, 1–122 (1956).Google Scholar
  37. Müller, J: über den eigenthumlichen Bau des Gehororgans bei den Cyclostomen, mit Bemerkungen uber die ungleiche Ausbildung der Sinnesorgane bei den Myxinoiden. Abh. k. Akad. Wiss. zu Berlin (1837).Google Scholar
  38. Müller, W.: über die Stammesentwicklung des Sehorgans der Wirbelthiere. In: Beitrage zur Anatomie and Physiologie als Festgabe Carl Ludwig gewidmet. Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel, 1874.Google Scholar
  39. Öhman, P.: The photoreceptor outer segments of the river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis). An electron-, fluorescence-and light microscopic study. Acta zool. (Stockh.) 52, 287–297 (1971).Google Scholar
  40. Öhman, P.: Fine structure of the retinal pigment epithelium of the river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis, Cyclostomi). Acta zool. (Stockh.) 55, 245-253 (1974).Google Scholar
  41. Öhman, P.: Fine structure of photoreceptors and associated neurons in the retina of Lampetra fluviatilis (Cyclostomi). Vision Res. 16, 659–662 (1976).Google Scholar
  42. Retzius,G.: Das Gehirn and das Auge von Myxine. Biol. Unters. 5, 55-68 (1893).Google Scholar
  43. Rochon-Duvigneaud, A.: L'oeil. In: Traité de Zoologie, Vol. XIII/1. Grassé, P.-P. (ed.). Paris: Masson et Ce Libraires de l'Académie de Médicine, 1958, pp.58–65.Google Scholar
  44. Spitznas, M., Hogan, M.J.: Outer segments of photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium. Interrelationship in the human eye. Arch. Ophthal. (Chicago) 84, 810-819 (1970).Google Scholar
  45. Stell, W.K.: The morphological organization of the vertebrate retina. In: Physiology of Photoreceptor Organs, Fuortes, M.G.F. (ed.). Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/2, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer-Verlag 1972, pp. 111–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wald, G.: The metamorphosis of visual systems in the sea lamprey. J. gen. Physiol. 40, 901–914 (1957).Google Scholar
  47. Walls, G.L.: The visual cells of lampreys. Br. J. Ophthal. 19, 129–148 (1935).Google Scholar
  48. Walls, G.L.: The vertebrate eye and its adaptive radiation. Bloomfield Hills: Cranbrook Institute of Science, 1942. Reprinted 1963 by Hafner, New York-London, 1963.Google Scholar
  49. Yamada, Y.: Fine structure of the ordinary lateral line organ. I. The neuromast of lamprey, Entosphenus japonicus. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 43, 1–17 (1973).Google Scholar
  50. Yamada, Y., Hama, K.: Fine structure of the lateral-line organ of the common eel, Anguilla japonica. Z. Zellforsch. 124, 454–464 (1972).Google Scholar
  51. Young, R.W.: An hypothesis to account for a basic distinction between rods and cones. Vision Res. 11, 1–5 (1971).Google Scholar
  52. Young, R.W., Bok, D.: Participation of the retinal pigment epithelium in the rod outer segment re-newal process. J. Cell Biol. 42, 392–403 (1969).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaj Holmberg
    • 1
  1. 1.StockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations