Advertisement

Humoral and Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Allograft Rejection

  • K. Theodor Brunner
  • Jean-Charles Cerottini
Part of the Handbuch der allgemeinen Pathologie book series (PATHOLOGIE, volume 6 / 8)

Abstract

Allograft immunity is generally considered as a manifestation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). This concept was introduced by Mitchison (1954) and Billingham et al. (1954), who showed that allograft immunity could be regularly transferred from immune donors to normal recipients with lymphoid cells, but not with serum. However, the actual mechanism by which transfer of immune lymphoid cells leads to graft destruction is still not entirely elucidated.

Keywords

Target Cell Effector Cell Allograft Rejection Graft Rejection Plaque Form Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations used in this contribution

CMI

cell-mediated immunity

CMC

cell-mediated cytotoxicity

T-cells

thymus-derived lymphocytes

B-cells

bursa-derived lymphocytes

CTL

cytolytic T lymphocytes

K-cells

killer cells

Fc

Fc portion of IgG molecules

MLC

mixed leukocyte culture

PHA

phytohemagglutinin

CL

cytotoxic lymphocytes

PFC

plaque forming cells

GVH

graft-versus-host

ConA

concanavalin A

CB

cytochalasin B

AD-CMC

antibody-dependent CMC

AD-LMC

antibody-dependent LMC

SMAF

specific macrophage arming factor

EDTA

ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Berke, G., Ax, W., Ginsburg, H., Feldman, M.: Graft rejection in tissue culture. II. Quantification of the lytic action on mouse fibroblasts by rat lymphocytes sensitized on mouse embryo monolayers. Immunology 16, 643–657 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Berke, G., Amos, D.B.: Mechanism of lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis. The LMC cycle and its role in transplantation immunity. In: Transpl. Rev. 17, 71–107. Copenhagen: Munksgaard 1973.Google Scholar
  3. Biesecker, J.L., Fitch, F.W., Rowley, D.A., Scollard, D., Stuart, F.P.: Cellular and humoral immunity after allogeenic transplantation in the rat. II. Comparison of a 51Cr release assay and modified microcytotoxicity assay for detection of cellular immunity and blocking serum factors. Transplantation 16, 421–431 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Billingham, R.E., Brent, L., Medawar, P.B.: Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. II. The origin strength and duration of activity and adoptively acquired immunity. Proc. Roy. Soc. Ser. B. 143, 58–80 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bloom, B.R., Glade, P.R., eds.: In: In vitro methods in cell-mediated immunity. New York: Academic Press 1971.Google Scholar
  6. Bloom, B.R., Landy, M., Lawrence, H.S., eds.: In vitro methods in cell-mediated immunity: A progress report. Cell. Immunol. 6, 331–347 (1973).Google Scholar
  7. Brunner, K.T., Cerottini, J.-C.: Cytotoxic lymphocytes as effector cells of cell-mediated immunity. In: Progress in Immunology I, 385–398. Academic Press, Inc. New York and London, 1971.Google Scholar
  8. Brunner, K.T., Mauel, J., Rudolf, H., Chapuis, B.: Studies of allograft immunity in mice. I. Induction, development and in vitro assay of cellular immunity. Immunology 18, 501–515 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Carpenter, C.B., d’Apice, A.J.F., Abbas, A.K.: The role of antibodies in the rejection and enhancement of organ allografts. In: Advances in Immunology 22, 1–55, New York: Academic Press 1976.Google Scholar
  10. Cerottini, J.-C., Nordin, A.A., Brunner, K.T.: In vitro cytotoxic activity of thymus cells sensitized to alloantigens. Nature 227, 72–73 (1970a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cerottini, J.-C., Nordin, A.A., Brunner, K.T.: Specific in vitro cytotoxicity of thymus-derived lymphocytes sensitized to alloantigens. Nature 228, 1308–1309 (1970b).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cerottini, J.-C., Nordin, A.A., Brunner, K.T.: Cellular and humoral response to transplantation antigens. I. Development of alloantibody-forming cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes in the graft-versus-host reaction. J. Exp. Med. 134, 553–564 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cerottini, J.-C., Brunner, K.T.: Cell-mediated cytotoxicity, allograft rejection, and tumor immunity. In: Advances in Immunology, Vol. 18, 67–132. New York: Academic Press 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cerottini, J.-C., Brunner, K.T.: Mechanism of T and K cell-mediated cytolysis. In: B and T cells in Immune Recognition (F. Loor and G.E. Roelants, eds.), Wyley and Sons, Chichester, England. In press 1976.Google Scholar
  15. Cerottini, J.-C., Engers, H.D., Macdonald, H.R., Brunner, K.T.: Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro. I. Response of normal and immune mouse spleen cells in mixed leukocyte cultures. J. Exp. Med. 140, 703–717 (1974a).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cerottini, J.-C., Macdonald, H.R., Engers, H.D., Brunner, K.T.: Differentiation pathway of cytolytic T lymphocytes: In vivo and in vitro studies. In: Progress in Immunology II, Vol. 3, 153–160. New York: North Holland, 1974b.Google Scholar
  17. Chess, L., Macdermott, R.P., Sondel, P.M., Schlossman, S.F.: Separation of cells involved in human cellular hypersensitivity. In: Progress in Immunology II, Vol. 3, 125–132. New York: North Holland 1974.Google Scholar
  18. Degiovanni, G.: Evaluation quantitative in vitro de la réponse cellulaire à l’allogreffe cutanée chez la souris. C.R. Soc. Biol. 166, 722–727 (1972).Google Scholar
  19. Engers, H.D., Thomas, K., Cerottini, J.-C., Brunner, K.T.: Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro. V. Response of normal and immune mouse spleen cells to subcellular alloantigens. J. Immunol, in press (1972).Google Scholar
  20. Evans, R., Cox, H., Alexander, P.: Immunologically specific activation of macrophages armed with the specific macrophage arming factor (SMAF). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 143, 256–259 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Feldman, J.D.: Personal communication.Google Scholar
  22. Freedman, L.R., Cerottini, J.-C., Brunner, K.T.: In vivo studies of the role of cytotoxic T-cells in tumor allograft immunity. J. Immunol. 109, 1371–1378 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Ginsburg, H.: Graft versus host reaction in tissue culture. I. Lysis of monolayers of embryo mouse cells from strains differing in the H-2 histocompatibility locus by rat lymphocytes sensitized in vitro. Immunology 14, 621–635 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Govaerts, A.: Cellular antibodies in kidney homotransplantation. J. Immunol. 85, 516–522 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Greenberg, A.H., Hudson, L., Shen, L., Roitt, I.M.: Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity due to a “Null” lymphoid cell. Nature New Biol. 242, 111–113 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Greenberg, A.H., Shen, L., Walker, L., Arnaiz-Villena, A., Roitt, I.M.: Characteristics of the effector cells mediating cytotoxicity against antibody-coated target cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 5, 474–480 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Häyry, P., Defendi, V.: Mixed lymphocyte cultures produce effector cells: Model in vitro for allograft rejection. Science 68, 133–135 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Häyry, P., Andersson, L.C., Nordling, S., Virolainen, M.: Allograft response in vitro. Transplant. Rev., Vol. 12, 91–140 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Henney, C.S.: On the mechanism of T-cell mediated cytolysis. In: Transpl. Rev. 17, 37–70. Copenhagen: Munksgaard 1973.Google Scholar
  30. Holm, G.: Lysis of antibody treated human erythrocytes by human leukocytes and macrophages in tissue culture. Int. Arch. Allergy 43, 671–682 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jansen, J.L.J., Koene, R.A.P., v. Kamp, G.J., Tamboer, W.P.M., Wijdeveld, P.G.A.B.: Isolation of pure IgG subclasses from mouse alloantiserum and their activity in enhancement and hyperacute rejection of skin allografts. J. Immunol. 115, 387–391 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Keller, R.: Cytostatic and cytocidal effects of activated macrophages. In: Immunobiology of the Macrophage, pp. 487–508, New York: Academic Press 1976.Google Scholar
  33. Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F., Olsen, S., Posborg Petersen, V., Fjeldborg, O.: Hyperacute rejection of kidney allografts, associated with pre-existing humoral antibodies against donor cells. Lancet II, 662–665 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Koene, R.A.P., Gerlag, P.G.G., Hagemann, J.F.H.M., van Haelst, U.J.G., Wijdeveld, P.G.A.B.: Hyperacute rejection of skin allografts in the mouse by the administration of alloantibody and rabbit complement. J. Immunol. 111, 520–526 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Koene, R.A.P., Gerlag, P.G.G., Jansen, J.J., Hagemann, J.F.H., Wijdeveld, P.G.A.B.: Rejection of skin grafts in the nude mouse. Nature 251, 69–70 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lamon, E.W., Wigzell, H., Klein, E., Andersson, B., Skurzak, H.M.: The lymphocyte response to primary moloney sarcoma virus tumors in Balb/c mice. Definition of the active subpopulations at different times after infection. J. Exp. Med. 137, 1472–1493 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lightbody, J., Bernoco, D., Miggiano, V.C., Cepellini, R.: Cell mediated lympholysis in man after sensitization of effector lymphocytes through mixed leukocyte cultures. G. Batteriol. Virol., Immunol. Ann. Osp. Maria Vittoria Torino 64, 243–254 (1971).Google Scholar
  38. Lohmann-Matthes, M., Fischer, H.: T-cell cytotoxicity and amplification of the cytotoxic reaction by macrophages. In: Transpl. Rev. Vol. 17, pp. 149–171. Copenhagen: Munksgaard 1973.Google Scholar
  39. Macdonald, H.R., Engers, H.D., Cerottini, J.-C., Brunner, K.T.: Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro. II. Effect of repeated exposure to alloantigens on the cytotoxic activity of long-term mixed leukocyte cultures. J. Exp. Med. 140, 718–730 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Macdonald, H.R.: Early detection of potentially lethal events in T-cell-mediated cytolysis. Eur. J. Immunol. 5, 251–254 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Macdonald, H.R., Cerottini, J.-C., Brunner, K.T.: Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro. III. Velocity sedimentation studies of the differentiation and fate of effector cells in long-term mixed leukocyte cultures. J. Exp. Med. 140, 1511–1521 (1975a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Macdonald, H.R., Bonnard, G.D., Sordat, B., Zawodnik, S.A.: Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity: Heterogeneity of effector cells in human peripheral blood. Scand. J. of Immunol, in press (1975b).Google Scholar
  43. Macdonald, H.R., Sordat, B., Cerottini, J.-C., Brunner, K.T.: Generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vitro. IV. Functional activation of memory cells in the absence of DNA synthesis. J. Exp. Med. in press (1975c).Google Scholar
  44. Mackaness, G.: The immunological basis of acquired cellular resistance. J. Exp. Med. 120, 105–120 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maclennan, I.C.M., Harding, B.: The role of immunoglobulins in lymphocyte-mediated cell damage in vitro. II. The mechanism of target cell damage by lymphoid cells from immunized rats. Immunology 18, 405–412 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Maclennan, I.C.M.: Antibody in the induction and inhibition of lymphocyte cytotoxicity. Transplant. Rev. 13, 67 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Martz, E.: Interruption of the sequential release of small and large molecules from tumor cells by low temperature during cytolysis mediated by immunt T-cells or complement. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 71, 177–181 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Martz, E.: Early steps in specific tumor cell lysis by sensitized mouse T-lymphocytes. I. Resolution and characterization. J. Immunol. in press (1975).Google Scholar
  49. Mitchison, N.A.: Passive transfer of transplantation immunity. Proc. Roy. Soc., Ser B. 142, 72–87 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Miller, R.G., Dunkley, M.: Quantitative analysis of the 51Cr release cytotoxicity assay for cytotoxic lymphocytes. Cell. Immunol. 14, 284–302 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Möller, E.: Contact-induced cytotoxicity by lymphoid cells containing foreign isoantigens. Science 147, 873–879 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Möller, G., ed.: Effector cells in cell-mediated immunity. In: Transplant. Rev. vol. 17. Copenhagen: Munksgaard 1973.Google Scholar
  53. Nelson, D.S.: Macrophages as effector cells of cell-mediated immunity. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. Vol. I, pp. 353–384 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nomoto, K., Gershon, R.K., Waksman, B.H.: Role of nonimmunized macrophages in the rejection of an allotransplanted lymphoma. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 40, 23–30 (1968).Google Scholar
  55. Ortiz de Landazuri, M., Herberman, R.B.: Specificity of cellular immune reactivity to virus-induced tumours. Nature New Biol. 238, 18–19 (1972).Google Scholar
  56. O’Toole, C., Stejska, V., Perlmann, P., Karlsson, M.: Lymphoid cells mediating tumor-specific cytotoxicity to carcinoma of the bladder. Separation of the effector population using a surface marker. J. Exp. Med. 139, 457–466 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Perlmann, P., Holm, G.: Cytotoxic effects of lymphoid cells in vitro. Advan. Immunol. 11, 117–193 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Perlmann, P., Perlmann, H., Wigzell, H.: Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Induction and inhibition by humoral antibody and nature of effector cells. Transplant. Rev. 13, 91–114 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Pfizenmaier, K., Trostmann, H., Röllinghoff, M., Wagner, H.: Cell-mediated allograft responses in vitro: VI. Studies on macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity. Immunology 29, 961–976 (1975).Google Scholar
  60. Plata, F., Gomard, E., Leclerc, J.-C., Levy, J.-P.: Comparative in vitro studies on efffector cell diversity in the cellular immune response to murine sarcoma virus (MSV)-induced tumors in mice. J. Immunol. 112, 1477–1487 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Rosenau, W., Moon, H.D.: Lysis of homologous cells by sensitized lymphocytes in tissue culture. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 27, 471–483 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Rouse, B.T., Wagner, H., Harris, A.W.: In vivo activity of in vitro immunized lymphocytes. I. Tumor allograft rejection mediated by in vitro activated mouse thymocytes. J. Immunol. 108, 1353–1361 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Smith, R.T., Landy, M., eds.: Immunobiology of the tumor-host relationship. Proc. of an Int. Conference, Milan, Italy, New York: Academic Press 1975.Google Scholar
  64. Sprent, J., Miller, J.F.A.P.: Interaction of thymus lymphocytes with histoincompatible cells. III. Immunological characteristics of recirculating lymphocytes derived from acrivated thymus cells. Cell. Immunol. 3, 213–230 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tsoi, M.S., Weiser, R.S.: Mechanisms of immunity to sarcoma. I. Allografts in the C57BL/Ks mouse. I. Passive transfer studies with immune peritoneal macrophages in X-irradiated hosts. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 40, 23–30 (1968).Google Scholar
  66. Wagner, H., Röllinghoff, M., Nossal, G.J.V.: T-cell mediated immune response induced in vitro: A probe for allograft and tumor immunity. In: Transplant. Rev. Vol. 17, 3–36. Copenhagen: Munksgaard 1973.Google Scholar
  67. Wagner, H., Röllinghoff, M., Shortman, K.: Evidence for T-T-cell synergism during in vitro cytotoxic allograft responses. In: Progress in Immunology II, Vol. 3, 111–120. New York: North Holland 1974.Google Scholar
  68. Wilson, D.B.: Immunologic reactivity to major histocompatibility alloantigens: HARC, effector cells and the problem of memory. In: Progress in Immunology II, Vol. 2, pp. 145–156. New York: North-Holland 1974.Google Scholar
  69. Winn, H.J., Baldamus, C.A., Jooste, S.V., Russell, P.S.: Acute destruction by humoral antibody of rat skin grafted to mice. The role of complement and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J. Exp. Med. 137, 893–910 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Winn, H.: The mechanisms of immunological enhancement. In: Progress in Immunology II, Vol. 3, 207–216. New York: North-Holland 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, Berlin · Heidelberg 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Theodor Brunner
  • Jean-Charles Cerottini

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations