Advertisement

Inhibitors of DNA Synthesis in RNA Tumor Viruses: Biological Implications and Their Mode of Action

  • P. Chandra
  • Linda K. Steel
  • U. Ebener
  • M. Woltersdorf
  • H. Laube
  • G. Will
Part of the Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology book series (PMSB, volume 4)

Abstract

More than four years have passed since University of Wisconsin Virologist HOWARD M. TEMIN disclosed at the 10th International Congress of Cancer that he and his coworkers had found preliminary evidence for an enzyme that permits ribonucleic acid (RNA) to dictate the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Independently the same phenomenon was observed by DAVID BALTIMORE (1970b) of the Massachussetts Institute of Technology. Although perhaps not as fundamental a concept as the α-helical structure of DNA, the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase) is a concept that is shedding light on several unexplained biological phenomena and has already inspired biochemists, molecular biologists, virologists and even biophysicists to look into the mystic of this process. Thus, TEMIN’s discovery of “backward” transcription has set off an explosive and still unforseeable burst of activity in numerous laboratories.

Keywords

Pyrrole Ring Rous Sarcoma Virus FEBS Letter Formyl Group Avian Myeloblastosis Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AARONSON, S.A., PARKS, W.P., SCOLNICK, E.M., TODARO, G.J.: Antibody to the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase of mammalian C-type RNA tumor viruses. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 68, 920 (1971).Google Scholar
  2. ABRELL, J.W., GALLO, R.C.: Purification, characterization and comparison of the DNA polymerases from two primate RNA tumor viruses. J. Virol. 12, 431 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. ADAMSON, R.H.: Antitumor activity of tilorone hydrochloride against some rodent tumors. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 46, 431 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. APPLE, M.A.: Reverse transcription and its inhibitors. Ann. Rep. Med. Chem. 8., 251 (1973).Google Scholar
  5. ARCAMONE, F., PENCO, S., OREZZI, P., NICOLELLA, V., PIRELLI, A.: Structure and synthesis of distamycin A. Nature (Lorid.) 203, 1064 (1964) .Google Scholar
  6. ARCAMONE, F., NICOLELLA, V., PENCO, S., REDAELLI, S.: Sintesi di analoghi con diverso numero di resti dell’acido 1-metil-4 amminopyrrolo-2-carbossilico. Gazetta Chim. Ital. 99, 632 (1969a).Google Scholar
  7. ARCAMONE, F., PENCO, S., DELLE MONACHE, F.: Sintesi di analoghi contenenti modificazioni nelle catene laterali. Gazetta Chim. Ital. 99, 620 (1969b).Google Scholar
  8. AULD, D.S., KAWAGUCHI, H., LIVINGSTON, D.M., VALLEE, B.L.: RNAdependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase) from avial myeloblastosis virus: a zinc metalloenzyme. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 71, 2091 (1974).Google Scholar
  9. BADER, J.P.: The role of DNA in the synthesis of RSV. J. Virol. 22, 462 (1964).Google Scholar
  10. BADER, J.P.: Metabolic requirements for injection by RSV. I. The transient requirement for DNA synthesis. J. Virol. 29, 44 (1966).Google Scholar
  11. BALDUZZI, P., MORGAN, H.R.: The mechanism of oncogenic transformation by Rouse Sarcom Virus. I. Intracellular inactivation of cell-transforming ability of RSV by 5-bromodeoxyuridine and light. J. Virol. 5 ,470 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. BALTIMORE, D.: RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of RNA tumor viruses. Nature (Lond.) 226, 1209 (1970).Google Scholar
  13. BALTIMORE, D., HUANG, A.S., STAMPFER, S.M.: RNA synthesis of vesicular stomatitis virus. II. RNA-polymerase in the virion. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 66, 572 (1970).Google Scholar
  14. BALTIMORE, D., SMOLER, D.: In: Nucleic acid protein interactions and nucleic acid synthesis in viral infection. Miama Winter Symposium (Eds. D.W. RIBBON, J.F. WOESSNER, J. SCHULTZ). Vol. 2, p. 328. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. 1971a.Google Scholar
  15. BALTIMORE, D., SMOLER, D.: Primer requirement and template specificity of the DNA polymerase of RNA tumor viruses. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 68, 1507 (1971b).Google Scholar
  16. BALTIMORE, D., SMOLER, D.F.: Association of an endoribonuclease with AMV DNA-polymerase. J. Biol. Chem. 247, 7282 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. BAUER, H., SCHÄFER, W.: Group-specific antigen of avian leukosis virus. Virology 29, 494 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. BISHOP, J.M., FARAS, A.J., GARAPIN, A.C., GOODMAN, H.M., LEVINSON, W.E., STAVNEZER, J., TAYLOR, J.M., VARMUS, H.E.: Characteristics of the transcription of RNA by the DNA polymerase of Rouse Sarcoma Virus. In: DNA Synthesis in Vitro. (Eds. R.D. WILLS, R.B. INMAN), p. 341. Lancaster: Eng. Med. and Tech. Publ. Co., Ltd. 1973Google Scholar
  19. BOETTIGER, D., TEMIN, H.M.: Light inactivation of focus formation by chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with avian sarcoma virus in the presence of 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Nature (Lond.) 228, 622 (1970).Google Scholar
  20. BROCKMAN, W.W., CARTER, W., LI, L.H., REUSSER, F., NICHOL, F.R.: The streptovaricins inhibit RNA-dependent DNA polymerase present in an oncogenic RNA virus. Nature (Lond.) 230, 249 (1971).Google Scholar
  21. CARTER, W., BROCKMAN, W.W., BORDEN, E.: Streptovaricins inhibit focus formation by MSV (MLV) complex. Nature New Biology 232, 212 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. CARTER, W., BORDEN, E., BROCKMAN, W., BYRD, D., LIGON, W.,ANTOSZ, F., RINEHART, K.L.: Reported at XXV Symp. on Fundamental Cancer Res., Huston, Texas (1972).Google Scholar
  23. CASAZZA, A.M., FIORETTI, A., SANFILIPPO, A., VERINI, M.A.: 7th Int. Cong. Chemother., Prague, Aug 23-28, Abst A–5/41, Vol I (1971).Google Scholar
  24. CHANDRA, P.: Molecular approaches for designing antiviral and antitumor compounds. In: Topics in Current Chemistry, vol. 52, p. 99. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1974a.Google Scholar
  25. CHANDRA, P.: Inhibition of DNA-polymerases from oncornaviruses by modified nucleic acids. In: Modern Trends in Human Leukemia (Eds R. NETH, R.C. GALLO, S. SPIEGELMAN, F. STOHLMAN), p. 216. Munich: J.F. Lehmanns Verlag 1974b.Google Scholar
  26. CHANDRA, P.: The relationship of chemical structure to biochemical activity of daunomycin, adriamycin and some structural analogues: Effects on viral DNA polymerases from ancorna viruses. In: Ergebnisse der Adriamycin-Therapie (Eds. M. GHIONE, J. FETZER, H. MAIER), p. 40. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1975.Google Scholar
  27. CHANDRA, P., BARDOS, T.J.: Inhibition of DNA polymerases from RNA tumor viruses by novel template analogues: partially thiolated polycytidylic acid. Res. Commun. Chem. Path. and Pharmacol. 4, 615 (1972).Google Scholar
  28. CHANDRA, P., DI MARCO, A., ZUNINO, F., CASAZZA, A.M., GERICKE, D., GUILIANI, F., SORANZO, C., THORBECK, R., GÖTZ, A., ARCAMONE, F., GHIONE, M.: The role of molecular structure on the inhibition of DNA-polymerases from RNA tumor viruses, viral multiplication and tumor growth by some antitumor antibiotics. Naturwissenschaften 59, 448 (1972a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. CHANDRA, P., EBENER, U., BARDOS, T.J., CHAKRABARTI, P., HO, Y.K., MIKULSKI, A.J., ZSINDELY, A.: Polynucleotides containing 5-mercapto substituted pyrimidines. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (in press) (1974a).Google Scholar
  30. CHANDRA, P., GERICKE, D., ZUNINO, F., THORBECK, R.: Molekular Grundlagen viral bedingter Tumoren. Klin. Wschr. 51., 781 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. CHANDRA, P., GÖTZ, A.: Inhibition of viral DNA polymerases by heparin. Manuscript in preparation (1974).Google Scholar
  32. CHANDRA, P., GÖTZ, A., WACKER, A., VERINI, M.A., CASAZZA, A.M., FIORETTI, A., ARCAMONE, F., GHIONE, M.: Some structural requirements for the antibiotic action of distamycins. FEBS Letters 16, 249 (1971) .PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. CHANDRA, P., GÖTZ, A., WACKER, A., VERINI, M.A., CASAZZA, A.M., FIORETTI, A., ARCAMONE, F., GHIONE, M.: Some structural requirements for the antibiotic action of distamycins. II. Structural modification of the side chains in distamycin A molecule. FEBS Letters 19, 327 (1972b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. CHANDRA, P., GÖTZ, A., WACKER, A., ZUNINO, F., DI MARCO, A., VERINI, M.A., CASAZZA, A.M., FIORETTI, A., ARCAMONE, F., GHIONE, M.: Soem structural requirements for the antibiotic action of distamycins. III. Possible interaction of formyl group of distamycin side chain with adenine. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 353, 393 (1972c).Google Scholar
  35. CHANDRA, P., HAUSMANN, S., METZ, A.: Inhibition of DNA and RNA polymerases of oncornaviruses and of bacteria by N-formylglycyl and N-formyl-alanyl derivatives of distamycin A. Pharmacol. Res. Commun. 6 ,311 (1974b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. CHANDRA, P., KORNHUBER, B., GERICKE, D., GÖTZ, A., EBENER, U.: Hemmung der viralen Reverse-transkriptase und Leukämogenese mit modifizierten Nukleinsäuren. Z. Krebsforschg. Klin. Onkol. ( in press) (1974c).Google Scholar
  37. CHANDRA, P., WILL, G., GERICKE, D., GÖTZ, A.: Inhibition of DNA polymerases from RNA tumor viruses by tilorone and cogeners: Site of action. Biochem. Pharmacol. 23, 3259 (1974d).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. CHANDRA, P., WOLTERSDORF, M.: Influence of tilorone and cogeners on the secondary structure and template activity of DNA. FEBS Letters 41, 169 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. CHANDRA, P., ZIMMER, C.H., THRUM, H.: Effect of distamycin A on the structure and template activity of DNA in RNA-polymerase system. FEBS Letters 7, 90 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. CHANDRA, P., ZUNINO, F., GAUR, V.P., ZACCARA, A.: Mode of tilorone hydrochloride interaction to DNA and polydeoxyribonucleotides. FEBS Letters 28, 5 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. CHANDRA, P., ZUNINO, F., GÖTZ, A.: Bis-DEAE-fluorene: a specific inhibitor of DNA polymerases from RNA tumor viruses. FEBS Letters 22, 161 (1972e).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. CHANDRA, P., ZUNINO, F., GÖTZ, A., GERICKE, D., DI MARCO, A.: Specific inhibition of DNA polymerases from RNA tumor viruses by some new daunomycin derivatives. FEBS Letters 21 ,264 (1972f).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. CHANDRA, P., ZUNINO, F., GÖTZ, A., WACKER, A., GERICKE, D., DI MARCO, A., CASAZZA, A.M., GIULIANI, F.: Template specific inhibition of DNA polymerases from RNA tumor viruses by distamycin A and its structural analogues. FEBS Letters 21, 154 (1972g).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. CHANDRA, P., ZUNINO, F., ZACCARA, A.: Influence of tilorone hydrochloride on the secondary structure and template activity of DNA. FEBS Letters 23., 145 (1972h).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. CHIRIGOS, M.A., PEARSON, J.W., PAPAS, T.S., WOODS, W.A., WOOD, H.B., SPAHN, G.: Effect of streptonigrin (NSC-45383) and analogs on oncornavirus replication and DNA polymerase activiÿ. Cancer Chemo. Rep. 57, 305 (1973).Google Scholar
  46. COFFIN, J.M., TEMIN, H.M.: RNase-sensitive DNA-polymerase activity in uninfected rat cells and rat cells infected with RSV. J. Virol. 8, 630 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. COFFIN, J.M., TEMIN, H.M.: Hybridization of RSV DNA-polymerase products and RNA from chicken and rat cells infected with RSV. J. Virol. 9., 766 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. DARNELL, J.E.: Ribonucleic acids from animal cells. Bact. Rev. 32, 262 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. DE BOER, C.P., MEULMAN, P.A., WNUK, R.J., PETERSON, D.H.: Geldanamycin, a new antibiotic with cytotoxic activity. J. Anti biotic 23, 442 (1970).Google Scholar
  50. DI MARCO, A., GAETANI, M., OREZZI, P., SCOTTI, T., ARCANIBE, F.: Experimental studies on distamycin A: A new antibiotic with cytotoxic activity. Cancer Chemo. Rep. 18, 15 (1962).Google Scholar
  51. DI MARCO, A., GHIONE, M., MIGLIACCI, A., MORVILLO, E., SANFILIPPO, A.: Studi sul meccanismo dell’aszione antifagica dell’antibiotico distamyciny. Giorn. Microbiol. 11, 87 (1963a).Google Scholar
  52. DI MARCO, A., GHIONE, M., SANFILIPPO, A., MORVILLO, E.: Selective inhibition of the multiplication of phage T1 in E. aoli K12. Experimentia 19, 134 (1963b).Google Scholar
  53. DRAY, S., BELL, C.: Synthesis of allogeneic immunoglobulins by rabbit lymphoid cells after interaction in vitro or in vivo with RNA extracts of allogeneic lymphoid tissue. In: Possible Episomes in Eukaryotes (Ed. L.G. SILVESTRI), p. 287. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. 1973.Google Scholar
  54. DUESBERG, P.H., CANAANI, E.: Complimentarity between RSV-RNA and the in vitro synthesized DNA of the virus associated DNA-polymerase. Virology 42, 783 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. ENGLUND, P.T.: The initial step of in vitro synthesis of DNA by the T4 DNA-polymerase. J. Biol. Chem. 246, 5684 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. ERICKSON, R.J., GROSCH, J.C.: The inhibition of Avian Myeloblastosis virus DNA polymerase by synthetic polynucleotides. Biochemistry 13, 1987 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. FANSHIER, L., GARAPIN, A.C., MCDONNELL, J., LEVINSON, W., BISHOP, J.M.: DNA polymerase associated with Avian tumor viruses. Secondary structure of the DNA product. J. Virol. 7 ,76 (1971).Google Scholar
  58. FARAS, A.J., TAYLOR, J.M., MCDONNELL, J.P., LEVINSON, W.E., BISHOP, J.M.: Purification and characterization of the DNA-polymerase associated with RSV. Biochemistry 11, 2334 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. FRIDLENDER, B., WEISSBACH, A.: DNA polymerase of tumor viruses: specific effect of ethidium bromide on the use of different synthetic templates. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 68, 3116 (1971).Google Scholar
  60. FUJINAGA, K., PARSONS, J.T., BEARD, J.W., BEARD, D., GREEN, M.: Mechanism of carcinogenesis by RNA tumor viruses. III. Formation of RNA-DNA complex and duplex DNA by DNA polymerase(s) of AMV. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 67, 1432 (1970).Google Scholar
  61. GALLO, R.C.: Reverse-transcriptase, the DNA polymerase of oncogenic RNA viruses. Nature 234, 194 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. GALLO, R.C: RNA-dependent DNA polymerases and cells. Blood 39, 117 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. GALLO, R.C., ABRELL, J.W., ROBERT, M.S., YANG, S.S., SMITH, R.G.: Reverse transcriptases from Mason-Pfizer monkey tumor virus, AMV, arid RLV and its responses to rifampicin derivatives. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 48, 1185 (1972a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. GALLO, R., SARIN, P., SMITH, R., BOBROW, S., SARNGADHARAN, M., REITZ, M., ABRELL, J.: RNA-directed DNA synthesis in tumor viruses and human lymphocytes. In: DNA Synthesis in vitro (Eds. WELLS and INMAN), p. 251. Baltimore: Univ. Park Press 1973.Google Scholar
  65. GALLO, R., SMITH, R.G., WHENG-PENG, J., TING, R.C., YANG, S.S., ABRELL, J.: RNA tumor viruses, DNA polymerases and oncogenesis: some selective effects of rifampicin derivatives. Medicine 51, 159 (1972b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. GALLO, R.C., TING, R.C.: Cancer viruses: In: CRC Critical Reviews in Clinical Lab Sciences 403 (1972).Google Scholar
  67. GALLO, R.C., YANG, S.S., TING, R.S.: RNA-dependent DNA polymerase of human acute leukemic cells. Nature (Lond.) 228, 927 (1970).Google Scholar
  68. GARAPIN, A.C., FANSHIER, L., LEONG, J.A., JACKSON, J., LEVINSON, W., BISHOP, J.M.: DNA polymerase of RSV: kinetics of DNA synthesis and specificity of the products. J. Virol. 7, 227 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. GARAPIN, A.C., MCDONNELL, J.P., LEVINSON, W., QUINTRELL, N.,FANSHIER, L., BISHOP, J.M.: DNA polymerase associated with RSV and AMV: Properties of the enzyme and its product. J. Virol. 6, 589 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. GELB, L.D., AARONSON, D.A., MARTIN, M.A.: Heterogeneity of murine leukemia virus in vitro DNA. Science 173, 1353 (1971).Google Scholar
  71. GERWIN, B.J., MILSTEIN, J.B.: An oligonucleotide affinity column for RNA-dependent DNA polymerase from RNA tumor viruses. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 69, 2599 (1972).Google Scholar
  72. GERWIN, B.I., TODARO, G.J., ZEVE, V., SCOLNICK, E.M., AARONSON, S.A.: Separation of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity from the murine leukemia virion. Nature (Lond.) 228, 435 (1970).Google Scholar
  73. GILLESPIE, D., MARSHALL, S., GALLO, R.C.: RNA of RNA tumor viruses contains poly A. Nature New Biology, Lond. 236, 227 (1972).Google Scholar
  74. GIRON, D.J., SCHMIDT, J.P., BALL, R.J., PINDAK, R.: Effect of interferon inducers and interferon on bacterila infections. Antimicrob. Agents and Chemother. 1, 80 (1972).Google Scholar
  75. GOLDIN, A., JOHNSON, R.K.: Adriamycin activity in experimental tumors. In: Ergebnisse der Adriamycin-Therapie (Eds. M. GHIONE, J. FETZER, H. MAIER), p. 3. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1975.Google Scholar
  76. GOODMAN, N.C., SPIEGELMAN, S.: Distinguishing reverse-transcriptase of an RNA tumor virus from other known DNA polymerases. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 68., 2203 (1971).Google Scholar
  77. GOULIAN, M., LUCAS, Z.J., KORNBERG, A.: Enzymatic synthesis of DNA. XXV. Purification and properties of DNA-polymerase induced by infection with T4. J. Biol. Chem. 243, 627 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. GRANBOULAN, N., HUPPERT, J., LACOUR, F.: Examen au microscope electronique du RNA du virus de la myeloblastose aviaire. J. Mol. Biol. 16, 571 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. GRANDGENETT, D.P., GERARD, G.I., GREEN, M.: Ribonuclease H: a ubiquitous activity in virions of RNA tumor viruses. J. Virol. 10, 1136 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. GRANDGENETT, D.P., GERARD, G.F., GREEN, M.: A single subunit from AMV with both RNA-directed DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H activity. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 70, 230 (1973).Google Scholar
  81. GREEN, M., CARTAS, M.: The genome of RNA tumor viruses contains polyadenylic acid sequences. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 69, 791 (1972).Google Scholar
  82. GREEN, M., ROKUTANDA, M., JUJINAGA, K., RAY, R.K., ROKUTANDA, H., GURGO, C.: Mechanism of carcinogenesis by RNA tumor viruses. I. An RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in murine sarcome viruses. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 67, 385 (1970).Google Scholar
  83. GREEN, M., WEST, W.L.: In vitro cytogenetic effects of tilorone hydrochloride. Pharmacologist 13, 260 (1971).Google Scholar
  84. GURGO, C., GREEN, M., RAY, R.: Rifamycin derivatives strongly inhibiting RNA-DNA polymerase reverse transcriptase of murine sarcoma virus. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 49, 61 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. HAAPALA, D.K., JASMIN, C., SINOUSSI, F., CHERMANN, J.C., RAYNAUD, M.: Inhibition of tumor virus RNA-dependent DNA-polymerase by the heteropolyanion silicotungstate. Biomed. Express J_9, 7 (1973).Google Scholar
  86. HAHN, F.E.: Distamycin A and Netropsin, Review. In: Antibiotics (Eds. J.W. CORCORAN, F.E. HAHN), Vol. 3, p. 79. Berlin Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1974.Google Scholar
  87. HANAFUSA, H., BALTIMORE, D., SMOLER, D., WATSON, K.F., YANIV, A., SPIEGELMAN, S.: Absence of polymerase protein in virions of α-type RSV. Science 177, 1188 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. HANAFUSA, H., HANAFUSA, T.: Non-infectious RSV deficient in DNA polymerase. Virology 43, 313 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. HATANAKA, M., HUEBNER, R.J., GILDEN, R.V.: DNA-polymerase activity associated with RNA tumor viruses. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 67 ,143 (1970).Google Scholar
  90. HAUSEN, P., STEIN, H.: Ribonuclease H: An enzyme degrading the RNA moiety of DNA-RNA hybrids. Europ. J. Biochem. 14, 278 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. HILL, M., HILLOVA, J.: RNA and DNA forms of the genetic material of C-type viruses and the integrated state of the DNA form in the cellular chromosome. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 337, 7 (1974).Google Scholar
  92. HIRSCHMAN, S.Z.: Inhibitors of viral nucleic acid transcriptases. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 33, 595 (1971).Google Scholar
  93. HIRSCHMAN, S.Z.: Inactivation of DNA polymerase of Murine Leukemia viruses by calcium elenolate. Nature New Biology 238, 277 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. HOLLDORF, A.W., FRIEBE, B., STOBER, M.: Zur Wirkung von Distamycin A auf die Induktion von Enzymen in E. eoli. Zbl. Bakt. 212, 265 (1970).Google Scholar
  95. HURWITZ, J., LEIS, J.: RNA-dependent DNA-polymerase activity of RNA tumor viruses. J. Virol. 9, 116 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. JOVIN, T.M., ENGLUND, P.T., KORNBERG, A.: Enzymatic synthesis of DNA. XXII. Chemical modifications of DNA-polymerases. J. Biol. Chem. 244, 3009 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. KACIAN, D.L., WATSON, K.F., BURNEY, A., SPIEGELMAN, S.: Purification of the DNA polymerase of AMV. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 246, 365 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. KAKEFUDA, T., BADER, J.P.: Electron microscopic observation on the RNA of murine leukemia virus. J. Virol. 4, 460 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. KANG, C.Y., TEMIN, H.M.: Endogenous RNA-directed DNA polymerase activity in uninfected chicken embryos. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 19, 1550 (1972).Google Scholar
  100. KELLER, W., CROUCH, R.: Degradation of DNA-RNA hybrids by Ribonuclease H and DNA polymerases of cellular and viral origin. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 69, 3360 (1972).Google Scholar
  101. KILEY, M.P., WAGNER, R.P.: RNA species of intracellular nucleocapsids and released virions of VSV. J. Virol. 10, 244 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. KISHI, T., ASAI, M., MUROI, M., HARADA, S., MIZUTA, E., TERAO, S., MIKI, T., MIZUNO, K.: Structure of tolypomycinone. Tetrahedron Letters, p. 91 (1969).Google Scholar
  103. KLEINSCHMIDT, A.K., LANG, D., JACHERTS, D., ZAHN, R.K.: Darstel-lung des gesamten DNS-Inhaltes von T2 Backeriophagen. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 61., 857 (1972).Google Scholar
  104. KOLAKOFSKY, D., BOY DE LA TOUR, E., DELIUS, H.: J. Virol. 13, 261 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. KORNBERG, A.: Active center of DNA polymerase. Science 163, 1410 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. KOTLER, M., BECKER, Y.: Effect of distamycin A and congocidine on DNA synthesis by RSV reverse transcriptase. FEBS Letters 22, 222 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. KREY, A.K., HAHN, F.E.: Studies on the complex of distamycin A with calf thymus DNA. FEBS Letters 10, 175 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. KRUEGER, R.F., YOSHIMURA, S.: Antiviral activity of bis-DEAE-fluorenone, an oral interferon-inducer. Fed. Proc. 29, 635 (1970).Google Scholar
  109. KUFE, D.W., PETERS, W.P., SPIEGELMAN, S.: Unique nuclear DNA sequences in the involved tissues of Hodgkin’s and Burkitt’s lymphoma. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 70, 3810 (1973).Google Scholar
  110. LAI, M.M.C., DUESBERG, P.H.: Adenylic acid-rich sequences in RNAs of Rous sarcoma virus and Rauscher mouse leukemia virus. Nature (Lond.) 235, 383 (1972).Google Scholar
  111. LEIS, J.P., BERKOWER, I., HURWITZ, J.: Mechanism of action of ribonuclease H isolated from AMV and E. coli. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 70, 466 (1973).Google Scholar
  112. LEIS, J.P., HURWITZ, J.: RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity of RNA tumor viruses: directing influence of RNA in the reaction. J. Virol. 9, 130 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. LERMAN, L.S.: Structural considerations in the interaction of DNA and acridines. J. Mol. Biol. 3, 18 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. LERMAN, L.S.: Acridine mutagens and DNA structure. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 64, 1 (1964) .Google Scholar
  115. LEVINSON, W., FARAS, A., WOODSON, B., JACKSON, J., BISHOP, J.M.: Inhibition of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase of RSV by thiosemi-carbazones and several cations. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 70, 164 (1973).Google Scholar
  116. LINN, S., LEHMAN, I.R.: An endonuclease from Neurospora orassa specific for polynucleotides lacking an ordered structure. J. Biol. Chem. 240, 1294 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. LOWRY, O.H., ROSEBROUGH, N.J., FARR, A.L., RANDALL, R.J.: Protein measurement with the Folin Phenol Reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193, 265 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. LOWY, D.R., ROWE, W.P., TEICH, N., HARTLEY, J.W.: Murine leukemia virus. High frequency activation in vitro by 5-iododeoxyuridine and 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Science 174, 155 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. MANLY, K.F., SMOLER, D.F., BROMFELD, E., BALTIMORE, D.: Forms of DNA produced by virions of RNA tumor viruses. J. Virol. 7 ,106 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. MASAMUNE, Y., RICHARDSON, C.C.: A mutant of bacteriophage T7 deficient in polynucleotide ligase. J. Biol. Chem. 246, 2692 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. MAYER, G.D., FINK, B.A.: Bis-DEAE-fluorenone, an oral inducer of interferone. Fed. Proc. 29, 635 (1970).Google Scholar
  122. MAYER, G.D., KRUEGER, R.F.: Tilorone hydrochloride: Mode of action. Science 169, 1214 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. MAYER, G.D., KRUEGER, R.F., YOSHIMURA, S.: Protection of mice from influenza infection by tilorone hydrochloride and influenza vaccine. Bact. Eroc, p. 188 (abstr.) (1972).Google Scholar
  124. MAYER, R.J., SMITH, R.G., GALLO, R.C.: Reverse transcription in normal rhesus monkey placenta. Science (in press) (1974).Google Scholar
  125. MIZUTANI, S., BOETTIGER, D., TEMIN, H.M.: A DNA dependent DNA polymerase and a DNA endonuclease in virions of Rous Sarcoma virus. Nature 228, 424 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. MIZUTANI, S., KANG, C.Y., TEMIN, H.M.: Relationships among RNA directed DNA polymerase activities of Avian viruses and chicken cells. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 38, 289 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. MIZUTANI, S., TEMIN, H.M.: Enzymes and nucleotides in virions of Rous Sarcoma virus. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 35, 847 (19)0).Google Scholar
  128. MIZUTANI, S., TEMIN, H.M.: Enzymes and nucleotides in virions of Rous Sarcoma virus. J. Virol. 8, 409 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. MIZUNO, S., YAMAZAKI, H., NITTA, K., UMEZAWA, H.: Inhibition of initiation of DNA-dependent RNA synthesis. Biochim. Biophys. Res. Commun. 35, 127 (1968).Google Scholar
  130. MÖLLING, K., BOLOGNESI, D.P., BAUER, H., BÜSEN, W., PLASSMAN, H.W., HANSEN, P.: Association of the viral reverse-transcriptase with an enzyme degrading the RNA moiety of RNA-DNA hybrids. Nature New Biology 234, 240 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. MÜLLER, W.E.G., YAMAZAKI, Z.I., SÖGTROP, H.H., ZAHN, R.K.: Action of 1-ß-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine on mammalian and oncogenic viral polymerases. Europ. J. Cancer 8 ,421 (1972).Google Scholar
  132. MÜLLER, W.E.G., ZAHN, R.K., SEIDEL, H.J.: Inhibitors acting on nucleic acid synthesis in an oncogenic RNA virus. Nature New Biology 232, 143 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. MUNSON, A.E., MUNSON, J.A., REGELSON, W., WAMPLER, G.: Effect of tilorone hydrochloride and cogeners on reticuloendothelial system, tumors, and the immunse responses. Cancer Res. 32, 13 97 ( 1972).Google Scholar
  134. OROSZLAN, S., HATANAKA, M., GILDEN, R.V., HUEBNER, R.J.: Specific inhibition of mammalian RNA C-type virus DNA polymerases by rat antisera. J. Virol. 8 ,816 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. PAPAS, T.S., PRY, T.W., CHIRIGOS, M.A.: Inhibition of the DNA polymerase of Avian Myeloblastosis virus (AMV) by pyran-copolymer. Am Soc. Microbiol. Ann. Meeting Abstr. V247 (1973).Google Scholar
  136. PARKS, W.P., SCOLNICK, E.M., ROSS, J., TODARO, G.J., AARONSON, S.A.: Immunological relationships of reverse transcriptases from ribonucleic acid tumor viruses. J. Virol. 9 ,110 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. PITHA, P.M., TEICH, N.M., LOWY, D.R., PITHA, J.: Inhibition of leukemia virus replication by vinyl analogs of polynucleotides. In: DNA synthesis in vitro (Eds. WELLS and INMAN), p. 369. Lancaster: Medical and Technical Publ. 1973.Google Scholar
  138. REITZ, M., GILLESPIE, D., SAXINGER, W.C., ROBERT, W., GALLO, W. C: Poly(rA) tracts of tumor virus 70S RNA are not transcribed in endogenous or reconstituted reactions of viral reverse transcriptase. Biochem. and Biophys. Res. Commun. 49, 1216 (1972).Google Scholar
  139. RHEINS, M.S., BASKER, A.D., WILSON, H.E.: Therapeutic effects of a series of non-viral interferon inducers on a viral-induced leukemia. Canad. J. Microbiol. 17., 1257 (1971).Google Scholar
  140. RICHARDSON, C.C.: DNA-polymerase from E. coli. In: Producers in nucleic acid Res. (Eds. CANTONI and DAVIES), Vol. I, p. 263. New York: Harper and Row 1966.Google Scholar
  141. RINEHART, K., ANTOSZ, F., SOBIECZEWSKI, W., MCMILLAN, M., FREIDINGER, J., ENANOZA, R.: Reported at 165th Meeting. Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Med. Chem. (1973).Google Scholar
  142. RINEHART, K.L. Jr., MATHUR, H.H., SASAKY, K., MARTIN, P.K., COVERDALE, C.E.: Chemistry of streptovaricins. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 90, 6241 (1968).Google Scholar
  143. ROBERT, M.S., SMITH, R.G., GALLO, R.C., SARIN, P.S., ABRELL, J. W.: Viral and cellular DNA polymerases: comparision of activi ties with synthetic and natural RNA templates. Science 176, 798 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. ROKUTANDA, M., ROKUTANDA, H., GREEN, M., FUJINAGA, K., RAY, R.K., GURGO, C.: Formation of viral RNA-DNA hybrid molecules by the DNA polymerases of sarcoma-leukemia viruses. Nature (Lond.) 227, 1026 (1970) .Google Scholar
  145. ROSS, J., SCOLNICK, E.M., TODARO, G.J., AARONSON, S.A.: Separation of murine cellular and murine leukemia virus DNA polymerases. Nature New Biology 231, 163 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. ROYE, D., RHOADS, A., MORRIS, H.P., WEST, W.L.: Effect of bis DEAE-fluorenone (tilorone) on growth of tumors in rats. Pharmacologist 13, 260 (1971).Google Scholar
  147. RUPRECHT, R.M., GOODMAN, N.C., SPIEGELMAN, S.: Determination of natural host taxonomy of RNA tumor viruses by molecular hybridization: application to RD-114, a candidate human virus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 70, 1437 (1973).Google Scholar
  148. SANFILIPPO, A., MORVILLO, E., GHIONE, M.: Activity of distamycin A on the induction of adaptive enzymes in E. coli. J. Gen. Microbiol. 43, 369 (1966).Google Scholar
  149. SARIN, P.S., GALLO, R.C.: Characteristics of reverse transcriptase from human acute leukemic cells and RNA tumor virus. J. Int. Res. Commun. Sys. 1 ,52 (1973).Google Scholar
  150. SARIN, P.S., GALLO, R.C.: RNA directed DNA polymerase. Int. Rev. Sci. 6, ch. 8 (1974) .Google Scholar
  151. SARKAR, N.H., MOORE, D.H.: J. Virol. 5, 230 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. SARNGADHARAN, M.G., SARIN, P.S., REITZ, M.S., GALLO, R.C.: Reverse transcriptase activity of human acute leukemic cells: purification of the enzyme, response to AMV 70S RNA and characterization of the DNA product. Nature New Biol. 240, 67 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. SCHLOM, J., SPIEGELMAN, S.: Simultaneous detection of reverse transcriptase and high molecular weight RNA unique to oncogenic RNA viruses. Science 174, 840 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. SCOLNICK, E.M., AARONSON, S.A., TODARO, G.J.: DNA synthesis by RNA-containing tumor viruses. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 67 ,1034 (1970).Google Scholar
  155. SCOLNICK, E.M., PARKS, W.P., TODARO, G.J., AARONSON, S.A.: Reverse-transcriptase of primate viruses as immunological marker. Science 177, 1119 (1972a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. SCOLNICK, E.M., PARKS, W.P., TODARO, G.J., AARONSON, S.A.: Immunological characterization of primate C-type virus reverse transcriptase. Nature New Biology 235, 35 (1972b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. SENSI, P., MAGGI, N., FURESZ, S., MAFFI, G.: Chemical modifications and biological properties of rifamycins. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., p. 699 (1967).Google Scholar
  158. SPIEGELMAN, S., AXEL, R., SCHLOM, J.: Presence in human breast cancer of RNA homologous to mouse mammary tumor virus RNA. Nature (Lond.) 235, 32 (1972).Google Scholar
  159. SPIEGELMAN, S., BURNY, A., DAS, M.R., KEYDAR, J., SCHLOM, J., TRAVNICEK, M., WATSON, K.: (1) Characterization of the products of RNA-directed DNA polymerases in oncogenic RNA viruses. Nature (Lond.) 227, 563 (1970).Google Scholar
  160. SUGINO, A., OKAZAKI, R.: RNA-linked DNA fragments in-vitro. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 70, 88 (1973).Google Scholar
  161. SWEET, R.W., GOODMAN, N.C., CHE, J.R., RUPRECHT, R.M., REDFIELD, R.R., SPIEGELMAN, S.: The presence of unique DNA sequences after viral induction of leukemia in mice. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 71, 1705 (1974).Google Scholar
  162. TEMIN, H.M.: (1) Nature of the provirus of Rous Sarcoma. Nat. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 17, 557 (1964a).Google Scholar
  163. TEMIN, H.M.: The participation of DNA in RSV production. J. Virol. 23, 486 (1964b).Google Scholar
  164. TEMIN, H.M.: Malignant transformation of cells by viruses. Presp. Biol. Med. 14, 11 (1970).Google Scholar
  165. TEMIN, H.M.: The protovirus hypothesis. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 42, 111 (1971a).Google Scholar
  166. TEMIN, H.: Mechanism of cell transformation by RNA tumor viruses. Am. Rev. Microbiol. 25, 609 (1971b).Google Scholar
  167. TEMIN, H.M., BALTIMORE, D.: RNA-directed DNA synthesis and RNA tumor viruses. Adv. Virus Res. 17, 129 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. TEMIN, H.M., KANG, C.Y., MIZUTANI, S.: RNA-directed synthesis in viruses and cells. In: Possible Episomes in Eukaryotic Cells. (Ed. L.G. SILVESTRI), pp. 1. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. 1973.Google Scholar
  169. TEMIN, H.M., MIZUTANI, S.: RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of Rous sarcoma virus. Nature (Lond.) 226, 1211 (1970).Google Scholar
  170. TING, R.C., YAND, S.S., GALLO, R.C.: RNA tumor virus transformation and derivatives of rifamycin SV. Nature New Biology, Lond. 236, 163 (1972).Google Scholar
  171. TOCCHINI-VALENTINI, G.P., CRIPPA, M.: On the mechanism of gene amplification. In: The Biology of Oncogenic Viruses. (Ed. L.G. SILVESTRI), p. 237. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. 1971.Google Scholar
  172. TODARO, G.J., GALLO, R.C.: Immunological relationship of DNA polymerase form human acute leukemia cells and primate and mouse leukemia virus reverse transcriptase. Nature 244, 206 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. TODARO, G.J., HUEBENER, R.J.: The viral oncogene hypothesis: New evidence. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 69, 1009 (1972).Google Scholar
  174. TOUMINEN, F.W., KENNEY, F.T.: Inhibition of RNA-directed DNA-polymerases from RLV by Ara-CTP. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 48/ 1469 (1972).Google Scholar
  175. TRONICK, S.R., SCOLNICK, E.M., PARKS, W.P.: Reversible inactiva-tion of the DNA polymerase of RLV. J. Virol. 10, 885 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. VARMUS, H.E., LEVINSON, W.E., BISHOP, J.M.: Extent of transcription by the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase of RSV. Nature New Biology 133, 19 (1971).Google Scholar
  177. WATSON, K.F., MÖLLING, K., BAUER, H.: Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 51, 232 (1973).Google Scholar
  178. WEBER, G.H., HEINE, U., COTTLER-FOX, M., BEAUDREAU, G.S.: Visualization of single-stranded nucleic acid of RNA tumor virus with the electron microscope. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 71 ,1887 (1974).Google Scholar
  179. WEHRLI, W., STAEHELIN, M.: Actions of rifamycins. Bacteriol. Rev. 35, 290 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. WEIMANN, B.J., SCHMIDT, J.: RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H from Friend virions. FEBS Letters 43, 37 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. WELLS, R.D., FLÜGEL, R.M., LARSON, J.E., SCHENDEL, P.F., SWEET, R.W.: Comparison of some reactions catalyzed by deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase from avian myeloblastosis virus, Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus. Biochemistry 11, 621 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. WERNER, G.H., GANTER, P., DE RATULD, Y.: Studies on the antiviral activity of distamycin A. Chemotherapia 9 ,65 (1964).Google Scholar
  183. WHALLEY, J.M.: In: Bibliotheca Haematologica, No. 39: Unifying concepts of leukemia (Eds. R.M. DUTCHER, L. CHIECO-BIANCHI), p. 125. Basel: S. Karger 1973.Google Scholar
  184. WU, A.M., GALLO, R.C.: Interaction between murine type-C virus RNA-directed DNA polymerase and rifamycin derivatives. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (in press) (1974).Google Scholar
  185. WU, A.M., SARNGADHARN, M.G., GALLO, R.C.: Separation of ribonuclease H and RNA directed DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase) of murine type-C RNA tumor viruses. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 71, 1871 (1974).Google Scholar
  186. WU, A.M., TING, R.C.Y., GALLO, R.C.: RNA-directed DNA-polymerase and virus-induced leukemia in mice. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 70, 1298 (1973).Google Scholar
  187. WU, A.M., TING, R.C., PARAN, M., GALLO, R.C.: Cordycepin inhibits induction of murine leukovirus production. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.) 69, 3820 (1972) .Google Scholar
  188. YAMAMATO, K., ACTON, E.M., HENRY, D.W.: Antitumor activity of some derivatives of daunorubicin at the amino and methyl ketone functions. J. Med. Chem. 15, 872 (1972).Google Scholar
  189. YANG, S.S., HERRERA, F., SMITH, R.G., REITZ, M., LANCINI, G., TING, R., GALLO, R.C.: Rifamycin antibiotics. Inhibitors of Rauscher (murine) leukemia virus reverse transcriptase and purified DNA-polymerases from human normal and leukemic lymphoblasts. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 49, 7 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. ZIMMER, C., PUSCHENDORF, B., GRUNICKE, H., CHANDRA, P., VENNER, H.: Influence of netropsin and distamycin A on the secondary structure and template activity of DNA. Europ. J. Biochem. 21, 269 (1971a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. ZIMMER, C., REINERT, K.E., LUCK, G., WÄHNERT, U., LÖBER, G., THRUM, H.: Interaction of the oligopeptide antibiotics netropsin and distamycin A with nucleic acids. J. Mol. Biol. 58, 329 (1971b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. ZUNINO, F., DI MARCO, A.: Studies on the interaction of distamycin A and its derivatives with DNA. Biochem. Pharmacol. 21, 867 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Chandra
  • Linda K. Steel
  • U. Ebener
  • M. Woltersdorf
  • H. Laube
  • G. Will

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations